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Volume-4 Issue-2, December 2014, ISSN:  2249-8958 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Arifuzzaman Mohammad, Keping Yu, Sato Takuro

Paper Title:

An Optimum Relay Sensor Placement Technique to Enhance the Connectivity of Wireless Sensor Network

Abstract:    In this paper, we have presented a novel algorithm of sensor deployment for re-establishing the connectivity of a disconnected sensor network. We also address the way of achieving k-connectivity which can provide the sensor network with some level of fault tolerance. We combine the concept of Voronoi diagram, Delaunay triangulation, Spanning tree and Steiner heuristic in order to achieve optimum solution. Our proposed algorithm can find optimum number of required relay sensors with reasonable running time complexity. The algorithm also finds the position where the relay nodes are to be place for repairing or enhancing the connectivity. The performance and complexity of our proposed algorithm are also analysed which is incorporate our simulation result.

   Wireless sensor network; Relay sensor; Network connectivity; Steiner heuristic; Voronoi diagram; Delaunay triangulation;.


1.       I. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "A survey on sensor networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.pp.102-114, August,2002.
2.       Arifuzzaman, Mohammad, Mitsuji Matsumoto, and Takuro Sato. "An Intelligent Hybrid MAC With Traffic-Differentiation-Based QoS for Wireless Sensor Networks." Sensors Journal, IEEE 13, no. 6 (2013): 2391-2399.

3.       Arifuzzaman, Mohammad, Mohammad Shah Alam, and Mitsuji Matsumoto. "A hybrid MAC with intelligent sleep scheduling for wireless sensor networks." In Kaleidoscope 2011: The Fully Networked Human?-Innovations for Future Networks and Services (K-2011), Proceedings of ITU, pp. 1-7. IEEE, 2011.

4.       Arifuzzaman, Mohammad, and Mitsuji Matsumoto. "An Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol with Parallel Transmission for Wireless Sensor Networks." Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks 1, no. 2 (2012): 111-122.

5.       Arifuzzaman, Mohammad, and Mitsuji Matsumoto. "A Hybrid MAC with Dynamic Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks", The Journal of the Institute of Image Electronics Engineers of Japan, Vol. 42 (2013) No. 2 p. 197-205

6.       B. Rengarajan, J.K. Chen, S. Shakkottai, T. S. Rappaport, “Connectivity of Sensor Networks with Power Control,” in proceeding of Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, vol.2, pp:1691-1693, 2003.

7.       H. Koskinen, “A Simulation based Method for Predicting Connectivity in Wireless Multihop Networks,” in proceeding of Telecommunication Systems, vol.26, pp: 321-338,2004.

8.       B. Hao, J. Tang and G. Xue, “Fault-tolerant relay node placement in wireless sensor networks,” In proceeding of 2004 IEE Workshop on High performance Switching and Routing, 2004, pp. 246-250.

9.       H.A. Almasaeid, A.E.Kamal, “On the Minimum k-Connectivity Repair in Wireless Sensor Networks”, in the  proceeding of ICC, 2009.

10.     H. Koskinen, J. Karvo, O. Apilo, On improving connectivity of static ad-hoc networks by adding nodes, in: Proceedings of the 4th annual Mediterranean Workshop on Ad Hoc Networks, Med-Hoc-Net, 2005, pp. 169–178.

11.     Lee, Sookyoung, and Mohamed Younis. "Optimized relay node placement for connecting disjoint wireless sensor networks." Computer Networks 56.12 (2012): 2788-2804.

12.     Senel, Fatih, and Mohamed Younis. "Relay node placement in structurally damaged wireless sensor networks via triangular steiner tree approximation." Computer Communications 34.16 (2011): 1932-1941.

13.     Lin, Guo-Hui, and Guoliang Xue. "Steiner tree problem with minimum number of Steiner points and bounded edge-length." Information Processing Letters 69.2 (1999): 53-57.

14.     Chen, Donghui, Ding-Zhu Du, Xiao-Dong Hu, Guo-Hui Lin, Lusheng Wang, and Guoliang Xue. "Approximations for Steiner trees with minimum number of Steiner points." Journal of Global Optimization 18, no. 1 (2000): 17-33.

15.     Lloyd, Errol L., and Guoliang Xue. "Relay node placement in wireless sensor networks. " Computers, IEEE Transactions on 56.1 (2007): 134-138.

16.     Younis, Mohamed, Izzet F. Senturk, Kemal Akkaya, Sookyoung Lee, and Fatih Senel. "Topology management techniques for tolerating node failures in wireless sensor networks: A survey." Computer Networks (2013).

17.     J. Bredin, E. D. Demaine et at., “Deploying sensor networks with guaranteed capacity and fault tolerance”, MobiHoc, May, 2005.

18.     X. Cheng, D.Z. Du, L. Wang, and B.Xu, “Relay Sensor Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Transaction on Computers, 2001.

19.     Arifuzzaman, Mohammad, Alam Mohammad Shah, Jiehuit Chen  and Mitsuji Matsumoto. "Algorithm for Connecting a Disconnected Sensor Network with Deploying Additional Sensor Nodes", Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference 2011, Tokyo, Japan





Khurshid Ahmad, Saeed Badshah, Amer Farhan Rafique

Paper Title:

A Simulated Case Study of Office Building in Pakistan to Improve the Energy Efficiency

Abstract:    Office buildings are one of the basic consumers of energy everywhere including Pakistan. As a case study, the present research effort focuses on estimation of energy consumption of a three-storey office building located in Islamabad Pakistan. Essential data was collected and simulated through eQuest Software. Important parameters like window size, double glazing, energy saving lighting, higher thermostat set point and efficient air-conditioning equipment, are then taken as decision variables and are simulated to study their impact on energy consumption. Cost factor in the prevailing market and the payback period including comparison with the baseline model is also presented in this research effort. Results showed that 37.7% of electrical energy used for cooling purposes can be saved by improving the above parameters.

   EEM, Energy Efficient, HVAC, Area Lights


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3.       Wang S.W, Xu X.H, "parameter estimation of internal thermal mass of building dynamic models using genetic algorithm", Energy Conversion and Management, 2006, Vol 47 (13–14): pp. 1927–1941.
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7.       Jóna A, Kjartansdóttir, "Method for Economical Optimization used in Integrated Design of Low Energy Buildings", Master thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Civil Dept, 2010. 

8.       Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan "Pakistan Energy Book", Islamabad, 2009.

9.       Oil and gas regulatory authority, "Annual Report 2009", 2009, Islamabad.

10.     Khan S, "Climate Classification of Pakistan", PhD dissertation, University of Peshawar, Geography Dept, 2010

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13.     Ahmad K, Badshah, S,  RafiqueF.A, Khan A. M.,Windows optimization for office buildings in Islamabad Pakistan, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4,Issue 4, April 2013.

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Saied M. H. Darwish, Muhammad Usman Aslam

Paper Title:

Auxetic Cellular Structures for Custom Made Orthopedic Implants using Additive Manufacturing 

Abstract:    Auxetic structures exhibit negative Poisson's ratios in one or more directions. When stretched, they will become fatter or become thinner when compressed, in contrast to conventional materials. The present work intends to provide an overview of the current state of the art in the area of auxetic cellular structures for customized orthopedic implants, using advanced AM techniques. The present work also highlights the existing limitations in addition to future prospects in fabrication via AM techniques.

   Auxetic cellular structures, Additive manufacturing, Solid free foam fabrication, Orthopedic implants


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Siamak Hamzeei, Yser Noori Shirazi, Majid Aghababee, Vahid Riazi

Paper Title:

New method of Current Measurement in AC Drives to Achieve More Accuracy and Less Dissipation

Abstract:    Speed and Voltage sensor-less control requires current measurement that Provides accurate control with low cost, noise and Complexity. Engine current measurement is essential to eliminate torque distortion achieving uniform torque. The most common method of current estimating is inserting sensing resistance in the path of unknown current. This method incurs massive power dissipation in high output current. The resistance depends on temperature changes and tolerance. Using self-tune method is preferred for eliminating bad effect of heat temperature, components tolerance and noise. In this paper, we solve this problem with using filter-based self-tune current measurement. But the sensed current of filter based method is low and can be cut by noise and is not accepted for current control. So we can use combined method to improve SNR.

   current measurement, combined sensing, filter, compensation, calibration.


1.        J. Sun, J. Zhou, M. Xu, and F. Lee, “A novel input-side current sensing method to achieve AVP for future VRs,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 21, pp.
1235-1242, September 2006.

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3.        E. Persson and T.Takahashi, “Eliminate ripple current error from motor current measurement,” Advance Development Group, International Rectifier Corp. (Last visited: 7th November 2007)

4.        H. Forghani-zadeh and G. Rincon-Mora, “A lossless, accurate, self-calibrating current-sensing technique for DC-DC converters,” in 32nd Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 6-10 November 2005.

5.        H. Lei and L. Shiguo, “Design considerations of time constant mismatch problem for inductor DCR current sensing method,” in 21st Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 19-23 March 2006.

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Samer F. ,  Jamal O. Sameer, Abdulbasit Abdullah

Paper Title:

Design of Longitudinal Members To Vehicle: Enhances The Energy Absorption of Thin Walled Structure Under Dynamic Load

Abstract:    the present paper describes the behaviour of the thin wall rectangular tube cross- sections, subjected to dynamic compression load.  We examine the reaction of the tube of various thicknesses and diameters, subjected to direct and oblique loading. The study investigates the behaviour of the rectangular tube, with ellipse, circular and square shape triggers, and with various weight of hollow foam. The choice of the best design of tube parameter is based on the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) method. The examined parameters are the crush force efficiency, the peak force, and the energy absorption in case of direct and oblique loading. The rectangular tube is made of mild steel A36. Under direct load, with the usage of hollow aluminium foam, we can obtain 50% improvement f energy absorption and 84.6% of CFE. The enhancement under oblique load is 15.7% and 40.4% respectively. The aim of using thinner tube and hollow aluminium foam is to keep the final design the lowest possible weight, to improve the CFE and the energy absorber capacities in order to attain higher passenger safety.

   dynamic compression, thin wall, energy absorption, direct and oblique loading, aluminum foam


1.        Abramowicz, W., & Wierzbicki, T. (1988). Axial crushing of foam-filled columns. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 30(3), 263-271.‏
2.        Abramowicz, W., & Wierzbicki, T. (1989). Axial crushing of multicorner sheet metal columns. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 56(1), 113-120.‏

3.        Aktay, L., Toksoy, A. K., & Güden, M. (2006). Quasi-static axial crushing of extruded polystyrene foam-filled thin-walled aluminum tubes: experimental and
numerical analysis. Materials & design, 27(7), 556-565.‏

4.        Chen, W., & Wierzbicki, T. (2001). Relative merits of single-cell, multi-cell and foam-filled thin-walled structures in energy absorption. Thin-Walled Structures,39(4), 287-306.‏

5.        Hanssen, A. G., Hopperstad, O. S., Langseth, M., & Ilstad, H. (2002). Validation of constitutive models applicable to aluminium foams. International journal of mechanical sciences, 44(2), 359-406.‏

6.        Kavi, H., Toksoy, A. K., & Guden, M. (2006). Predicting energy absorption in a foam-filled thin-walled aluminum tube based on experimentally determined strengthening coefficient. Materials & design, 27(4), 263-269.‏

7.        Kim, H. S. (2002). New extruded multi-cell aluminum profile for maximum crash energy absorption and weight efficiency. Thin-Walled Structures, 40(4), 311-327.‏

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12.     Hanssen, A. G., Langseth, M., & Hopperstad, O. S. (2000). Static and dynamic crushing of square aluminium extrusions with aluminium foam filler.International Journal of Impact Engineering, 24(4), 347-383.‏

13.     Hanssen, A. G., Hopperstad, O. S., & Langseth, M. (2001). Design of aluminium foam-filled crash boxes of square and circular cross-sections.International Journal of Crashworthiness, 6(2), 177-188.‏

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17.     Chen, W., Wierzbicki, T., & Santosa, S. (2002). Bending collapse of thin-walled beams with ultralight filler: numerical simulation and weight optimization. Acta mechanica, 153(3-4), 183-206.‏

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25.     Ahmad, Z., & Thambiratnam, D. P. (2009). Dynamic computer simulation and energy absorption of foam-filled conical tubes under axial impact loading. Computers & Structures, 87 (3), 186-197.‏

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30.     Olabi, A. G., Morris, E., Hashmi, M. S. J., & Gilchrist, M. D. (2008). Optimised design of nested circular tube energy absorbers under lateral impact loading.International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 50(1), 104-116.‏

31.     Witteman, W. J. (1999). Improved vehicle crashworthiness design by control of the energy absorption for different collision situations: proefschrift. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.‏

32.     Ahmad, Z., & Thambiratnam, D. P. (2009). Dynamic computer simulation and energy absorption of foam-filled conical tubes under axial impact loading.Computers & Structures, 87(3), 186-197.‏

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37.     Shahbeyk, S., Petrinic, N., & Vafai, A. (2007). Numerical modelling of dynamically loaded metal foam-filled square columns. International journal of impact engineering, 34(3), 573-586.‏

38.     Ahmad, Z., & Thambiratnam, D. P. (2009). Dynamic computer simulation and energy absorption of foam-filled conical tubes under axial impact loading.Computers & Structures, 87(3), 186-197.‏

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40.     Tarlochan, F., Samer, F., Hamouda, A. M. S., Ramesh, S., & Khalid, K. (2013). Design of thin wall structures for energy absorption applications: Enhancement of crashworthiness due to axial and oblique impact forces. Thin-Walled Structures, 71, 7-17.‏





Sagar P R, N.Muthuswamy, C.Senthil Kumar

Paper Title:

Testing of ONERA Model

Abstract:   The aim of the project is to estimate of the aerodynamic coefficients of the ONERA M4 using section positioning mounting mechanism, six component balance and integrated data acquisition system. A wing-body-tail with and without winglets model of ONERA M4 model of suitable scale to fit in the test section of our subsonic wind tunnel is designed and fabricated with pressure ports at suitable points. The model is to be tested at various pitch angles from -10° to 30°, in steps of 10 degrees and yaw angle is varied from -30 degree to +30 degree in steps of 10 degrees. For each pitch and yaw angle the rpm is varied from 300 to 600 in steps of 60 and the variation of coefficient of pressure on the surface of the model is determined using a suitable data acquisition system. The experiment is done for all yaw angle and readings are taken for the model. The aerodynamic coefficients are calculated for the model. Aerodynamic coefficient plots are made for different rpm and pitch angle. Comparison charts are made by keeping rpm as constant in one case and pitch angle as constant in the other. Variations are observed and are validated using theoretical results. Similar experimental procedure should be followed for all the yaw angles in case model with winglets and finally a comparative study is made on the experimental studies. The experimental observations should be compared with computational results for validation. 

   Aerodynamic testing, subsonic flow, wind tunnel, force measurements, ONERA M4 model


1.       Anderson, J.D., (1985), “Introduction To Flight”, 2nd Edition, Mc-Graw Hill co., New York
2.       Pope, A, Barlow, J.B., (1999), “Low Speed Wind Tunnel Testing", Wiley India pvt Ltd.

3.       Rathakrishnan E, (2007), “Instrumentation, Measurements, Experiments and Fluids”, CRC Press.

4.       Binion, T.W., (1976), “Tests of the ONERA Calibration Models in Three Transonic Wind Tunnels”, AIAA, 14th. Aerospace Science meeting.

5.       Galway, R.D. And Mokry, M, (1977),“Wind Tunnel Tests of ONERA Aircraft Models”, National Aeronautical Establishment, Laboratory Technical Report, LTR-HA-5x5/0115September 1977, Ottawa, Canada

6.       Kuhlman, J. M and Liaw, P, (1987), “Winglets on Low –Aspect-Ratio Wings”, AIAA, 5thApplied Aerodynamic conference.

7.       Maughmer, M. D., (2001), “The Design of Winglets for Low-Speed Aircraft”, AIAA, 19thApplied Aerodynamic conference.

8.       Ocokoljic, G., (2004), “Testing of the Calibration Model ONERA M4 in Subsonic Wind Tunnel T-35”, Scientific Technical Review, Vol. No.3-4.

9.       Reeder M.F, Allen, W., Philips J.M, and Dimmick, R., (2007), “Wind-Tunnel Measurements of the E-8c Modelled With and Without Winglets”, AIAA Paper 2007-1633.





B.K.Narendra, T.M.Mahadeviah

Paper Title:

Flexural behavior of Reinforced Fly Ash Concrete in Comparison to Reinforced Normal Concrete beams in Terms of Cracking Load and Ultimate Load Carrying Capacity

Abstract:    Fly ash or pulverized fuel ash is the residue of the combustion of finely ground coal used in thermal power plants. It is removed by the dust collection system as fine particle residue from the flue gases before they are discharged into the atmosphere. Use of Fly ash in concrete will not only solve the problem of disposal, but will also reduce the consumption of cement, which is a material whose production is energy intensive. Fly ash concrete has found extensive application in mass concrete, pre-cast concrete, concrete used for pavements, structural concrete and roller compacted concrete with the added advantages of increased workability, impermeability, resistance to chemical attack and increased durability in comparison to ordinary Portland cement concrete. Hence, this paper present the investigation of comparison between the flexural behavior of reinforced Fly ash concrete beams with that of reinforced normal concrete beams and increase the confidence levels of designers and other beneficiaries in using reinforced Fly ash concrete as a structural material. The flexural behavior of reinforced Fly ash concrete beams with different cement replacement levels (20%, 35% and 50%) are compared with reinforced normal concrete beams (without containing Fly ash) under similar conditions.  All the beams are reinforced as balanced sections, cured and tested at 28 days. These investigations were conducted with three grades of concrete i.e. M30, M40 and M50. The flexural behaviour of these beams is discussed in terms of its cracking load and ultimate load carrying capacity.

   Fly ash, cement replacement material, concrete beams, flexural behavior of reinforced Fly ash concrete, cracking load capacity and ultimate load capacity.


1.       Bhararthkumar B. H. , Balasubramanian K. and Krishnamurthy T. S., “Flexural behaviour of RC beams containing Fly ash and slag”, Structural Engineering Research Centre, Taramani, Chennai (2006).
2.       Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi, “Standard Specification for Fly ash” (IS 3812).

3.       Jain. L. K., Viswanath. C. S., Reddi. S. A., Mahesh Tandon., Lakshman. N., SudhirMisra., Nori. V. V., Raina. S. J., and Momin., “Fly ash in Cement and Concrete: What Experts Say”, The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 77, April 2003, pp. 989-995.

4.       Japanese Standards Association, Tokyo, “Fly ash”, JIS-A-6201, 1991.

5.       Joshi. R. C., “Effect of Coarse fraction of Fly ash on Concrete properties”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Fly ash Utilization, Reno. NV. USDE, Washington, DOE/METC/E2-52/, 1993, pp.77-85.

6.       KodeVenkata Ramesh., and SreeRamchandra Murthy D., “Flexural Response of R.C Beams made of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete”, The Indian Concrete Journal, May 2005, pp. 47-52.

7.       Seshasayi. L. V. A., and Subbarao. K., “Behaviour of Concrete Beams with Cement Replacement by Large Volume of Fly ash”, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium as Concrete Technology for Sustainable Development, February - March 2005.

8.       Seshasayi. L. V. A., Ramaseshu. D., and Shankaraiah. R., “Effect of Cement replacements by Fly ash and Silica fume on Compressive Strength of Concrete”, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Fly ash, Silica fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolan in Concrete, ACI SP-1999, July 22-27, 2001, Chennai, India,

9.       SharadaBai H. and Jagadish R., “Fly ash –A wonder material for high performance concrete”, National seminar on high performance concrete, Feb-1996, pp338-349.





B.K.Narendra, T.M.Mahadeviah

Paper Title:

Flexural behavior of Reinforced Fly Ash Concrete in Comparison to Reinforced Normal Concrete Beams in Terms of Ductility Index

Abstract:    Ductility is a measure of the ability of a material section, structural element or structural system to sustain inelastic deformation prior to collapse, without significant loss in resistance. The ductility index describes the inelastic deformation capacity of the structural member. The ductility index in case of flexural members like beam is generally defined in terms of deflection ductility, since it can be measured in test more easily. The ductility indices of RFAC beams with 20%, 35% and 50% CRLs are 0.86, 0.75 and 0.63 times the ductility index of RNC beam respectively. There is considerable difference in the ductility indices between the different CRLs considered and the values range between 1.68 to 2.30.The cracking behaviour observed for RFAC beams clearly shows that performance of RFAC beams is satisfactory when compared to RNC beams with respect to crack widths. In design, the theory applied for strength prediction of RNC beams is equally valid for RFAC beams.The experimental investigation clearly demonstrates that the there was no major difference in the strength, deformations and structural performances between the RFAC beams with different CRLs and RNC beams.

   Fly ash, cement replacement material, concrete beams, flexural behaviour of reinforced Fly ash concrete, ductility index.


1.       Bhararthkumar B. H. , Balasubramanian K. and Krishnamurthy T. S., “Flexural behaviour of RC beams containing Fly ash and slag”, Structural Engineering Research Centre, Taramani, Chennai (2006).
2.       Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi, “Standard Specification for Fly ash” (IS 3812).

3.       Jain. L. K., Viswanath. C. S., Reddi. S. A., Mahesh Tandon., Lakshman. N., SudhirMisra., Nori. V. V., Raina. S. J., and Momin., “Fly ash in Cement and Concrete: What Experts Say”, The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 77, April 2003, pp. 989-995.

4.       Japanese Standards Association, Tokyo, “Fly ash”, JIS-A-6201, 1991.

5.       Joshi. R. C., “Effect of Coarse fraction of Fly ash on Concrete properties”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Fly ash Utilization, Reno. NV. USDE, Washington, DOE/METC/E2-52/, 1993, pp.77-85.

6.       KodeVenkata Ramesh., and SreeRamchandra Murthy D., “Flexural Response of R.C Beams made of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete”, The Indian Concrete Journal, May 2005, pp. 47-52.

7.       Seshasayi. L. V. A., and Subbarao. K., “Behaviour of Concrete Beams with Cement Replacement by Large Volume of Fly ash”, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium as Concrete Technology for Sustainable Development, February - March 2005.

8.       SharadaBai H. and Jagadish R., “Fly ash –A wonder material for high performance concrete”, National seminar on high performance concrete, Feb-1996, pp338-349.





B.K.Narendra, T.M.Mahadeviah

Paper Title:

Flexural behavior of Reinforced Fly Ash Concrete in Comparison to Reinforced Normal Concrete Beams in Terms of Load Deflection

Abstract:   Fly ash is an excellent cement replacement material, either for blending during manufacturing of cement or as a separate addition at the batching plant during the manufacture of concrete at site or at ready mixed concrete facility. The 85 thermal power stations in India generate a huge quantity of Fly ash every year (140 million tonnes per year) as a by-product almost matching the annual production of cement. The dumping of Fly ash in open fields results in ecological and environmental problems. In such a situation, three factors – environmental protection, energy savings and the inherent advantages arising from the use of Fly ash demand that the construction industry examine closely the implication of the incorporation of Fly ash in concrete construction. Thus, there is worldwide interest in Fly ash utilization in concrete and this is reflected in the development currently taking place in the concrete industry. Hence, this paper present the investigation of comparison between the flexural behaviour of reinforced Fly ash concrete beams with that of reinforced normal concrete beams and increase the confidence levels of designers and other beneficiaries in using reinforced Fly ash concrete as a structural material. The flexural behaviour of reinforced Fly ash concrete beams with different cement replacement levels (20%, 35% and 50%) are compared with reinforced normal concrete beams (with out containing Fly ash) under similar conditions. These investigations were conducted with three grades of concrete i.e. M30, M40 and M50. Deflection is one of the important serviceability limit states to be satisfied in the design of concrete structures. So the flexural behaviour of these beams is discussed in terms of load deflection behavior.

   Fly ash, cement replacement material, concrete beams, flexural behaviour of reinforced Fly ash concrete, load deflection


1.       Bhararthkumar B. H. , Balasubramanian K. and Krishnamurthy T. S., “Flexural behaviour of RC beams containing Fly ash and slag”, Structural Engineering Research Centre, Taramani, Chennai (2006).
2.       Jain. L. K., Viswanath. C. S., Reddi. S. A., Mahesh Tandon., Lakshman. N., Sudhir Misra., Nori. V. V., Raina. S. J., and Momin., “Fly ash in Cement and Concrete: What Experts Say”, The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 77, April 2003, pp. 989-995.

3.       Joshi. R. C., “Effect of Coarse fraction of Fly ash on Concrete properties”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Fly ash Utilization, Reno. NV. USDE, Washington, DOE/METC/E2-52/, 1993, pp.77-85.

4.       Kode Venkata Ramesh., and Sree Ramchandra Murthy D., “Flexural Response of R.C Beams made of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete”, The Indian Concrete Journal, May 2005, pp. 47-52.

5.       Seshasayi. L. V. A., and Subbarao. K., “Behaviour of Concrete Beams with Cement Replacement by Large Volume of Fly ash”, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium as Concrete Technology for Sustainable Development, February - March 2005.

6.       Seshasayi. L. V. A., Ramaseshu. D., and Shankaraiah. R., “Effect of Cement replacements by Fly ash and Silica fume on Compressive Strength of Concrete”, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Fly ash, Silica fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolan in Concrete, ACI SP-1999, July 22-27, 2001, Chennai, India,

7.       Sharada Bai H. and Jagadish R., “Fly ash –A wonder material for high performance concrete”, National seminar on high performance concrete, Feb-1996, pp338-349.





B.K.Narendra, T.M.Mahadeviah

Paper Title:

Flexural behavior of Reinforced Fly Ash Concrete in Comparison to Reinforced Normal Concrete beams in Terms of Moment-Curvature Relation

Abstract:   The plastic behavior of any structural member is limited by the amount of deformation that occurs at a critical section when it is subjected to applied loads. Curvatures are obtained by dividing the sum of extreme fiber strains by the corresponding effective depth. Study of curvature assists in evolving the rotation capacities of the beam and also helps in assessing the capacity of the structure to redistribute the moment after yielding. In this paper moment curvature variation of RFAC beams considered are compared with RNC beams for each grade of concrete. Comparison of RFAC beams (with 20%, 35% and 50% replacement of cement by Fly ash) with RNC beams designed as balanced section cured for 28 days. From the study of the moment curvature relations of all three grades of concrete, it is observed that the trend of moment curvature relation of RFAC beams is similar to that of RNC beams at any load level, the curvature of the RFAC beams are lesser than RNC beam. It is also observed that as the CRLs by Fly ash increases, the curvature in RFAC beams decrease  in M30 and M40 concretes and are all almost same in M50 concrete

   Fly ash, cement replacement material, concrete beams, flexural behaviour of reinforced Fly ash concrete, movement curvature relation.


1.       Bhararthkumar B. H. , Balasubramanian K. and Krishnamurthy T. S., “Flexural behaviour of RC beams containing Fly ash and slag”, Structural Engineering Research Centre, Taramani, Chennai (2006).
2.       Jain. L. K., Viswanath. C. S., Reddi. S. A., Mahesh Tandon., Lakshman. N., Sudhir Misra., Nori. V. V., Raina. S. J., and Momin., “Fly ash in Cement and Concrete: What Experts Say”, The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 77, April 2003, pp. 989-995.

3.       Joshi. R. C., “Effect of Coarse fraction of Fly ash on Concrete properties”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Fly ash Utilization, Reno. NV. USDE, Washington, DOE/METC/E2-52/, 1993, pp.77-85.

4.       Kode Venkata Ramesh., and Sree Ramchandra Murthy D., “Flexural Response of R.C Beams made of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete”, The Indian Concrete Journal, May 2005, pp. 47-52.

5.       Seshasayi. L. V. A., and Subbarao. K., “Behaviour of Concrete Beams with Cement Replacement by Large Volume of Fly ash”, Proceedings of the Second
International Symposium as Concrete Technology for Sustainable Development, February - March 2005.

6.       Seshasayi. L. V. A., Ramaseshu. D., and Shankaraiah. R., “Effect of Cement replacements by Fly ash and Silica fume on Compressive Strength of Concrete”, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Fly ash, Silica fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolan in Concrete, ACI SP-1999, July 22-27, 2001, Chennai, India, pp.581-594.

7.       Sharada Bai H. and Jagadish R., “Fly ash –A wonder material for high performance concrete”, National seminar on high performance concrete, Feb-1996, pp338-349.





Zahra RAMZI, Samira TOUHTOUH, M’Hamed TAIBI, Mohammed BETTACH, Abdelowahed HAJJAJI ,  Wafaa NACHIT, Khalil BENKHOUJA1

Paper Title:

Synthesis and Characterization of New Amorphous Phases in Bi2O3-P2O5-SrO System

Abstract:    In the present work Bi2O3-P2O5-SrO glasses have been prepared via melt quenching method. A glass-forming domain is found and studied within Bi2O3-P2O5-SrO system. The glasses obtained in the system P2O5-SrO was investigated by Infrared Spectroscopy. FTIR studies have been performed in these glasses to examine the distribution of different phosphate structural groups. The effect of strontium on these distributions has been examined.

   IR Spectroscopy, phosphates, glasses, Bi2O3-P2O5-SrO System


1.        Brian A. Adair and Anthony K. Cheetham, J. Solid State Chemistry, 155 (2000) 451-454
2.        E. Metwalli, M. Karabulut, D.L. Sidebottom, M.M. Morsi, R.K. Brow, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 344 (2004) 128-134

3.        B. C. SALES and L. A. BOATNER, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 79 (1986) 83.

4.        Y. B. PENG and D. E. DAY, Glass Technol. 32 (1991) 166.

5.        N. ARANHA, O. L. ALVES, L. C. BARBOSA and C. L. CESAR, in Proc. XVII Int. Congr. Glass, Beijing (1995) Vol. 7, p. 282.

6.        L. Koudelka, P. Mošner, M. Zeyer, C. Jäger, J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 326-327, 72  (2003).

7.        A. P. Ahoussou, J. Rogez, A. Kone, J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 353, 271 (2007); Y. K. Park, J. G. Lu, G. Rozgonyi, Electronic Mat. Lett. 6, 1 (2010).

8.        V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, C. Labrugère, G. Le Flem, J. Non- Cryst Solids 270, 223  (2000); D. H. Kim, B. W. Kim and Y. H Seo, Electronic Mat. Lett. 6, 161 (2010)
9.        J.J. Hudens, S.W. Martin, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76 (1993) 1691-1696.
10.     K. Meyer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209 (1997) 227-239.

11.     R.K. Brow, D.R. Tallant, S.T. Myers, C.C. Phifer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 19 (1995)  45-55.

12.     H.S. Liu, T.S. Chin, S.W. Yung, Phys. Chem. Glasses 50 (1997) 1-10.

13.     A. Osaka, Y. Miura, T. Tsugaru, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 125 (1990) 87-92





Ritika Bansal, Sonal Chawla

Paper Title:

An Approach for Semantic Information Retrieval from Ontology in Computer Science Domain

Abstract:    Ontology plays a pivotal role in exchange of information, use of knowledge and its re-use, shared and common understanding of a domain specific knowledge that can be communicated between people and across application systems which is the goal of semantic web. Ontology is used to capture knowledge about any domain of interest with the objective of incorporating the machine understandable data on the current human-readable web. Ontology is a broad term including a wide range of activities, complexities and issues in which Ontology Development is one of the most fundamental and significant concern[1]. There may be various methodologies or tools for ontology development. This paper has three main objectives. Firstly, it considers the computer science domain and demonstrates the development of Ontology in this domain using Protégé 3.4 Editor. Secondly, this paper focuses on the techniques and query language SPARQL for data retrieval from Ontology. Thirdly, this paper will discuss an approach for retrieving information from Ontology through natural language queries by demonstrating the layout of IRSCSD (Information retrieval system for computer science domain).

   Ontology, RDF, Semantic Searching, SPARQL, NLQ, Protégé, Jena API, Query.


1.        Malik, S. K., Prakash, N., & Rizvi, S. A. M. (2010). Developing an university ontology in education domain using protégé for semantic web. International Journal of Science and Technology, 2(9), 4673-4681.
2.        Guowei Chen,Pengzhou Zhang, "Keywords Retrieval Based On Ontology Inference", Communication University of China, International Conference on Industrial Control and Electronics Engineering 2012. 

3.        Miriam Fernández , Iván Cantador , Vanesa López , David Vallet , Pablo Castells , Enrico Motta ,”Semantically enhanced Information Retrieval: An ontology-based approach “Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web (2011). 

4.        B.Chandrasekaran;John R.Josephson; What Are Ontologies,and Why Do We Need Them? IEEE Intelligent Systems, [J], 1999. PP20-25.

5.        IT .Kanimozhi, Dr.A.Christy,” Incorporating Ontology and SPARQL for Semantic Image Annotation” Proceedings of 2013 IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), 2013. 

6.        Sonakneware.P.S.,Karale.S.J., “Ontology Based Approach for Domain Specific Semantic Information Retrieval System”,IJERA,ICIAC,April2014.

7.        Bansal,R. , Chawla.R,,”Semantic Web Tool:For Efficient retrieval of Links and Required Information”,IJITEE,Vol 3,Issue 4,September 2013

8.        Youn.S, McLeod.d,”Ontology Development Tools for Ontology - Based Knowledge Management,2006

9.        Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web

10.     Wang, C., Xiong, M., Zhou, Q., & Yu, Y. (2007). Panto: A portable natural language interface to ontologies. In The Semantic Web: Research and Applications (pp. 473-487). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
11.     http://protege.stanford.edu/
12.     RDF Primer. W3C Recommendation. Feb, 2004. http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/

13.     Quepy. https://pypi.python.org/pypi/quepy/

14.     Gladun.A.,,Rogushina.J.,Shtonda.V.,” Ontological Approach To Domain Knowledge Representation For Information Retrieval In Multiagent Systems”, International Journal "Information Theories & applications" Vol.13. 

15.     Dan.Z.,, "Research on Semantic Information Retrieval Based on Ontology", Library of Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, P.R. China, 430070. 

16.     Lijun.T., Xu.C.,,”The Study of Semantic Retrieval Based on the Ontology of Teaching  Management”,Advancedin Control Engineering and Information Science CEIS 2011. 

17.     Li, Y., Yang, H., Jagadish, H.V.: NaLIX: an interactive natural language interface for querying XML. In: SIGMOD Conference. (2005) 900{902

18.     Chen, H., Finin, T., Joshi A.: An ontology for context-aware pervasive computing environments. J.Knowl. Eng. Rev. 18(3), 197–207 (Sept 2003). Cambridge University Press, USA (2003). ISSN:0269-8889

19.     Bechhofer, S., Horrocks, I., Goble, C., Stevens, R.: OILEd: a reasonable ontology editor for the semantic web In: KI2001, Joint German/Austrian conference on Artificial Intelligence, volume LNAI Vol. 2174, pages 396-408, Vienna (2001)

20.     Xinhua.L.,  Xutang.Z.,, zhongkai.L.,” A Domain Ontology- based Information Retrieval  ApproachforTechniquePreparation international Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials Science 2012.





Zohair Mohammed Elhassan Hussein, Abdelrasoul jabar kizar alzubaidi

Paper Title:

Helical Feed Manipulation for Parabolic Reflector Antenna Gain Control

Abstract:    Helical antennas have long been popular in applications from VHF to microwaves requiring circular polarization, since they have the unique property of naturally providing circularly polarized radiation. One area that takes advantage of this property is satellite communications. Where more gain is required than can be provided by a helical antenna alone, a helical antenna can also be used as a feed for a parabolic dish for higher gains. The helical antenna can be an excellent feed for a dish, with the advantage of circular polarization. One limitation is that the usefulness of the circular polarization is limited since it cannot be easily reversed to the other sense, left- handed to right-handed or vice-versa. This paper deals with applying an electronic technique to control the helical feed of the parabolic reflector feed. The control of the helical feed leads to the control of the antenna gain .The proposed design is based on implementing a microcontroller connected to an interface to control stepper motor.

   Helical Antenna, Parabolic Dish feed, parabolic helical feed reflector, antenna, antenna gain, microcontroller, interface, stepper motor  


1.       Kraus, J.D., (W8JK), “A Helical-Beam Antenna without a Ground Plane,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, April 1995, p. 45.
2.       Kraus, J.D. & Marhefka, R.J., Antennas: for All Applications, third edition, McGraw-Hill, 2002.

3.       Emerson, D., AA7FV, “The Gain of the Axial-Mode Helix Antenna,” Antenna Compendium Volume 4, ARRL, 1995, pp. 64-68.

4.       Nakano, H., Yamauchi, J., & Mimaki, H., “Backfire Radiation from a

5.       Nakano, H., Mikawa, T., & Yamauchi, J., “Investigation of a ShortConical Helix Antenna,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, October 1985, pp. 1157-1160.

6.       Kraus, J.D., “A 50-Ohm Impedance for Helical Beam Antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, November 1977, p. 913.    

7.       Balanis C. A.(1997) ,“Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons. 

8.       Stutzman, Warren L.; Gary A. Thiele (2012).

9.       Straw, R. D., ed., The ARRL Antenna Book, American Radio Relay League,Newington, Connecticut, 20th edition, 2003, chapter 19.





Abhinav V. Deshpande

Paper Title:

A Basic Approach towards the Literary Meaning of Research Methodology and Quantitative Methods of Computer Applications by Formulation of Hypothesis of Given Factual Information

Abstract:    Research is a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information to answer questions.  But to qualify as research, the process must have certain characteristics: it must, as far as possible, be controlled, rigorous, systematic, valid and verifiable, empirical and critical. Research is undertaken within most professions. More than a set of skills, it is a way of thinking: examining critically the various aspects of your professional work. It is a habit of questioning what you do, and a systematic examination of the observed information to find answers with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more effective professional service. In this paper, a new approach which is based on quantifying the process of research with respect to the social and academic perspective of a given subject’s beauty is illustrated.

   Research Methodology, Quantitative Methods, Hypothesis, Innovation, descriptive, Structured, Unstructured


1.        Dawson, Catherine, 2002, Practical Research Methods, New Delhi, UBS Publishers’ Distributors,
2.        Kothari, C.R.,1985, Research Methodology-Methods and Techniques, New Delhi, Wiley Eastern Limited.

3.        Kumar, Ranjit, 2005, Research Methodology-A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners, (2nd.ed), Singapore, Pearson Education





Neelakandan K, Goutham Sagar M, Tushar Damodare, Pooja Nemade

Paper Title:

Numerical Prediction of Vehicle Front End Module Effects on Engine Cooling System Performance

Abstract:    A numerical study to investigate the effects of passenger vehicle front end module on engine cooling system performance has been conducted. Since the front end module has a direct impact on vehicle drag and vehicle cooling performance, it plays an important role in vehicle design. The current study investigates the effects of grill area, horn blockage, condenser, and fan capacity on engine cooling performance. A 1-dimensional CFD modeling methodology is used with different sub-systems such as coolant, engine oil circuit, intercooler, condenser and other components such as thermostats, radiators, fans and pump etc. using GT-SUITE. A pre-processing tool called COOL3D which is part of GT-SUITE is used to build the 3D underhood of vehicles using a component-by-component build approach, and therefore allowing inclusion of much more details than a usual 1D simulation model. GT-SUITE object-based code helps us to build reliable cooling systems and optimize the front end module for various operating conditions and reduces our effort on real time testing. With above considerations and methodologies we significantly improved the engine cooling performance.

   Automotive cooling system, Front end module, Underhood, 1D CFD simulation, GT Suite


1.       Biswadip; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, S. V. Ranganath; and Arora, Gyan, "CFD Prediction to Optimize Front End Cooling Module of a Passenger Vehicle" (2006). International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. Paper 845
2.       Neelakandan K, Goutham Sagar M, Ajay Virmalwar "Investigation of Radiators Size, Orientation of Sub cooled Section and Fan Position on Twin Fan Cooling Pack by 1D Simulation" International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) (2014).

3.       GT User manual V7.4 "Flow modelling manual" Gamma Technologies.  (2013)

4.       Thomas Binner, Heinrich Reister, Ernst Peter Weidmann, Jochen Wiedemann "Aspects of Underhood Thermal Analyses"

5.       S.C. Pang, M.A. Kalam, H.H.Masjuki, I.A. Badruddin, R. Ramli and M.A. Hazrat. Underhood Geometry Modification And Transient Coolant Temperature Modeling For Robust Cooling Networks

6.       F. G. Tenkel, “Computer Simulation of Automotive Cooling Systems,” SAE Paper 740087, 1974 in page no. 19.

7.       J.C. Corbel, “An Original Simulation Method for Car Engine Cooling Systems: A Modular System,” SAE Paper 870713, 1987 in page no. 27

8.       J. A. Sidders and D. G. Tilley, “Optimizing Cooling System Performance Using Computer Simulation,” SAE Paper 971802, 1997 in page no. 16

9.       D. Ganga Charyulu a, *, Gajendra Singh b, J.K. Sharma “Performance  evaluation of a radiator in a diesel engine- case study Applied Thermal Engineering 19 (1999)





Ayesha Syeda, Barvaliya Shrujal Jayesh Kumar

Paper Title:

A Case Study on Bamboo as Green Building Material

Abstract:    In this world of constantly increasing population and depleting resources there is urge to adopt cost effective and ecofriendly structures. These papers discuss the potential of bamboo and project the possibilities of usage of bamboo in the construction field. Bamboo is an ancient solution for the present day problem. Bamboo is an appropriate substitute for the present convention building material such as steel and wood. The main characteristic of the bamboo which makes it a suitable building material is it’s high tensile strength which is equivalent to mild steel at the yield point and very good weight strength ratio making it high resilient against the forces created by the earth quakes and hurricanes. Bamboo can replace 70% of steel and wood used in the construction and reduce the cost by 40%. Bamboo can be used from scaffolding to every stage of construction like in footings, beams, columns, slabs, stair cases, doors, windows etc. Bamboo is the renewable resource with amazing growth rate, rejuvenates the soil and grows in varied climatic conditions. Bamboo absorbs carbon dioxide and releases 35% more oxygen into the atmosphere than other hardwood trees. There are few building codes also available for the usage of bamboo in the construction such as ISO 22156: 2004 Bamboo structural design, ISO 22157: 2004 Bamboo physical and mechanical properties, IS 9096: 1979 Code of practice for preservation of bamboo for structural purposes. Thus bamboo is environmental friendly, energy efficient and cost effective material.

   Bamboo, ISO 22156:2004, ISO 22157: 2004, IS 9096: 1979


1.       Farrelly, David (1984). The Book of Bamboo. Sierra Club Books. ISBN 087156825X
2.       "Alteration On Physical And Mechanical Properties of Bambusa vulgaris From Sabah Forest Through Heat Treatment Process," University Malaysia Sabah & Forest Research Institute Malaysia

3.       Gratani, Loretta; Maria Fiore Crescente, Laura Varone, Giuseppe Fabrini, and Eleonora Digiulio (2008). "Growth pattern and photosynthetic activity of different bamboo species growing in the Botanical Garden of Rome". Flora 203: 77–84.

4.       Michelle Nijhuis (June 2009). "Bamboo Boom: Is This Material for You?". Scientific American Earth 3.0 special. Scientific American. Retrieved 11 August 2009.

5.       "Bamboo Construction". CD3WD. Retrieved 11 August 2009

6.       CASSANDRA ADAMS. "Bamboo Architecture and Construction with Oscar Hidalgo". Natural Building Colloquium. Retrieved 11 August 2009.





B.M.S. Rani, A. Jhansi Rani, T. Ravi, M. Divya Sree

Paper Title:

Basic Fundamental Recognition of Voiced Unvoiced and Silence Region of A Speech

Abstract:    Speech which is a natural and very easy way of exchanging the information if used as a medium to interact with the computer and can solve all these problems. Speech recognition technology has made it possible for computers to follow human voice commands and understand human languages. The main goal of speech recognition area is to develop techniques and systems for speech as input to machine.Objective is (a) Load, display and manipulation of speech signals.(b) Study and understand the time and frequency domain characteristics of voiced speech.(c) Classification of the voiced/unvoiced/silence features of speech signals in both time domain and frequency domain.(d)auto-correlation sequence of voiced,unvoiced,silence features of thespeech signals.

   voiced,un voiced,silence,time domain,frequency domain,auto correlation

1.       Agarwal, A., Jain, A. and Prakash, N., 2010. Word Boundary Detection in Continuous Speech based on Suprasegmental Features for Hindi Language. 2nd International Conference on Signal Processing Systems, vol. 2, pp. V2-591-V2-594.
2.       Anusuya, M. A. and Katti, S. K., 2009. Speech Recognition by machine: A review. International journal of Computer science and information security, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 181-205. 

3.       Jong Kwan Lee, Chang D. Yoo, “Wavelet speech enhancement based on oiced/unvoiced decision”,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology The 32nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering, Jeju International Convention Center, Seogwipo, Korea ,August 25-28, 2003. 

4.       B. Atal, and L. Rabiner, “A Pattern Recognition Approach to Voiced-Unvoiced-Silence Classification with Applications to Speech Recognition,” IEEE Trans. On ASSP, vol. ASSP-24, pp. 201-212, 1976. 

5.       S. Ahmadi, and A.S. Spanias, “Cepstrum-Based Pitch Detection using a New Statistical V/UV Classification Algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Processing, vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 333-338, 1999. 

6.       Y. Qi, and B.R. Hunt, “Voiced-Unvoiced-Silence Classifications of Speech using Hybrid Features and a Network Classifier,” IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Processing, vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 250-255, 1993. 

7.       L. Siegel, “A Procedure for using Pattern Classification Techniques to obtain a Voiced/Unvoiced Classifier”, IEEE Trans. on ASSP, vol. ASSP-27, pp. 83- 88, 1979.





Deshmukh P. S, More A. B, Chavan S. A

Paper Title:

Supply Chain Management in Residential Construction Sector

Abstract:    Supply chain management (SCM) is a concept which originated from manufacturing industry to control logistics.SCM is a management process by which organization control the worldwide network of stockholder such as supplier retailer and distributer through which raw material are procure, manufacture final product and delivered to customers. In construction process, procurement activities occur during all stage of a project. Construction process is fragmented so supplier of resources like man, material, money and machine are not available at right time and right quantity. It is difficult to control all the activity, so SCM process is more essential to control over all the activity on the construction process. In this paper introduce the concept of supply chain management in construction sector. Also explain the problem to adopt the supply chain management process in the residential construction projects and describe the benefits in effective implementation of SCM. Finally explain simple model of SC in residential project.

   Residential construction firm, Supply chain management, social housing


1.        Albaloushi, H and Skitmore M (2008), “Supply Chain Management in the UAE Construction Industry”, Intl J of Construction Mangement, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 53-71.
2.        Ganeshan, R, and Harrison Terry P., “An Introduction to Supply Chain Management,” Department of Management Sciences and Information Systems, 1995.

3.        Handfield R. B. and Nichols E. L., “Introduction to Supply Chain Management”, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1999, pp. 1-183.

4.        Lee Hau L., and Corey Billington, “The Evolution of Supply- Chain-Management Models and Practice at Hewlett- Packard. Interfaces”, 25 pp. 42-63: 5 September- October, 1995. 

5.        McCaffer, R. and Root, D. (2000) “Supply Chain Management in Construction”. A Special Presentation at the Hong Kong Institute of Engineers Meeting, Hong Kong, October 2000.

6.        O’ Brien W J (1995), “Coordination, Costing and Control in Construction”, Construction Supply Chain Management, pp. 1-7, Berkeley, University of California.

7.        Walker, T. William and Alber, Karen L. (1999) Understanding Supply Chain Management, APICS online Edition, Vol. 99 No http://www.apics.org/magazines/jan99/walker.htm, May 5, 2000.





Islam M. Ezz El-Arab

Paper Title:

Seismic Analysis of RC Silos Dynamic Discharge Phenomena

Abstract:    This paper presents the characteristics of the flow pattern and wall pressures observed during filling and emptying of cylindrical silo during gravity discharge. The paper presents recent and current researches on these phenomena. The dynamic discharge phenomenon is influenced by various factors related to the type of flow pattern developed in the silos and the flow properties of the bulk material of particular, and the velocity at critical sections in the silo during discharge. Moreover, In order to ensure the accuracy for modified finite element model that is presented in paper; it is verified with other’s experimental results. Under different three types of earthquake ground excitations; Al-Aqba, 1995, Northridge, 1994, and El-Centro, 1940; the paper is dissected the silo discharge phenomenon; which has a stress peak during the dynamic discharge of the silo. Caused by that fact, the modeling of silo should be taken this phenomena effect in the simulation. Especially, this phenomenon has great effect on the silo mass distribution which reflects on the flow of granular material during filling and discharge. In order to ensure the presented finite element results; it is investigated for a real case study, Silo of Royal El-Menia Factory in Upper Egypt to be checked a model results with ACI 313-97 provision results to evaluate and comment on results.

   Silo, Seismic analysis, Dynamic discharge phenomena


1.        Janssen HA (1895). Versuche über den Getreidedruck in Silozellen, VDI Zeitschrift   35, pp. 1045-1049.
2.        Guenter A, Rombach,  Frank N (2004). "3-D Finite Element Modeling of Granular Flow in Silos 17 th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference. June 13-16,2004, University of Delaaware, Newark,DE.

3.        E-DIN 1055-6: 2000-09 (2000), Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke: Einwirkungen aus Silos und Flüssigkeitsbehlter,NormenausschussBauwesen im DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., Berlin, Germany.

4.        Euro Code 1 Part 4 (ENV 1991-4:1996) (1996). Basis of design and actions on structures, Part 4.Action on silos and tanks.

5.        Thorsten WR, Keiter, Guenter A, Rombach (2002). Accurate handling of pressure peaks in FE-simulations of granular media, EM 2002, New York, 2-5, June, 2002.

6.        ACI 313-97 (1997). Standard Practice for Design and Construction of Concrete Silos and Stacking Tubes for Storing Granular Materials, Reported by ACI Committee 313, America.

7.        ANSYS 10.0. (2007). ANSYS User's Manual. Ver. 10.0. Houston: Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc. Houston (USA).

8.        Gallego E, Goodey RJ, Ayuga F, Brown CJ (2004). Some practical features in modelling silos with finite elements. ASAE Paper No. 044150. St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE. Proc. of the 2004 ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting. Ottawa, August 2004.

9.        Andres de Juan, Julia Moran, Pedro Aguado, and Pablo V (2003).” STUDY OF BUCKLING STRESSES IN STEEL SILOS” 16th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference, July 16-18,2003, University of Washington, Seattle.

10.     Rombach G, Eibl J (1995). Granular Flow of Materials in Silos - Numerical Results. Bulk Solids Handling, Volume 15, No. 1, 1995, pp. 65-70.

11.     Moran J, Aguado PJ, Juan A, Yotros (2002). “Effects of Thermal Loads On Agricultural Silos” 15th A.S.C.E. Engineering Mechanics Division Conference. Columbia University. New York (N.Y.)

12.     Alan WR, Christopher MW (2002).  ” Flow Dynamics or’Quaking’ in Gravity Discharge from Silos” Journal of Chemical Engineering Science 57 PP. 295-305.





Saad Asghar Moeeni, J. Lordwin Girish Kumar

Paper Title:

Waste Water Quality Analysis and Design of Waste Stabilization Pond of Shiats

Abstract:    The purpose of this study was to access the waste water quality of SHIATS and to provide suitable treatment option in the form of waste-stabilization ponds. Two sites were selected for waste water quality analysis. Assessment was carried from March to June. The analysis were done at laboratory using standard Method. Parameter selected for the assessment were pH, turbidity, Electrical conductivity, Dissolved oxygen and Biological oxygen demand (BOD) at all the sampling sites all the parameter were at the pollutants exceeding the pollution limits. The value of pH, Turbidity, EC, DO and BOD ranges from 6.05 to 6.85, 6.55 NTU to 13.00 NTU, 0.008 to 2.00, 12mg/l to 22mg/l, 6.00 to 9.00 mg/l and total area required for waste stabilization ponds were 799.4 m2.

   Parameter, pH, Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity, Dissolve oxygen, Biological oxygen demand, waste stabilization pond.


1.       Allen and H.E. (1993). The significance of trace metal speciation for water, sediment and soil quality criteria and standards. Proceeding of the Second European Conference on the Ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology. Sloof, W.; de-Kruijf, H. 1-2, 23-46. 
2.       Bichi, M.H. and Anyata. (1999). “Industrial Waste Pollution in the Kano River Basin”, Environmental Management and Health , 10(2), pp. 112-116”.

3.       Ezeronye O,U., and Ubalua A,O., (2005). Studies on the effect of abattior and industrial effluents on the heavy metals and microbial quality of Aba river in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (3), pp. 266-272.

4.       Howitt J, A., Baldwin D, S., Rees G, N., and Williams J, L., (2006). Modelling blackwater: Predicting water quality during flooding of lowland river forests. 

5.       Miyamoto, S., Cruz and I. (1986). Spatial variability and soil sampling for salinity and sodicity appraisal in surfaceirrigated orchards. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50.

6.       Nawaz S, Ali S, M and Yasmin A. (2006). Effect of industrial effluents on seed germination and early growth of Cicer arientum. J. Biosci., 6: 49-54.





Sandip Bobade, Rajeshawari Goudar

Paper Title:

Secure Data Communication using Protocol Steganography in IPv6

Abstract:    In secure data communication Network Security is important. Basically in cryptography Encryption is used for data security. Still attacker can attract towards encrypted data due to different form of data.so this limitation could overcome by using steganography. Steganography is the technique of information hiding. In steganography different carriers can be used for information hiding like image, audio, video, network protocols. Network steganography is a new approach for data hiding. In network steganography network layer protocol of TCP/IP suite are used for data hiding. In Network layer covert channels are used for data hiding. Covert channels violate security policies of the system. Covert channels are either used for steal the information or communicate secrete information overt a network. Covert channel in TCP, IPv4 are previously implemented and studied. IPv6 is a new generation protocol which slowly replaces IPv4 in future because IPv4 is rapidly running out. So there is need to examine security issues related IPv6 protocol. Covert channels are present in IPv6 protocol. 20 bit Flow label field of IPv6 protocol can be used as covert channel. RSA algorithm is used for data Encryption.Chaotic method used for data encoding. Secret data communication is possible in IPv6.    

   Covert channel, Steganography, TCP/IP ,Network Security, Chaos Theory.


1.        M. Owens, “A Discussion of Covert Channels and Steganography” SANS (SysAdmin, Audit, Network, Security) Institute, 2002.
2.        Norka B. Lucena, Grzegorz Lewandowski, and Steve J. Chapin “Covert Channels in IPv6” Syracuse University, Syracuse NY 13244, USA 147–166, 2006._c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006.

3.        Szczypiorski K., Steganography in TCP/IP Networks.State of the Artand a Proposal of a New System – HICCUPS, In Institute of Telecommunications' seminar, Warsaw University of Technology,Poland,November,2003 URL:http://krzysiek.tele.pw.edu.pl/pdf/steg-seminar 2003.pdf

4.        T. Sohn, J. S. , and J. Moon, “A study on covert channel detection of TCP/IP header using support vector machine,” in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Information and Communication Security (ICICS 2003),Oct. 2003,pp.313–324.

5.        Sellke, S.H., Wang, C., Bagchi, S., Shroff, N.B.: TCP/IP Timing Channels: Theory to Implementation, pp. 2204–2212 (2009),

6.        W. Mazurczyk, M. Smolarczyk, K. Szczypiorski, Retransmission steganography and its detection, Soft Computing, ISSN: 1432-7643 (print version), ISSN: 1433-7479 (electronic version), Journal no. 500 Springer, November 2009

7.        Mazurczyk ,W., Szczypiorski, K., Steganography of VoIP Streams, In: R. Meersman and Z. Tari (Eds.): OTM 2008, Part II – Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 5332, Springer-Verlag 

8.        Kundur, D., Ahsan, K.: Practical internet steganography: Data hiding in IP. In: Proc. TexasWorkshop on Security of Information Systems (College Station, Texas) (April 2003)

9.        Gianvecchio, S., Wang, H.: Detecting covert timing channels: an entropy-based approach.In: CCS 2007: Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on Computer and communicationssecurity, pp. 307–316. ACM, New York (2007)

10.     Servetto, S.D., Vetterli, M.: Communication Using Phantoms: Covert Channels in theInternet. In: Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, p. 229 (2001)

11.     B. W. Lampson, "A Note on the Confinement. Volume 16 Issue 10, Oct. 1973 ACM New York, NY, USA

12.     Steven 1. Murdoch and Stephen Lewis, "Embedding Cover Channelsinto TCP/IP". Information Hiding Workshop 2005 proceedings on, 2005

13.     Henry, P.A., Corporation, C., Rowland, C.H.: Covert channels in the tcp/ip protocol suite

14.     Ahsan, K., Kundur, D.: Practical data hiding in TCP/IP. In: ACM Workshop on Multimedia and Security (2002), http://ee.tamu.edu/deepa/pdf

15.     D. D. DhobaJe, V. R. Ghorpade B. S. Patjj, S. B. Patil, ”steganography by hiding data in tcp/ip headers”, 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering(ICACTE), 2010.

16.     Hong Zhao, Senior Member, IEEE, and Yun-Qing Shi, Fellow, IEEE” Detecting Covert Channels in Computer Networks Based on Chaos Theory” IEEE transactions on information forensics and security, vol. 8, no. 2, february 2013 

17.     B. Jankowski, W. Mazurczyk, K. Szczypiorski, “Information Hiding Using Improper Frame Padding”, In Proc. of 14th International Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symposium (Networks 2010), 27-30.09.2010, Warsaw, Poland 

18.     Zander, S., Armitage, G., Branch, P. (2007) “A Survey of Covert Channels and Countermeasures in ComputerNetwork Protocols”, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 3rd Quarter 2007, Volume: 9, Issue:3, pp. 44-57, ISSN: 1553-877X

19.     K. Szczypiorski, “Steganography in TCP/IP Networks. State of the Art and a Proposal of a New System HICCUPS” Institute of Telecommunications Seminar [Online].Available: http://www.tele.pw.edu.pl/krzysiek/pdf/steg-seminar-2003.pdf, Retrieved Jun. 2010 [20]G. 

20.     Fisk, M. Fisk, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Neil. “Eliminating steganography in Internet traffic with active wardens.” In Proc. IH, 2002.

21.     R.J.Anderson and F.A.P.Petitcolas,“On the limits of steganography,”IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 474–481, May1998.

22.     Norka B. Lucena, Grzegorz Lewandowski, and Steve J. Chapin “Covert Channels in IPv6” Syracuse University, Syracuse NY 13244, USA 147–166, 2006._c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006.

23.     K. Ramakrishnan, S. Floyd, and D. Black, “The Addition of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP-RFC 3168, Sep. 2001.

24.     Guangxian Xu1, Xiao Fu2 and Wei Wu3 Low-overhead “Secure Network Coding based on Chaotic Sequence”    Appl. Math. Inf. Sci. 7, No. 2L, 605-610 (2013)





Pushpa B. S, Vasant Vaze, P. T. Nimbalkar

Paper Title:

Performance Evaluation of Cooling Tower in Thermal Power Plant - A Case Study of RTPS, Karnataka

Abstract:    An evaporative cooling tower is a heat exchanger where transformation of heat takes place from circulating water to the atmosphere. The warm water from the condenser is taken as an inlet water to the cooling tower and it is allowed to flow through the nozzles. As it falls down across baffles or louvers, the water is broken into small droplets. Simultaneously air is drawn in through the air inlet louvers provided at the base of the tower and then this air travels upward through the tower in the opposite direction of water flow. In this process a small portion of water gets evaporated which removes the heat from the remaining water causing it to cool down. This water is collected in a basin and is reused in the cooling water system process. Because of evaporation, some quantity of water is lost and thus to make up the loss, the fresh water is constantly added to the cooling water basin. In a Natural Draft Cooling Tower, warm water is cooled by evaporation process. Here, water gets cooled when a boundary layer is formed between saturated water and saturated air. If the mass flow rate is ideal, then the performance of cooling tower as well as the power plant will be improved. In this study, it is showed that by minimizing the size of water droplet, the performance of Natural Draft Cooling Tower can be enhanced. Study of Sensitivity Analysis is done which shows the dependency of parameters like air temperature, water temperature, relative humidity and rate of heat loss. Further, efficiency is also checked by using power generation data.

   Cooling Tower, Rate of Heat loss, Sensitivity Analysis, Efficiency.


1.       A Text book of  ‘Power Plant Engineering’ by Domkumb War.
2.       A Text book of ‘State of Art’  by Parkar and Crankel.

3.       A Technical Report by Karnataka Power Corporation Ltd., Raichur Thermal Power Station in KARNATAKA.

4.       A Technical Report by Costal Power Services, PUNE – “Analysis of Meteorological data to determine daily and annual cycle of Rate of heat loss and predict precise heat loss achieved in the pre-cooling channel at Trombay Thermal Power Station for Tata Power”

5.       Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Power, India. Cooling Towers. In: Energy

6.       Efficiency in Electrical Utilities. Chapter 7

7.       Perry’s Chemical Engineers Handbook. 
8.       Ramarao, R.A. Paltech Cooling Towers and Equipment Ltd. Design of Fills.
9.       Research Paper on “ Impact of Cooling water temperature on plant performance” – By Magose Abraham Eju (2013), Cooling technology Institute.

10.     Research paper on “ Mathematical and Experimental modeling of a Rain Zone” – By Lukas Dvorak and Pavol Vitkovic Czech Tech University in Pargue (2013), Cooling technology Institute.

11.     Research paper on “ Enhancing tower performance using Non- uniform water distribution” – By Adriaan J. de Villere, Peter B. Bosma, Knight Piesold Energy (1996), Cooling technology Institute.

12.     Shivaraman, T. Shiriram Towertech Ltd. Selection and Design of Cooling Towers.

13.     “Technical Specifications of Cooling Tower “, Raichur Thermal Power Station, Karnataka Power Corporation Ltd., Bangalore, Karnataka





Gurpreet Batra, Alpana Vijay Rajoriya

Paper Title:

An Enhancement of Association Rule Mining Algorithm

Abstract:    One of the well-researched and most important techniques of mining data is Association Rule Mining. Association Rules as the name itself indicates includes finding correlations among sets of items in transaction database. Most famous algorithm of association rule mining is Apriori is used for knowledge discovery. The proposed work is based on finding association rules considering the multidimensionality of the attributes and reducing the computation time that will increase the efficiency. Proposed work will improve the existing Apriori algorithm and will reduce some of the drawbacks of the existing algorithm.

   Association rules, confidence, support count, Apriori Algorithm


1.        AL-Zawaidah, Farah Hanna, Yosef Hasan Jbara, and A. L. Marwan. "An Improved Algorithm for Mining Association Rules in Large Databases." World of Computer Science and Information Technology 1.7 (2011): 311-316.
2.        Yang, Jun, et al. "An Improved Apriori Algorithm Based on Features." Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS), 2013 9th International Conference on. IEEE, 2013.

3.        Al-Maolegi, Mohammed, and Bassam Arkok. "An Improved Apriori Algorithm for Association Rules." International Journal on Natural Language Computing (IJNLC), 3.1 (2014).

4.        Yadav Chanchal, Shuliang Wang, and Manoj Kumar. "Amity University Noida, UP, India." Computing, Communications and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT), 2013 Fourth International Conference on. IEEE, 2013.

5.        Moharana, U. C., and S. P. Sarmah. "Determination of optimal kit for spare parts using association rule mining." International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management Springer, Sweden (2014): 1-10.

6.        Lee, Dong Gyu, et al. "Discovering medical knowledge using association rule mining in young adults with acute myocardial infarction." Journal of medical systems 37.2 (2013): 1-10.





Mutahir Ahmed, Rafi Ullah Khan, Saeed Badshah, Sakhi Jan

Paper Title:

Finite Element Investigation of Geometry Effect on Pressure Vessel under Combined Structural and Thermal Loads

Abstract:    Pressure vessels are commonly used for large industrial and commercial applications such as storage, filtration and softening purposes. Pressure vessels usually bear pressure and thermal loadings namely thermo-mechanical loadings and experiences expansion loads due to change in temperature. In this study, design and analysis are performed using commercial code to compare the stresses between different geometries. Structural design of pressure vessel is also optimized to accommodate thermal as well structural loads. Von-mises stress, hoop stress and deformation are plotted for all case studies.

   Stress distribution, stress concentration, Geometric non-linearity, pressure vessels.

1.        ASME boiler and pressure vessel code section VIII, division 2, 2001
2.        Shyam Gupta, " Optimize nozzle location for minimization of stress in pressure vessel", IJIRST- International Journal for Innovative Research in Science and
Technology, Vol. 1, Issue 1, June 2014, ISSN(online)L:2349-6010

3.        Avinash Kharat, V.V.Kulkarni, "Stress concentration at openings in Pressure Vessels-A Review", International Journal of innovative research in science, engineering and technology. vol. 2, issue 3, March 2013.

4.        A. Th. Diamantoudis, Th. Kermanidis, Design by analysis versus design by formula of high strength steel pressure vessels: a comparative study, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 82 (2005) 43-50.

5.        You-Hong Liua,*, Bing-Sheng Zhangb, Ming-De Xuec, You-Quan Liu, Limit pressure and design criterion of cylindrical pressure vessels with nozzles, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 81 (2004) 619-624.

6.        T. Aseer Brabin a, T. Christopher b, B. Nageswara Rao, Finite element analysis of cylindrical pressure vessels having a misalignment in a circumferential joint, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 87 (2010) 197-201

7.        V.N. Skopinsky and A.B. Smetankin, "Modeling and Stress analysis of nozzle connections in ellipsoidal heads of pressure vessels under external loading", Int. J. of
Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 2006, vol.11, No.4, PP-965-979.

8.        J. Btachut, K. Magnucki, "Strength, stability, & Optimization of pressure vessel: Review of selected problem", Applied Mechanical Reviews, November 2008, Vol. 61.

9.        NASA SP-8083, "Discontinuity stresses in metallic pressure vessels"

10.     DENNIS MOSS, "Pressure vessel design manual"

11.     Holman, J.P., Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, London.

12.     Basavraj R. Birajdar, Srinath E. Gudur, "Computation of thermo-mechanical stresses in pressure vessel using ANSYS", International Journal of  advance research in science and engineering, IJARSE, Vol. No. 2, Issue No. 8, August 2013

13.     Mohammad Z. Kabir, "Finite element analysis of composite pressure vessels with a load sharing metallic liner", ELSEVIER Composite Structures 49 (2000)

14.     Javad Marzbanrad" Finite element analysis of composite high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels" J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 4 (1) (2013) 63-74 ISSN: 2028-2508 CODEN: JMESCN

15.     M. Javed Hyder, M. Asif, "Optimization of location & size of opening in pressure vessel cylinder using ANSYS", Engineering Failure Analysis 15, 2008, pp 1-19.

16.     M. Quider, "SCF analysis of a pressurized vessel-nozzle intersection with wall thinning damage", International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 2009, Vol.86, PP 541-549.





Zine-Eddine Meguetta, Blaise Conrard, Mireille Bayart

Paper Title:

Multi-Criteria Design Optimization of Control System Instrumentation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Structural Modeling Approaches

Abstract:    this article presents general approach of multi-criteria design of the control system instrumentation. The work reported here aims at defining that principal component analysis PCA can be used as method of design phase for non-linear system based on data measurements from the sensors and the available actuators for dynamical control system. The PCA consists to select inputs variables for quantifying the speed vt+δt using structural modeling, despite the environmental disturbance is the slope of the road and uncertainties in measurements from the sensors and actuators implemented in the control system instrumentation in design phase.

   Multi criteria design, principal component analysis, structural modeling, optimization.


1.       Z-E.Megatta and B.Conrard, M.Bayart. Instrumentation for electrical vehicle model on road slope using structural analysis, 20th Mediterranean conference on control and automation (MED), Barcelona, Spain, july 3-6, 2012.
2.       B. Conrard, V. Cocquempot and S. Mili.  Fault Tolerant System Design in Multiple Operating Modes using a Structural Model, Conférence ESREL European Safety and Reliability Conference, Troyes, France, 18-22 September 2011.

3.       Zine-eddine Meguetta, Blaise conrard and Mireille bayart. Robust Design of a Control System Instrumentation using Structural Analysis and ANFIS Neuro-Fuzzy Logic Approaches, Journal of Consumer Electronics Times CET: Automobile Electronics World Academic Publishing, vol.3 ISS.4, PP.242-255, 09 august 2014.         

4.       Zine-eddine Meguetta, Blaise Conrard and Mireille Bayart. Design of control system instrumentation based on structural modeling with criteria of quality of control (QoC) and cost, IJISET International Journal of Innovative Science Engineering and Technology: www.ijiset.com, Vol.1 Issue9: ISSN2348–7968, November 2014.

5.       Z-E Megeutta and B.Conrard, M.Bayart. Design of control architecture based search algorithm for fault-tolerant control system. 2nd International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems, Nice, France, October 9-11, 2013.

6.       D. Dustegor, E. Frisk, V. Cocquempot, M. Krysander and M. Staroswieki. Structural Analysis of Fault Isolability in the DAMADICS Benchmark, In: Control Engineering Practice, Vol.14, issue 6, pp. 597-608, 2006.

7.       J.Gertler and T.McAvoy. Principal component analysis and parity relations a strong duality. In Proc.3 rd IFAC Symposium IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety for Technical Process (SAFEPROCESS), volume 2, page 837, Hull, GB, 1997.

8.       I.Joliffe. Principle component analysis. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998.

9.       R.Dunia and S.Qin. Joint diagnosis of process and sensor faults using pca. In:Control Engineering Practice -CEP, issue 6, 6:457-469, 1998.

10.     J.MacGregor and F.Kourti. Statistical process control of multivariate processes. Control Engineering Practice-CEP,(3):403-414, 1995.





S. R. Navale, Upasni Supriya, V. M. Harpale, K. C. Mohite

Paper Title:

Effect of Solar Drying on the Nutritive Value of Fenugreek Leaves

Abstract:    A cabinet solar dryer with varying width of chimney has been designed and fabricated. In this work an attempt has been made to evaluate the performance of cabinet solar dryer (CSD) and open sun drying (OSD) to dry the fenugreek leaves. Result obtained showed that drying time for cabinet solar drying was found 43% less than that of open sun drying. After drying, samples were powdered and nutritive tests were carried out at national agricultural and Food research institute (NAFARI) .The results showed significant increase in the nutrients studied of the dried samples except for vitamin C. The quantitative retention of nutrients like, energy, carbohydrates, calcium and sodium was found 4%, 2.5%, 66.47%, and181.66% more in sample dried in cabinet solar dryer as compared to open sun.

   Cabinet solar dryer, open sun drying, fenugreek, Nutrients


1.       Bukola, O. Bolaji, Tajudeen, M.A. Olayanju and Taiwo, O. Falade. (2011) Performance   evolution of a solar wind ventilated cabinet dryer. West Indian journal of engineering, Vol. 33, pp.12-18.
2.       Hussain, M.Y.and Islam ud-din, A.M. (2008) Dehydration of agriculture products by mixed mode solar dehydrator. International journal of agriculture and biology Vol.10, pp.333-336
3.       Bolaji, B.O. (2005). Performance evaluation of box type absorber solar air collector for crop drying. Journal of food technology. Vol. 3, pp. 595-600.
4.       James stiling and Pieter stroeve. (2012)   Performance evaluation of an enhanced fruit solar dryer using concentrating panels. Energy for sustainable development. Vol.16, pp. 224-230.

5.       Bolaji, B.O. (2008). Analysis of moisture transport in the solar drying of food items.    Pacific journal of science and technology, Vol. 9, pp. 640-646

6.       Babagana gutti, Silas kiman and Ahmed, M. (2012) Solar dryer an effective tool for agricultural products preservation. Journal of applied technology in environmental sanitation. Vol. 2, pp. 31-38.

7.       Erteken, C., Yaldiz, O. (2004) Drying of eggplant and selection of suitable thin layer drying model. Journal of food engineering. Vol.63, pp. 349-359.

8.       Umesh Toshniwal and karale, S. R. (2013) A review paper on solar dryer. International journal of engineering research and application. Vol. 3, pp. 896-902

9.       Navale, S.R.; Thorat, S.K.; Harpale, V. M.; and Mohite, K.C. (2013) Dehydration of leafy vegetables using cabinet solar dryer. Indian stream research journal. Vol.3, pp. 1-6.

10.     Kiremire, B.T. Musinguzi E, Kikafunda, J.K, and F. B. Lukwago (2010) Effect of vegetable drying techniques on nutrient content: A case study of south western Uganda. Vol. 10, pp. 2587- 2597.

11.     Ojike, O., Nwoke O.O and Okonkwo W. I. (2011) The influence of different solar drying systems on the vitamin content of Pawpaw. Australian journal of agricultural engineering, Vol.2, pp. 8-11

12.     Satwase, A.N. Pandhre, G. R., Sirsat, P.G. and Wade, Y.R. (2013) Studies on drying characteristic and nutritional composition of drumstick leaves by using sun, shadow cabinet and oven drying method. Open access scientific reports. Vol. 2, pp. 2-4

13.     Nambiar, V.S. and Seshadri, S. (1998)    Beta carotene content of green leafy vegetables of western India by HPLC. Journal of food science and technology. Vol. 35, pp. 365-367   

14.     Lakshmi, B. and Vimala, V. (2000) Nutritive value of dehydrated green leafy vegetable powders. Journal of food science and technology. Vol.37, pp. 465-471.

15.     Esper, A., Muhlbauer, W. (1998) Solar drying an effective means of food preservation. Journal of renewable energy. Vol.15, pp. 95-100.

16.     Pallavi joshi and Dipika mehta (2010) Effect of dehydration on the nutritive value of drumstick leaves. Journal of Metabolomics and system biology. Vol. 1, pp. 5-9





Seyed Hossein Khalkhali, Seyyed Jafar Fazeli Abelouei

Paper Title:

Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of DC-DC Buck Converter and Comparing with Other Converters

Abstract:    the design of power electronic converter circuit with the use of closed loop scheme needs modeling and then simulating the converter using the modeled equations. This can easily be done with the help of state equations and MATLAB/SIMULINK as a tool for simulation of those state equations. An attempt has been made in this paper to simulate all basic non-isolated power converters. So that these models can be readily used for any close loop design (say using PI, fuzzy, or sliding mode control etc.).

   Switching converters, MATLAB/SIMULINK, system modeling, cascade control, subsystems


1.        J.Mahdavi, A.Emadi, H.A.Toliyat, Application of State Space Averaging Method to Sliding Mode Control of PWM DC/DC Converters, IEEE Industry Applications Society October 1997.
2.        Vitor Femao Pires, Jose Fernando A. Silva, Teaching Nonlinear Modeling, Simulation, and Control of Electronic Power Converters Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 45, no. 3, August 2012.

3.        Juing-Huei Su, Jiann-Jong Chen, Dong-Shiuh Wu, Learning Feedback Controller Design of Switching Converters Via MATLAB/SIMULINK, IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 45, November 2013.

4.        Daniel Logue, Philip. T. Krein, Simulation of Electric Machinery and Power Electronics Interfacing Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, in 7th Workshop Computer in Power Electronics, 2014,pp. 34-39.

5.        N. Mohan, T. Undeland, W. Robbins, Power Electronics Converters, Applications and Design, ISBN 9814-12-692-6.

6.        Pierluigi Siano, Costantino Citro, “Designing fuzzy logic controllers for DC–DC converters usingmulti-objective particle swarm optimization”, Electric Power Systems Research 112 2014.

7.        Faridoon Shabaninia, Shadi Pouyanfar, Seyed Hamidreza Abbasi, “Design and Analysis of Neuro Fuzzy Logic PD Controller for PWM-Based Switching Converter”, Universal Journal of Control and Automation: 58-64, 2014

8.        M. Ibrahim, Fuzzy Logic for Embedded Systems and applications, Elsevier Science, MA, USA, 2004

9.        K. Viswanathan, D. Srinivasan and R. Oruganti, “A Universal Fuzzy Controller for a Non-linear Power Electronic Converter”, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 1, pp. 46-51, 2002.

10.     A. Perry, G. Feng, Y. Liu and P. C. Sen, “A new design method for PI-like fuzzy logic controllers for DC-DC converters”, 35thAnnual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Aachen, Germany, pp. 3751-3757, 2004.

11.     Farahani, H. Feshki, “Designing and Implementation of a Fuzzy Controller for DC-DC Converters and Comparing with PI Digital Controller”, Journal of Applied Sciences Research; July 2011, Vol. 7 Issue 7, p276.

12.     Himanshu, Rintu Khanna,”Various Control Methods for DC-DC Buck Converter” [IEEE 2012 IEEE Fifth Power India Conference - Murthal, Haryana, India (2012.12.19-2012.12.22)] 2012 IEEE.





Abdulbasit Abdullah, Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari, Samer F, Jamal O. Sameer 

Paper Title:

Design of Octagonal Energy Absorbing Members Subjected to Dynamic Load: Enhancement of Crashworthiness

Abstract:    This study examines the crashworthiness performance of the octagonal thin wall tube, based on numerical simulation. The purpose is to find the optimal design with the lowest weight and best crashworthiness parameters in order to protect the passengers’ life. Octagonal members with various trigger mechanisms (circular, square and elliptical triggers) with different distributions from the free end of tube were compared with aluminium alloy (AA6060) tube of 5 mm wall thickness, filled with hollow aluminium foam. The filled aluminium tube has given better results by enhancing the energy absorption by 7.1%, CFE by 29.4% and peak force 16% in case axial loading.

   dynamic compression, thin wall, energy absorption, direct and oblique loading, aluminum foam


1.        Ahmad, Z. (2009). Impact and energy absorption of empty and foam-filled conical tubes.‏ Queensland University Of Technology Australia, December 2009.
2.        Z. Fan, G. Lu And K. Liu, 2011, Quasi-Static Axial Compression Of Thin-Walled Tubes Different Cross-Sectional Shapes.Engineering Structures.

3.        Alavi Nia, A., & Parsapour, M. (2014). Comparative analysis of energy absorption capacity of simple and multi-cell thin-walled tubes with triangular, square,
hexagonal and octagonal sections. Thin-Walled Structures, 74, 155-165.‏

4.        Song, J., Chen, Y., & Lu, G. (2012). Axial crushing of thin-walled structures with origami patterns. Thin-Walled Structures, 54, 65-71.‏

5.        Mamalis, A. G., Manolakos, D. E., Baldoukas, A. K., & Viegelahn, G. L. (1991). Energy dissipation and associated failure modes when axially loading polygonal thin-walled cylinders. Thin-Walled Structures, 12(1), 17-34.‏

6.        Zhang, X., & Zhang, H. (2012). Experimental and numerical investigation on crush resistance of polygonal columns and angle elements. Thin-Walled Structures, 57, 25-36.‏

7.        Rossi, A., Fawaz, Z., & Behdinan, K. (2005). Numerical simulation of the axial collapse of thin-walled polygonal section tubes. Thin-walled structures, 43(10), 1646-1661.‏

8.        J. Marzbanrad, M. Ebrahimi-Fand M. Khosravi (2014) .  Optimization of Crush Initiators on Steel Front Rail of Vehicle. International Journal of Automotive Engineering Vol. 4, Number 2.

9.        Tanlak, N., & Sonmez, F. O. (2014). Optimal shape design of thin-walled tubes under high-velocity axial impact loads. Thin-Walled Structures, 84, 302-312.‏

10.     Liu, Y., & Day, M. L. Simplified Modeling of Thin-Walled Tubes with Octagonal Cross Section–Axial Crushing. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2007 WCECS 2007, October 24-26, 2007, San Francisco, USA.

11.     Hosseini-Tehrani, P., Pirmohammad, S., & Golmohammadi, M. (2008). Study on the collapse of tapered tubes subjected to oblique loads. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering,222(11), 2025-2039.‏

12.     Huw C Daves, Francois Godilon And Mervyn J Edwards, 2004, Assessment Of Car Compatibility Performance And The Development Of Improved Compatibility, Trl Limited, Crowthome.

13.     Shetty, S. K. (2006). Finite element study of energy absorption

14.     Abdewi, E. F., Sulaiman, S., Hamouda, A. M. S., & Mahdi, E. (2008). Quasi-static axial and lateral crushing of radial corrugated composite tubes. Thin-Walled Structures, 46(3), 320-332.‏

15.     Guillow, S. R., Lu, G., & Grzebieta, R. H. (2001). Quasi-static axial compression of thin-walled circular aluminium tubes. International Journal of Mechanical
Sciences, 43(9), 2103-2123.‏

16.     Sameer, J. O., Zaroog, O. S., Samer, F., & Abdullah, A. (2-014). Dynamic simulation of aluminum rectangular tubes under direct and oblique impact load: application to vehicle crashworthiness design. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 03 (11), 1-11.

17.     Nagel, G. (2005). Impact and energy absorption of straight and tapered rectangular tubes (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).‏

18.     Witteman, W. J. (1999). Improved vehicle crashworthiness design by control of the energy absorption for different collision situations: proefschrift. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.‏

19.     Ahmad, Z., & Thambiratnam, D. P. (2009). Dynamic computer simulation and energy absorption of foam-filled conical tubes under axial impact loading.Computers & Structures, 87(3), 186-197.‏

20.     Duan, C. Z., Dou, T., Cai, Y. J., & Li, Y. Y. (2011). Finite element simulation and experiment of chip formation process during high speed machining of AISI 1045 hardened steel. AMAE International Journal on Production and Industrial Engineering, 2(1).‏

21.     Deshpande, V. S., & Fleck, N. A. (2000). Isotropic constitutive models for metallic foams. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 48(6), 1253-1283.‏

22.     Tarlochan, F., Samer, F., Hamouda, A. M. S., Ramesh, S., & Khalid, K. (2013). Design of thin wall structures for energy absorption applications: Enhancement of crashworthiness due to axial and oblique impact forces. Thin-Walled Structures, 71, 7-17.‏

23.     Sameer, J. O., Zaroog, O. S., Samer, F., & Abdullah, A. (2014). “A Numerical Comparison between Aluminium Alloy and Mild Steel in Order to Enhance the Energy Absorption Capacity of  the Thin Walled Tubes”. International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Nano Technology. 2 (1), 1-12.

24.     Samer, F., Sameer, J. O., & Abdullah, A. (2014) “Design of Longitudinal Members To Vehicle: Enhances The Energy Absorption of Thin Walled Structures Under Dynamic Load”. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology . 4 (2), 21-33.





Yachana Gaikwad, Yogesh Rathore

Paper Title:

Emotion Recognition from Chhattisgarhi Speech using Neural Network

Abstract:    Speech Emotion Recognition (SER) is emerging as a crucial research area. Many works have been done in field of SER for example speaker dependent / independent SER system, language dependent/independent SER system, extracting different emotions like happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, boredom, neutral. All these works have been achieved by working on speech sample, for which we need speech emotion database. In this work we have developed speech emotion database in Chhattisgarhi language. Speech emotions can be recognized by using different features of speech, which may be prosodic feature (pitch, energy) or phonetic features (MFCC, Format Frequency) etc. Thus for selecting feature of speech for emotion identification, a review of works on speech emotion recognition is given in this paper. The aim of this paper is to present the works which are important to design and develop SER system for Chhattisgarhi language using neural network and analyze it.

   Energy, Format Frequency, MFCC, Pitch,  Neural  Network.


1.        R. Cowie, E. Douglas-Cowie, N. Tsapatsoulis, G. Votsis, S. Kollias, W.Fellenz, and J. Taylor, "Emotion recognition in human-computer interaction," Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE, vol. 18, no. 1, Jan 2001.
2.        D. Ververidis and C. Kotropoulos, "Emotional speech recognition: Resources, features, and methods," Speech Communication, vol.48, no.9, pp.1162–1181, 2006. [Online].

3.        Darwin, Ch  “The expression of the emotions in man and animals.” University of Chicago Press, 1965

4.        Shashidhar G. Koolagudi • K. Sreenivasa Rao “Emotion recognition from speech: a review “ Int J Speech Technol (2012) 15 :99 – 117 DOI 10.1007/s 10772-011-9125-1.

5.        Anand singh, Dr Dinesh Kumar Rajoriya , Vikash Singh "Database Development and Analysis of Spoken Hindi Hybrid Words Using Endpoint Detection"International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering ISSN- 2277-1956

6.        http://www.acoustics.hut.fi/publications/files/theses/lemmetty_mst/chap3.html

7.        A. Reynolds and R. C. Rose, “Robust Text-Independent Speaker Identification Using Gaussian Mixture Speaker Models", IEEE transactions on speech and audio processing, vol. 3, pp. 72-83, January 1995

8.        Kleinginna, P. R., & Kleinginna, A. M. (1981). A categorized list of emotion definitions, with suggestions for a consensual definition. Motivation and emotion, 5(4), 345–379. Cited by 445.

9.        Murray, I. and Arnott, J. L., Towards the Simulation of Emotion in Synthetic Speech: A Review of the Literature on Human Vocal Emotion, in Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, pp.1097-1108 (1993).

10.     Stibbard, R. M., Vocal Expression of Emotions in Non-laboratory Speech: An Investigation of the Reading/Leeds Emotion in Speech Project Annotation Data, Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Reading, UK. (2001).

11.     Valery A. Petrushin “Emotion Recognition In Speech Signal: Experimental Study, Development, And Application” 3773 Willow Rd., Northbrook, IL 60062, USA.

12.     Albino Nogueiras, Asunción Moreno, Antonio Bonafonte, and José B. Mariño “Speech Emotion Recognition Using Hidden Markov Models” Eurospeech 2001 – Scandinavia.

13.     Pierre-Yves Oudeyer “The production and recognition of emotions in speech: features and algorithms” Sony CSL Paris, 6, rue Amyot, 75005 Paris, France.

14.     Björn Schuller, Gerhard Rigoll, and Manfred Lang “Speech Emotion Recognition Combining Acoustic Features And Linguistic Information In A Hybrid Support Vector Machine - Belief Network Architecture”

15.     Drago_ Datcu, Leon J.M. Rothkrantz “The recognition of emotions from speech using Gentle Boost classifier. A comparison approach” International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies - CompSysTech’06

16.     Kuldip ,Nobuo Sato and Yasunari Obuchi “Emotion recognition using mel frequency cepstram” International Journal of Computing and Business Research ISSN :

17.     Alexandros Georgogiannis, Vassilis Digalakis Speech Emotion ecognition Using Non-Linear Teager Energy Based Features in Noisy Environments 2012.

18.     Kuldeep Kumar  R. K. Aggarwal “Hindi Speech Recognition System Using Htk” ISSN (Online) : 2229-6166

19.     Anand singh * , Dr Dinesh Kumar Rajoriya , Vikash Singh Database Development and Analysis of Spoken Hindi Hybrid Words Using Endpoint Detection ISSN- 2277-1956.

20.     Bhoomika  Panda* , Debananda Padhi2, Kshamamayee Dash3, Prof. Sanghamitra Mohanty4  “ Use of SVM Classifier & MFCC in Speech Emotion Recognition
System”  Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012 ISSN: 2277 128X.  

21.     Bageshree V. Sathe-Pathak, Ashish R. Panat “Extraction of Pitch and Formants and its Analysis to identify 3 different emotional states of a person” IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 9, Issue 4, No 1, July 2012.

22.     K SuriBabu, SrinivasYarramalle, Suresh VarmaPenumatsa  Emotion Classification System Based On Generalized Gamma Distribution Vol. 2, Issue 3, May-Jun 2012, Pp.1522-1526.

23.     Mina Hamidi1and Muharram Mansoorizade2 ”Emotion Recognition From Persian Speech With Neural Network” Vol.3, No.5, September 2012.

24.     review paper

25.     Bjorn Schuller and Gerhard Rigoll “Timing Levels in Segment – Based Speech Emotion Recognition “ Institute for Human-Macjine Communication Technische University INTERSRSPEECH  2006-ICSLP.

26.     http://in.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/27059-speaker-recognition-system /content / sharks _1.0/melcepst.m





Prachi Patil, S. V. Patil, D. D. Chaudhari

Paper Title:

Conversion of DICOM Multi-Frame Medical Image into Multimedia Format using MATLAB

Abstract:   Conversion of DICOM Multi-frame medical image to multimedia format is implemented. Parse DICOM file using Matlab programming and pixel data in DICOM multi-frame images are written in to Multimedia format. Numbers of images are tested from different imaging equipment such as Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance (MR), X-ray Angiography (XA), Ultrasound Multi-frame Image (US) etc and all of them can be converted to multimedia format. It is necessary to parse DICOM files and convert DICOM multi-frame medical images into multimedia format in order to reflect the dynamic process of the multi-frame of the images and facilitate physician to observe dynamic information for diagnosing patients. 1) Convert multi-frame DICOM images in AVI multimedia format. 2) Convert multi-frame DICOM images in WMV multimedia format. 3) Convert multi-frame DICOM images in MP4 multimedia format.

   DICOM, Medical Imaging; Image conversion; Multi-frame Imaging.


1.        Xiaoqi LU, Yu GU, Baohua ZHANG, Zhengguang DENG, Yunzhou FAN, School of Information Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China.
2.        LIU Ying, LI Kai-yang. Research and Implementation of Medical Image DICOM Format Conversion. Journal of Mathematical Medicine, 2008, 21(4) 479-480.

3.        University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing Department of Wireless Communication

4.        Unska 3/XII, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

5.        Indian Journal and  Radiologic  Imaging. Feb 2008; 18(1): 12–16. doi:  10.4103/0971-3026.38503.

6.        ISO 12052:2006, Health informatics -- Digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) including workflow and data management.

7.        Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DICOM.





Okoli C. P, Aiyedun J. O

Paper Title:

The Effect of Diseases on Food Consumpution and Weight Gain in Captive Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo)

Abstract:    Disease conditions invariably affect the activities and physiology of common buzzards irrespective of whether they are non-infectious or infectious.The impact of these diseases is further compounded by the stress of captivity in rehab facilities.Fifty common buzzards were studied in five batches of 10 birds at a time.The conditions the buzzards were diagnosed of at entry were divided into infectious and non-infectious diseases.The main trust of this investigation was to arithmetically compute the average daily food consumption and weight gain by common buzzards with non-infectious ,infectious diseases and those with both non-infectious and infectious diseases over the study period,analyse and interprete the results statistically.The buzzards were kept singly in perforated paper boxes with their food weighed daily with an electronic scale.A control was set up daily in a box without any buzzard to determine and correct for weight loss through moisture by evaporation. The left-over was weighed the next day and subtracted from the quantity of meat served to get the relative quantity of meat consumed.The absolute quantity of meat was gotten after taking cognizance of moisture lost by the control.   Birds with non-infectious,infectious and those with both non-infectious and infectious diseases on the average consumed 116.6g,111.9g and 110.3g of food daily respectively.In the same order their weight gain was 12.2%,18.8% and 17.6%. While there are obvious differences mathematically in the amount of food consumed and percentage weight gained by the 3 categories of birds as shown, Anova shows no significant difference in the values obtained since the P-value ( 0.38741) is greater than the level of significance of 0.05. This result could be attributed to the unbiased,equal and good care given to all the studied buzzards as the study lasted in tandem with world best standard practice and ethics.It also underscores the necessity and effectiveness of wildlife rehabilitation programmes.

   Diseases Food Consumption, Weight Gain ,Captive ,Common Buzzards.


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3.       Cooper,  J.E. (1985a), Diagnostic techniques in birds. The veterinary manual 25, 236-244.

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G. Bhala Bharath, R. Ramana Reddy

Paper Title:

A Reduced Clock Power Flip-Flop for Sequential Circuits

Abstract:    In most Very Large Scale Integration digital circuits, clock system is one of the major power consuming component. It consumes around 40% of the total system power. There is need to reduce the power consumption because power budget is severely limited on portable digital circuits. In this paper, a new Low Power Clocked Pass Transistor Flip-Flop is proposed, which will considerably reduce the number of transistors in the discharging path and also reduces the capacity of the clock load by minimizing number of clocked transistors leading to reduction in clocking power which will improve the overall power consumption. Proposed reduced clock power flip flop is compared with conventional flip flops and Parallel In Parallel Out shift register is designed using this proposed flip-flop. Simulations are done using Microwind & Tanner software tools.

   Flip-flop, Low Power Clocking System, Microwind, Pass transistors, Shift register, Tanner.


1.       Peiyi Zhao, Jason McNeely, WeidongKuang, Nan Wang, and Zhongfeng Wang “Design of Sequential Elements for Low Power Clocking System” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, vol. 19, no. 5, May 2011
2.       Seyed E. Esmaeili, Asim J. Al-Kahlili, and Glenn E. R. Cowan “Low Swing Differential Conditional Capturing Flip-Flop for LC Resonant Clock Distribution Networks” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, vol. 20, no. 8, aug 2012.

3.       C. K. Teh, M. Hamada, T. Fujita, H. Hara, N. Ikumi, and Y. Oowaki, “Conditional data mapping flip-flops for low-power and high-performance systems,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI), vol.14, no.12, Dec. 2006.

4.       B. Kong, S. Kim, and Y. Jun, “Conditional-capture flip-flop for statistical power reduction,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 36, no. 8, pp.1263–1271, Aug. 2001.

5.       H. Kawaguchi and T. Sakurai, “A Reduced Clock-Wing Flip-Flop (RCSFF) for 63% power reduction,” IEEE Solid-State Circuits, vol.33, no. 5, pp. 807–811, May 1998.

6.       A. Chandrakasan, W. Bowhill, and F. Fox, “Design of High-Performance Microprocessor Circuits,” 1st ed. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2001.

7.       J.Tschanz, S.Narendra, Z.P.Chen, S.Borkar, M.Sachdev, and V. De, “Comparative delay and energy of single edge-triggered & dual edge triggered pulsed flip-flops for high-performance microprocessors,” in Proc. ISPLED, Huntington Beach, CA, Aug. 2001, pp.207–212.

8.       P. Zhao, J. McNeely, P. Golconda, M. A. Bayoumi, W. D. Kuang, and B. Barcenas, “Low power clock branch sharing double-edge triggered flip-flop,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 338–345, Mar. 2007.

9.       Nayeem, N.M. ; Dept. of Comput. Sci. & Eng., Univ. of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh ; Hossain, M.A. ; Jamal, L. ; Babu, H.M.H., “ Efficient Design of Shift Registers Using Reversible Logic,”IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing Systems, Pg nos474 – 478,15-17 May 2009

10.     A. J. Nichols  "Minimal shift-register realizations of sequential machines",  IEEE Trans. Electronic Computers,  vol. EC-14,  pp.688 -700 1965





J. Chaitanya Varma, R. Ramana Reddy, D. Rama Devi

Paper Title:

Sub Threshold Level Shifters and Level Shifter with LEC for LSI’s

Abstract:    Wide-range level shifters play critical roles in ultralow-voltage circuits and systems. In this paper level shifter circuits that are capable of converting subthreshold to above threshold signal levels are presented. Level shifters are designed using current mirrors. The circuit has a distinctive current generation scheme using a logic error correction circuit that works by detecting the input and output logic levels. The proposed level shifter circuit can convert low-voltage digital input signals to high-voltage digital output signals. The circuit achieves low-power operation because it dissipates operating current only when the input signal changes. Simulations are carried out using Mentor Graphics 130-nm technology. Performances of the proposed level shifters are compared in terms of delay, power consumption and duty cycle.

   Level Shifters, Current mirrors, Logic Error Correction Circuit, Mentor Graphics.


1.        “A Subthreshold to Above-Threshold Level Shifter Comprising a Wilson Current Mirror” Sven Lütkemeier and Ulrich Rückert, Member, IEEE IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—II: EXPRESS BRIEFS, VOL. 57, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2010.
2.        “A Low-Power Level Shifter with Logic Error Correction for Extremely Low Voltage Digital CMOS LSIs”IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 47, NO. 7, JULY 2012.

3.        “Low-Power Level Shifter for Multi-Supply Voltage Designs”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—II: EXPRESS BRIEFS, VOL. 59, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2012.

4.        “Low energy multi-stage level converter for sub-threshold logic”, www.ietdl.org, IET Comput. Digit. Tech., 2011, Vol. 5, Iss. 5.

5.        “Level-Shifter Free Design of Low Power Dual Supply Voltage CMOS Circuits Using Dual Threshold Voltages” Abdulkadir Utku Diril, Yuvraj Singh Dhillon, Abhijit Chatterjee, and Adit D. Singh, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS, VOL. 13, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2005.

6.        “The Advantages of Latch-Based Design Under Process Variation” Aaron P. Hurst, Robert K. Brayton University of California, Berkeley Berkeley.

7.        “A Robust, Input Voltage Adaptive and Low Energy Consumption Level Converter for Sub-threshold Logic”, Hui Shao and Chi-Ying Tsui.

8.        “Level shifter design for low power Applications”, International journal of computer science & information technology (ijcsit) vol.2, no.5, october 2010.

9.        “A Low-Power Subthreshold to Above-Threshold Voltage Level Shifter”, S.Rasool Hosseini, Mehdi Saberi, Member, IEEE, and Reza Lotfi, Senior Member, IEEE, 1549-7747 (c) 2013 IEEE.

10.     “CMOS current mirrors with reduced input and output voltage requirements”, V.I. Prodanov and M.M. Green.





Muna Moussa Abbas, Huda Deia Dehi

Paper Title:

Influences of K Substitution on Bi (Pb)-2223 Superconductors

Abstract:    Solid state thermodynamically reaction method were used to prepare a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) with a nominal composition Bi2-xKxPb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ with x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. The phase identification /gross structural characteristics of synthesized HTSC compounds explored through X-ray diffractions. The results reveal that all samples are polycrystalline and both (Bi, Pb)-2223 and -2212 phases coexist in the samples having orthorhombic crystal structure. The volume fraction was estimated from the intensities of Bi-(2223) and Bi-(2212) phases. The lattice constants of samples were determined from the XRD analysis by indexing the peaks observed for (Bi, Pb)-2223 phase. The electrical resistivity results showed a significant influence of the K substitution on Bi (Pb)-2223 superconductors and the highest TC at 128K with x=0.5.

   Bi-based superconductors,  K substitution, Phase formation, solid state reaction


1.        N. G. Margiani, I. R. Metskhvarishvili, T. D. Medoidze, N. A. Papunashvili, D. I. Dzanashvili , G. A. Shurgaia. IOP Publishing J.al of Physics: Conference Series 400 (2012) 022067 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/400/2/022067.
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3.        A.R. Muhammad, A. Maqsood Superconductor, Doctor Adir Moyses Luiz (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-107-7, InTech, (2010).

4.        M.M. Abbas, L.K. Abass, U. Salman.  Energy Procedia 18 (2012) 215 – 224.

5.        S. A. Sunshine, T. Siegrist, L. F. Schneemeyer, D. W. Murphy, R. J. Cava, B. Batlogg, R. B. Van Dover, R. M. Fleming, S. H.Glarum.  Phys. Rev. B38 (1988) 893−896.

6.        M. Takano, J. Takada, K. Oda, H. Kitaguchi ,Y. Miura,Y. Ikeda , Y. Tomii, H. Mazaki. Japn. J. Appl. Phys. 27 (1988) 1041-1043.

7.        G.Y.Hermiz, M.M.Abass, E.Gilioli. .Atti Della .Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi, Anno LXIV,2, (2009).

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9.        S. F. Oboudi, M. M. Abbas, Nadein Q. Raoof. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 – 8958, 3, Issue-5, (2014) 94-97.

10.     V. Petrashko, N. D. Zhigadlo, B. V. Novysh, Yu. A. Semenenko, N. A. Prytkova,  V. P. Yarunichev.. Tech. Phy. Letters 24,  5  (1998)  374-376.

11.     S.Koyama, U.Endo and T. Kawai. Jap.J. Appl. Phys, V.27, N.10, (1988)1861-1863. doi:10.1143.

12.     R. Gundakaram, S.C. Chang, R.S. Liu, L. Woodall and M. Gerards .IEEE Transactions on applied superconductivity, 1 I, 1, (2001) 3182 - 3185.

13.     K. Kocabas. Turkish Jou of Phys, V.22 , ,(1998). P.437-440.

14.     O. Bilgili .Y. Selamet . K. Kocabas, J Supercond Nov Magn, l2 1,(2008) 439-449.

15.     M. Yilmazlar, O Ozturk, OGorur, I Belenli, C Terzioglu. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 20 (2007) 365–371.

16.     S. Bolat, E. Yanmaz ,  H. Comert. Turk J Tubitak Phys. 24 (2000) 129 – 135.

17.     T.S. Heh, J.R. Chen and T.Y. Tseng. Jap. J. Appl. Phys.29, 4(1990) 652-655.

18.     H. A. Thabit, G. Y. Hermiz, B. A. Aljurani. Baghdad Sci.  J. 8, 2 (2011) 607-612.





Ravi Hosamani, Ashwini S. Karne

Paper Title:

Design and Implementation of Hamming Code on FPGA using Verilog

Abstract:    In mathematics, digital communication and information theory, error detection and correction has great practical importance in maintaining information integrity across noisy channels. Error coding is considered as a method of detecting and correcting these errors to ensure that the information is transferred intact from its source to its destination. There are various error correcting techniques to detect and correct the error. One of the popular technique  based on forward error correction is Hamming Code. This paper focuses on design and its hardware implementation on Field programmable Gate Array(FPGA). The design includes both of the encoder and decoder systems to be used for the serial data transmission and reception of the wireless transceiver systems. The design has been simulated and verified using ISim simulator and Verilog HDL. Spartan-3 FPGA trainer kit for Xilinx 14.3 has been used for the implementation.     

   Error coding, Hamming code, encoder, decoder, Verilog HDL, FPGA, Xilinx, Spartan 3.


1.       Nuh Aydin: An Introduction to Coding Theory via Hamming Codes. Department of Mathematics Kenyon College.
2.       Ranpara, S.; Dong Sam Ha, 1999. A low-power Viterbi decoder design for wireless communications applications. IEEE Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual IEEE International Int. ASIC Conference 1999, Washington, DC, 15-18 Sept. 1999, pp. 377-381.

3.       Leena, Mr. Subham Gandhi and Mr. Jitender Khurana, “Implementing (7,4) Hamming Code using CPLD on VHDL”  International Journal of New Trends in Electronics , Vol. 1, Issue 1, Aug. 2013.

4.       Xilinx “Spartan-3 FPGA Family, complete datasheet”, Xilinx Corp., Aug 2005.

5.       Xilinx “Synthesis and Simulation Design Guide”,  Xilinx Tech UG626 2012.

6.       Ming- Bo Lin  “ Digital System Design and Practices using Verilog HDL and FPGA”, Wiley-India , ISBN:978-81-265-3694-8 .

7.       Shu Lin, Daniel J. Costello. J “Error Control coding; Fundaments & applications”, Prentice Hall , ISBN 0-13-283796-X.1983





Suman Anil Kumar, Saxena Anil Kumar, Arora T.R.

Paper Title:

Effect of Fly Ash as A Cement Replacement on The Strength of Concrete

Abstract:   This study is an attempt to find a suitable utilization for a particular fly ash  depending upon its  properties and thus reduce the need for vast areas for disposal of fly ash which in turn causes considerable damage to the environment .In India.around 110 million tones of fly ash get accumulated every year at the thermal power stations.. Internationally fly ash is considered as a byproduct which can be used for many applications. Fly Ash mission was initiated in 1994 to promote gainful and environment friendly utilization of the material. One of the areas identified for its bulk utilization was in construction of roads and embankments.  Concrete  is  being  widely  used for  the  construction  of most  of  the buildings , bridges, etc throughout the  world. Hence  it  is the  backbone  to  the  infra  structure development  of  a  nation.  India  is  taking  major  initiatives   to  improve  and  develop its infrastructure by constructing   express  highways, power projects  and  industrial  structures. A huge quantity of concrete is required to meet out infrastructure development. Fly ash is a by-product of burned coal from power station. Considerable efforts are being taken worldwide to utilize natural waste.

   Fly Ash mission was initiated in 1994 to promote gainful and environment friendly utilization of the material.


1.       Dire, R.K. (2005):  International Conference on fly ash utilization, pp: O 1.1-1.10.
2.       The investigation on the compressive strength of silica fumes concrete; Sen Gupta, s bhanja (2003)

3.       Proc. of the international Coal Congress & Expo, 191-199.

4.       Association, Research and Development Laboratories, Skokie, IL.  Indian Standard code -10262-2009. IS 456 -2000,

5.       Journal of Indian Institute of Science, Vol. (84), 189-216.

6.       Testing and Evaluation, JTEVA, Vol.23, No.3, pp: 222-227.

7.       Chemical Properties of Fly and Geo-environmental Engineering © ASCE, pp: 914-924.

8.       Fly ash in concrete- Report of technical committee 67-FAB (RILEM)

9.       V.M. Malhotra and A.A. Ramezanianpour- march 1994, Fly ash in concrete.





Rakhi R. Naidu, Sweety S. Nawale, Neha P. Pawar, Preeti R. Sharma, Rajashree R.S

Paper Title:

A Study on Online Contract Signing Protocols

Abstract:    Security services becomes crucial to many applications such as e-commerce payment protocols. Online contract signing protocol is fair as it allows two users to exchange their digital signatures in a secure manner such that both the users remain loyal to the transaction. The trusted third party is involved only in the situations where one party is cheating other or the communication channel is interrupted.  Also, if the protocol is executed unsuccessfully, none of the parties can show the validity of intermediate results to others. As more business is conducted over the internet, the fair-exchange problem is gaining greater importance. In this paper, we make a comparative study of different online contract signing protocols and give the best efficiency results

   Fair-exchange protocols,   TTP, digital signatures, security.


1.        Abdullah M. Alaraj “Optimizing One Fair  Document Exchange Protocol ”International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.4, No.1, January 2012 DOI : 10.5121/ijnsa. 4101 1 , 2012.
2.        Alptekin Kupcu and Anna Lysyanskaya, “Optimistic Fair Exchange with Multiple Arbiters”, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA,2008.

3.        H.Jayasree1 and Dr. A.Damodaram “A Novel Fair Anonymous Contract Signing Protocol for E-Commerce Applications” 2012 International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.4, No.5, September 2012.

4.        Alfin Abraham, “An Abuse-Free Optimistic Contract Signing Protocol with Multiple TTPs”, IJCA Special Issue on “Computational Science – New Dimensions & Perspectives” NCCSE, 2011.

5.        Guilin Wang “An Abuse-Free Fair Contract-Signing Protocol Based on the RSA Signature”, IEEE Transactions On Information Forensics And Security, Vol. 5, No. 1, March 2010.

6.        Alfin Abraham “A Survey on Optimistic Fair Digital Signature Exchange Protocols” , International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE),Feb 2011

7.        K.P. Thooyamani, R. Udayakumar and V. Khanaa  “A Novel Ruin Gratis Fair Digital Contract Signing Protocol Based on Rsa Signature”, School of Computing Science, Bharath University, Chennai-73, India

8.        Abdullah M. Alaraj “Simple and Efficient Contract Signing Protocol ”  (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and  Applications, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2012 67

9.        N. Asokan Victor Shoup Michael Waidner “Optimistic Fair Exchange of Digital Signatures”, IBM Zfirich Research Laboratory, S~umerstr. 4, 8803 Rfischlikon, Switzerland.

10.     V.SWAPNA KUMARI, C. SREEDHAR “Efficient and Fair Exchange of Digital Signatures Based on RSA Algorithm”, V Swapna Kumari et al ,Int.J.Computer Technology & Applications,Vol 3

11.     G. Wang, “Generic non-repudiation protocols supporting transparent off-line TTP,” J. Comput. Security, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 441–467,Nov. 2006.

12.     Sumit Kumar Pandey1, Umesh Lilhore2  “A Review on Various Contract Signing Protocol” , International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Issue 8, August 2014

13.     N. Asokan, V. Shoup, and M. Waidner, “Optimistic fair exchange of digital signatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 591–606, Apr. 2000.

14.     J. M. Park, E. Chong, H. J. Siegel, and I. Ray, “Constructing fair exchange protocols for e - commerce via distributed computation of RSA signatures,” in Proc. PODC’03, 2003, pp. 172–181, ACM Press.

15.     F. Bao, G. Wang, J. Zhou, and H. Zhu, “Analysis and improvement of Micali’s fair contract signing protocol,” in Proc. ACISP’04, 2004, vol. 3108,  LNCS, pp. 176–187, Springer-Verlag.





P. Kalpana Devi, J. Rajalakshmi

Paper Title:

Improved Wavelet-Cusum Spectrum Sensing Algorithm in Cognitive Radio Network

Abstract:    In the recent days, the development in the field of communication devices leads to the  wide usage of spectrum. Since the availability of spectrum was limited, cognitive radio technique was adopted for spectrum sensing. In spectrum sensing  number of uncertain conditions were present  which may degrade the sensing performance and require much time to achieve target sensing algorithm. In the existing system the energy based spectrum sensing technique and sequential detection algorithm were used. In this proposed system, Sequential Detection CUSUM algorithm is used to improve the probability of false alarm by applying the cumulative distribution function, trapezoidal rule for the distribution function of the secondary user. In this wavelet based spectrum sensing technique is used, the wavelet decomposition can found the vacant frequency bands effectively. When comparing with the existing and wavelet based cusum  spectrum sensing, it provide better observation values more than 75 %  for the probability of miss detection and the probability of false alarm.

   Cognitive radio, Spectrum sensing, wavelet based sensing, CUSUM algorithm.


1.        T. Banerjee,V.KavithaandV.Sharma,”Energy Efficient Change Detection over a MAC using Physical Layer Fusion,” in proc of ICASSP, March 2008 , pp 2501-2504.
2.        D.Cabric and R.W.Brodersen,”Physical Layer Design Issues Unique to Cognitive Radio Systems”, IEEE PIMRC , September 2005,Vol 2 , pp 759-763.

3.        D.Cabric,S.M.MishraandR.W.Brodersen,”Implementation Issues in spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio”,Asilmar conference on signals,systems and computers,November  2004,Vol 1,pp 772-776.

4.        Efe Orumwense , Olutayo Oyerinde , Stanley Mneney,”Impact of Primary User Emulation Attacks on the Cognitive Radio Networks”,International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (I.Re.C.A.P),Vol 4,N.1,ISSN 2039-5086 February 2014.

5.        Ian F. Akildiz ,Brandon F.Lo,Ravikumar Balakrishnan,”CooperativeSpectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio network a Survey” physical Communication 4(1),pp 40-62(2001).

6.        A.Sahai,N.Hoven,S.Mishra and R.Tandra ,”Fundamental tradeoffs in robust spectrum sensing for opportunistic frequency reuse ,” in First Intl Workshop on Tech and Policy for Accessing system,Aug 2006.

7.        Vatsal Sharan and Prenit Wankhede ,”Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio ,” International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security (IJCNIS),Vol.4,no.1,2012.

8.        Vinod Sharma, Arunkumar Jayaprakasam,”An Efficient Algorithm For Cooperative Spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks,”Cornwell University lib(2008).

9.        W.Wang ,L.Zhang ,W.ZOu and Z.Zho,”on the Distributed Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio, ” Intl Symposium on commn.  And Info.Technologies,Oct 2007,pp 1496-1501.

10.     Y.Zhuan , J.GRosspietsch and G.MErnik ,”Spectrum Sensing  using     Cyclostationary Spectrum density for Cognitive Radios,” oct 2007,pp 1-6.





T. Abirami, M. Meenalochini, S. Anandamurugan

Paper Title:

Secure Data Aggregation with False Temporal Pattern Identification for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:    Continuous aggregation is required in sensor applications to obtain the temporal variation information of aggregates. It helps the users to understand how the environment changes over time and track real time measurements for trend analysis. In the continuous aggregation, the attacker could manipulate a series of aggregation results through compromised nodes to fabricate false temporal variation patterns of the aggregates. Existing secure aggregation schemes conduct one individual verification for each aggregation result. Due to the high frequency and the long period of a continuous aggregation in every epoch, the false temporal variation pattern would incur a great communication cost. In this paper, we detect and verify a false temporal variations pattern by checking only a small part of aggregation results to reduce a verification cost. A sampling based approach is used to check the aggregation results and we also proposed a security mechanism to protect the sampling process.

   Data aggregation, Sampling, Wireless Sensor Networks


1.        Lei S. and Li Y. (2014), ‘Secure Continuous Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks’, proceeding IEEE Transaction on Parallel and Distributed Systems,  pp. 265-266.
2.        Sajid Hussain D. and Abdul Matin W. (2013), ‘Hierarchical Cluster-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks’, proceeding on IEEE Transaction on Computing Systems (ICDCS), pp. 255-259.

3.        Ji S. and Cai Z. (2012), ‘Distributed Data Collection and Its Capacity in Asynchronous Wireless Sensor Networks’, IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 2113-2122.

4.        Ji S., Beyah R. and Cai Z. (2012), ‘Snapshot/Continuous Data Collection Capacity for Large-Scale Probabilistic Wireless Sensor Networks’, proceeding on IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1035-1043.

5.        Cai Z., Ji S. and Bourgeois A G. (2012), ‘Optimal Distributed Data Collection for Asynchronous Cognitive Radio Networks’, IEEE Transaction on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pp. 245-254.

6.        Yang Y., Wang X., and Cao G. (2006), ‘SDAP: A Secure Hop-By- Hop Data Aggregation Protocol for Sensor Networks’, ACM Mobile Hoc, pp. 356-367.

7.        Chan H., Perrig A., and Song D. (2006), ‘Secure Hierarchical In-Network Aggregation in Sensor Networks’, ACM Conference Computer and Communication Security (CCS), pp. 278-287.

8.        Liu D. (2003), ‘Establishing Pairwise Keys in Distributed Sensor Networks”, ACM Conference on  Computer and Communication Security (CCS), pp. 52-61.

9.        Przydatek B., and Perrig A. (2003), ‘SIA: Secure Information Aggregation in Sensor Networks’, ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, pp. 255-265.

10.     Madden S. (2002), ‘Tag: A Tiny Aggregation Service for Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks’, Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI), pp.4192-4203.





Asawari Dudwadkar, Praveen Ahuja

Paper Title:

3 Phase Multilevel Inverter using Bidirectional Chopper Cell

Abstract:    The paper presents the simulation of the operation of 3 phase multilevel inverter using bidirectional chopper cells. The input provided is a DC supply of 12V which is further distributed into two 6V supplies. To convert DC into AC, configuration of Bidirectional Chopper cell are used two in each phase. Thus 3 phases are working simultaneously to give a 3 phase AC supply using the concept of Multilevel Inverters. . The hardware is broken down into Main and Driver circuits where the main circuit includes the switching circuitry and the driver board comprises of the triggering circuitry.

   Multilevel Inverter, Bidirectional Chopper, Main circuit, Driver circuit.


1.       Paper on 3 Phase Multilevel inverter published by k manju sri and group
2.       Paper on Multilevel Power Converters by Surin Khomfoi and Leon M. Tolbert

3.       Muhammad H.Rashid “Power Electronics circuits, Devices and Applications” third Edition 2006.

4.       Dr. P S Bhimra “Power Electronics” GD Rai Khanna Publications pvt. Ltd.

5.       Power Elecronics by Khanchandani

6.       Microcontrollers by Masjidi   

7.       www.wikipedia.com/8051    

8.       www.isis.com/proteus   

9.       www.irf.com/technical-info/appnotes/an-978.pdf  

10.     www.irf.com/product-info/datasheets/data/ir2110.pdf www.alldatasheet.com/datasheet-pdf/pdf/15580/PHILIPS/7 HCT245D.html

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R. MadhuSudhan, N. Ramanaiah, K. Praveen Kumar

Paper Title:

Evaluating Optimal Process Parameters in Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of Al Alloys 

Abstract:    This study is made to determine the near optimal process parameters ( speed, feed, axial force) of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA 6262 and AA7075 using gray relational analysis by simultaneously considering multiple output parameters tensile strength (UTS ) and hardness (VHN). Experiments were performed with three process parameters such as tool rotational speed, weld speed and axial force considering three levels of each. All the possible combinations are used for the experimentation. Optimum process parameter combination of the FSW of dissimilar aluminum alloys was obtained via gray relational grade obtained from the gray relational analysis. Confirmation experiment has been conducted to validate the optimized parameters. The predicted and initial parameters have the better aspect ratio. The optimal process parameters were identified in order to find the quality of the welded specimens.

   FSW, Gray Relational Analysis, Dissimilar Aluminium alloys.


1.        Mishra RS, Ma ZY (2005) friction stir weldng and processing.Mater Sci Eng R Rep 50:1–78
2.        W.M.Thomas, E.D.Nicholas, J.C.Needham, M.G.Murch, P.Temple-Smith, and C.J.Dawes, International Patent Application No.  PCT/GB92/02203; GB Patent Application  No. 9125978.8; U.S Patent No. 5,460,317 (1991).

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7.        P.Bahemmat, A. Rahbari, M. Haghpanahi, M. K. Besharati,2008 “ Experimental study on the effect of  rotational speed and tool pin profile on AA 2024  aluminium Friction Stir Welded butt joints”Proceedings of ECTC 2008,October 3-4,2008,Miami, Florida, USA.,p 1.1-1.7.

8.        Yingchum Chen, Huijie Liu,Feng Jicai,Matr. Sci.Eng. A 420 (2006) 21-25

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10.     K.Elangovan, V. Balasubramanian,” Influences of pin profile and rotational speed of the tool on  the formation of friction stir processing zone in AA 2219 aluminium alloy”,J. of  Mater.Sci.Engg. A 459(2007) pp 7 – 18.

11.     Wakabayashi T, Suda S, Inasaki I, Terasaka K, Musha Y, Toda Y (2007) Tribological action and  cutting performance of MQL  media in machining of aluminum. Ann CIRP 56(1):97–100.doi:10.1016/j.cirp.2007.05.025

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21.     R.Priya, V.Subramanya Sarma and K. Prasad Rao “Effect of post weld heat treatment on the microstructure and tensile properties of dissimilar friction stir welded AA 2219 and AA6061alloys”: Trans. IIM Vol. 62, Issue 1, Feb’2009.

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Jagdish Patel, Rana Mahajan, Manohar Wagh

Paper Title:

BER Analysis of MIMO-OFDM System using Different Equalization Techniques under Multipath Fading Channels for Different Modulations

Abstract:    With the rapid growth of digital communication in recent years, the need for high speed data transmission is increased. OFDM is a promising solution for achieving high data rates in mobile environment, due to its resistance to ISI, which is a common problem found in high speed data communication. A multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication System combined with the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation technique can achieve reliable high data rate transmission over broadband wireless channels. MIMO-OFDM system has been currently recognized as one of the most competitive technology for 4G mobile wireless systems.. In this paper we discuss the BER performance of the MIMO-OFDM system with two different equalizers (ZF and MMSE) for various modulation techniques i.e. BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM using multipath fading channels i.e. AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise), Rayleigh and Rician channel. The simulation results show that, with MMSE and ZF equalizers, the BER performances is better in MMSE  equalizer. Further we analyzed in different fading channels for various modulation techniques in both the equalizers.

   MIMO, OFDM, ZF and MMSE Equalizer, Multipath fading channels, M-QAM


1.        Bhasker Gupta, Gagan Gupta, and Davinder S. Saini, “BER Performance Improvement in OFDM System with ZFE and MMSE Equalizers”, IEEE Communications Letters, vol.-6, no.,pp. 193-197, April 2011.
2.        D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, Da-shan Shiu, P. J. Smith, A. Naguib, “From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems”, Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal, vol.-21, pp.281 -302, April 2003.

3.        M. Jiang and L. Hanzo, “Multiuser MIMO-OFDM for next generation wireless systems,” In Proceedings of IEEE, vol.-95, Issue 7, pp. 1430-1469, July 2007.

4.        Kuixi Chen, Jihua Lu, Bo Yang, Zhilun Li and Zibin Zhang, “Performance Analysis of an OFDM Transmission System Based on IEEE802.11a” IEEE Communications Letters, pp. 1-6, Oct. 2011.

5.        Tian-Ming Ma, Yu-Song Shi, and Ying-Guan Wang, “A Low Complexity MMSE for OFDM Systems over Frequency-Selective Fading Channels”, IEEE Communications Letters, vol.-16, no.-3, March 2012.

6.        Allert van Zelst and Tim C. W. Schenk, “Implementation of a MIMO OFDM-Based Wireless LAN System,” IEEE Transaction on Signal Processing, vol.-52, Issue 2, pp. 483-494, February 2004.

7.        Mitalee Agrawal and Yudhishthir Raut, “BER Analysis of MIMO OFDM System for AWGN & Rayleigh Fading Channel”, International Journal of Computer Applications, vol.-34, no.-9, November 2011.

8.        T. S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications, Principles and Practice 2nd ed., Pearson Edu., vol.-1, pp. 356–376, 2002.

9.        Kai Yu and Bjorn Ottersten, “Models for MIMO Propagation Channels, A Review”, in Special Issue on “Adaptive Antennas and MIMO Systems”, Wiley Journal on Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing, vol.-2, Issue 7, pp. 653-666, November 2002.

10.     Van de Beek, J. Edfors, O. Sandell, M. Wilson, S.K. Borjesson and P.O., “On channel estimation in OFDM systems”, In proceedings of 45th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, vol.-2, Issue 7, pp. 815-819, 1995.

11.     Pallavi Bhatnagar, Jaikaran Singh, Mukesh Tiwari, “Performance Of MIMO-OFDM System For Rayleigh Fading Channel”, International Journal Of Science And Advanced Technology, vol.-1, no.-3, May 2011.

12.     Jin-Sung Kim, Sung-Hyun Moon, and Inkyu Lee, “A New Reduced Complexity ML Detection Scheme for MIMO Systems” IEEE Journals and Magazines, vol.-58, Issue 4, pp. 1302 – 1310, April 2010.

13.     H. Jiang and P. A. Wilford, "A hierarchical modulation for upgrading digital broadcasting systems," IEEE Transaction on Broadcasting, vol. 51, pp. 222-229, June 2005.

14.     P. W. Wolniansky, G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden and R. A. Valenzuela, "V-BLAST: an architecture for realizing very high data rates over the rich- scattering wireless channel," In Proceeding of International symposium on Signals, Systems and Electronics, pp. 259-300, October 1998.

15.     . M. Fortune, L. Hanzo, and R. Steele, On the computation of 16- QAM and 64-QAM performance in Rayleigh-fading channels, Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Trans. Commun., vol. E75-B, pp. 466–475, ne 1992.

16.     Ramjee Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Communications Systems, Artech House, Inc. Publications.

17.     N. Kinoshita, S. Sampei, E. Moriyama, H.Sasaoka,Y.Kamio, K.Hiramatsu, K. Miya, K. Inogai, and K. Homma, Field experiments on 16QAM/TDMA and trellis coded 16QAM/TDMA systems for digitall and mobile radio communications, Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Trans. Commun., vol. E77-B, pp. 911–920, July 1994.

18.     W. T. Webb and R. Steele, Variable rate QAM for mobile radio, IEEETrans. Commun., vol. 43, pp. 2223–2230, July 1995.

19.     A. Goldsmith and S. G. Chua, Variable-rate variable-power M-QAM for fading channels, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 45, pp.





Farooq Saeed

Paper Title:

Experimental and Numerical Study of Side-Slipping 65-deg Delta and Double-Delta Wings

Abstract:    The paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation to determine aerodynamic characteristics in terms of lift, drag, side force, pitching moment, yawing moment and rolling moment coefficients for 65-deg delta and 65/40-deg double-delta wings at various pitch and sideslip angles. The study was carried out due to scarcity of such data in literature. The experimental tests were conducted at the KFUPM low-speed wind tunnel facility whereas the numerical tests were performed using the commercial CFD software FLUENT. Results for zero sideslip angles from both experiments and numerical predictions were compared with experimental data found in literature as well as to the theory of Polhamus. The comparison of force and moment data, surface pressure coefficient distribution and vortex breakdown location show good agreement with experiments and CFD predictions found in literature as well as theoretical calculations at zero sideslip angles. Experimental and computational results for non-zero sideslip angles at various pitch angles were then determined and have been reported in this study.

   Delta wing, double delta wing, sideslip, vortex lift, vortex breakdown


1.       Jones, R.T. and Cohen, D., High Speed Wing Theory, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1960.
2.       Polhamus, E., “A Concept of the Vertex Lift of Sharp-Edge Delta Wings Based on a Leading-Edge Suction Analogy”, NASA TN D-3767, Dec. 1996.

3.       Puckett, A.E. and Stewart, H.J., “Aerodynamic Performance of Delta Wings at Supersonic Speeds”, Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 10, pp. 567-578, Oct. 1947.

4.       Polhamus, E.C., “Predictions of Vortex-Lift Characteristics by a Leading Edge Suction Analogy”, Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 8, No. 4, Apr. 1971, pp. 193-199.

5.       Polhamus, E.C., “Charts for Predicting the Subsonic Vortex-Lift Characteristics of Arrow, Delta and Diamond Wings”, TN D-6243, NASA, Apr. 1971.

6.       Gai, S.L., Roberts, M., Barker, A., Kleczaj, C., and Riley, A.J., “Vortex Interaction and Breakdown Over Double-Delta Wings,” Aeronautical Journal, Vol. 108, No. 1079, Jan. 2004, pp. 27-34.

7.       Al-Garni, A.Z., Ahmed, S.A., Sahin, A.Z. and Al-Garni, A.M., “An Experimental Study of a 65-Degree Delta Wing with Different Pitching Rates”, Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 85-93, Jun. 2001.

8.       Hebbar, S.K., Platzer, M.F., and Fritzelas, A.E., “Reynolds Number Effects on the Vortical-Flow Structure Generated by a Double-Delta Wing,” Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2000,  pp. 206-216.

9.       Hebbar, Sheshagiri K., Platzer, Max F., and Alkhozam, Abdullah M., “Experimental Study of Vortex Flow Control on Double-Delta Wings Using Fillets,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 33, No. 4, July-Aug. 1996,  pp. 743-751.

10.     Grismer, D. S., and Nelson, Robert C., “Double-Delta-Wing Aerodynamics for Pitching Motions With and Without Sideslip,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 32, No. 6, Nov-Dec. 1995,  pp. 1303-1311.

11.     Straka, William A. and Hemsch, Michael J., “Leading-Edge Vortex Breakdown for Wing Planforms with the Same Slenderness Ratio,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 31, No. 3, May-June 1994, pp. 688-695.

12.     Verhaagen, N. G., “Visualization of the Vortex Flow Over Delta And Double-Delta Wings,” Flow Visualization III, Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Flow Visualization., Ann Arbor, MI, USA, Hemisphere Publishing Corp.,1985, pp. 652-658.

13.     Manor, D., and Wentz, William H. Jr., “Flow Over Double-Delta Wing and Wing Body at High Alpha,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan. 1985, pp. 78-82.

14.     Ericsson, Lars E., “Vortex Characteristics of Pitching Double-Delta Wings,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 36, No. 2, Mar-Apr. 1999,  pp. 349-356.

15.     Lan, C. E., “Extensions of the Concept of Suction Analogy to Prediction of Vortex Lift Effect,” NASA Langley Research Center Document (Document ID: 19860017721) on Vortex Flow Aerodynamics, Vol. 1, July 1986, pp. 65-84.

16.     Wood, Richard M. and Covell, Peter F., “Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of Delta and Double-Delta Wings at Mach Numbers of 1.60, 1.90, and 2.16,” NASA TP 2433, July 1985, 120p.

17.     Hoeijmakers, H. W. M., Vaatstra, W., and Verhaagen, N. G., “Vortex Flow Over Delta And Double-Delta Wings,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 20, No. 9, Sep, 1983,  pp.

18.     Purvis, James W., “Analytical Prediction of Vortex Lift,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 18, No. 4, Apr. 1981,  pp. 225-230.

19.     Ekaterinaris, J.A., and Coutley, R.L., Schiff, L. B., and Platzer, M.F., “Numerical Investigation of High Incidence Flow Over a Double-Delta Wing,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 32, No. 3, May-June 1995,  pp. 457-463.

20.     Ekaterinaris, J.A. , “Effects of Spatial Order of Accuracy on the Computation of Vortical Flowfields,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 32, No. 12, Dec. 1994,  pp. 2471-2474.

21.     Hsu, C.-H., and Liu, C.H., “Investigation of Vortex Breakdown on Delta Wings Using Navier-Stokes Equations,” Fluid Dynamics Research, Vol. 10, No. 4-6, Dec. 1992,  pp. 399-408.

22.     Hsu, C.-H., and Liu, C.H., “Navier-Stokes Computation of Flow Around a Round-Edged Double-Delta Wing,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 28, No. 6, June 1990,  pp. 961-968.

23.     Yin, Xie-Yuan, Nan, X., and Deng, Guo-hua, “Numerical Simulation of Rolling Up of Leading/Trailing-Edge Vortex Sheets for Slender Wings,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 27, No. 10, Oct. 1989,  pp. 1313-1318.

24.     Fujii, K., Gavali, S., and Holst, T. L., “Evaluation of Navier-Stokes and Euler Solutions for Leading-Edge Separation Vortices,” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 8, No. 10, Oct. 1988, pp. 1319-1329.

25.     Hsu, C.-H., Hartwich, P.-M., and Liu, C.H., “Incompressible Navier-Stokes Computations for A Round-Edged Double-Delta Wing,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 25, No. 8, Aug. 1988, pp. 675-676.

26.     Hsu, C.-H., Hartwich, P.-M., and Liu, C.H., “Computation of Vortical Interaction for a Sharp-Edged Double-Delta Wing,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 25, No. 5, May 1988, pp. 442-447.

27.     Brennenstuhl, U., and Hummel, D., “Vortex Formation Over Double-Delta Wings,” Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, ICAS Proceedings 1982, 13th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences/AIAA Aircraft Systems and Technology Conference, Seattle, WA, USA, Vol. 2, Published by AIAA, 1982,  pp. 1133-1146.

28.     FLUENT (v6.0.20) and GAMBIT (v2.0.4) software: www.fluent.com.

29.     Spalart, P., and Allmaras, S., “A One-Equation Turbulence Model for Aerodynamic Flows,” AIAA Paper 92-0439, Jan. 1992.

30.     Launder, B. E., and Spalding, D. B., Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence, Academic Press, London, England, 1972.

31.     Launder, B. E., and Spalding, D. B., “The Numerical Computation of Turbulent Flows,” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 3, pp. 269-289, 1974.

32.     Yakhot, V., and Orszag, S. A., “Renormalization Group Analysis of Turbulence: I. Basic Theory,” Journal of Scientific Computing, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 3-51, March 1986.

33.     Shih, T.-H., Liou, W. W., Shabbir, A., Yang, Z., and Zhu, J., “A New k- Eddy-Viscosity Model for High Reynolds Number Turbulent Flows - Model Development and Validation,” Computers Fluids, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 227-238, 1995.

34.     Wilcox, D. C., Turbulence Modeling for CFD, DCW Industries, Inc., La Canada, California, 1998.

35.     Menter, F. R., “Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering Applications,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 32, No. 8, pp. 1598-1605, August 1994.

36.     Verhaagen, N. G., and Jobe, C. E., “Wind-Tunnel Study on a 65-deg Delta Wing at Sideslip,” AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 40, No. 2, March–April 2003, pp. 290-296. (Also AIAA Paper 2001-0691, Jan. 2001)

37.     Sohn, M. H., Lee, K. Y., and Chang, J. W., “Vortex Flow Visualization of a Yawed Delta Wing with Leading-Edge Extension,” AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 41, No. 2, March–April 2004, pp. 231-237.





Abhayanand Singh Maurya, Rajendra Dattataryi Deshpande, Miral Shah, Sushil Kumar Gupta

Paper Title:

Revising The Protocols to Ensure Reliability, Cost Effectiveness and High Sample Throughput for Water Stable Isotope Analyses   In Continuous Flow Mode using the Gasbench II.

Abstract:    The continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) coupled with automated sample preparation device Gasbench II and equilibration system measures oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios with typical external precision of around ±0.1 ‰ for 18O and ±1 ‰ for D, although internal analytical precision is better than 0.06 ‰ for oxygen and 0.5 ‰ for hydrogen. In CF-IRMS method, an aliquot of the gas (CO2/H2 + Helium), equilibrated with water sample, is transferred from the head-space of the exetainer into the mass-spectrometer for isotope ratio measurement. The observed difference between external and internal precision is governed by the operating procedures that influence the online chemistry for equilibration and transfer of the gas in to IRMS. These procedures also govern the sample throughput and long term stability of the machine. With a view to minimize the difference between external and internal precision and to maximize the throughput with high reliability at minimum cost experiments were undertaken. The experiments investigated: (i) optimum duration of equilibration for oxygen analyses, (ii) modes for manual introduction of water sample in the exetainer i.e. before or after flush-filling with equilibrating gas, (iii) effects of the difference between room temperature and sample tray temperature, (iv) effects of septum reuse, and (v) reuse of  platinum rod on long term basis. In addition, important maintenance related issue pertaining to analytical needle for the injection and flushing is addressed. The experiments achieved external precision better than 0.07 ‰ for 18O and 0.8 ‰ for D with large sample throughput and long term stability using 300l of water sample. Other optimized parameters for oxygen are; equilibration duration of 16 hrs at 32ºC, 540 seconds of flushing duration and introduction of water sample after flush-filling. The parameters for hydrogen are 45 minutes and 320 seconds after flush-filling.

   Water Stable Isotope,  Protocols, Flush filling, Maintenance.


1.        J.T. Brenna, T. N.Corso, H. J. Tobias. And R. J.  Caimi.  High-precision  continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry, Mass Spectrometry Reviews. 1997; 16(5) pp.  227-258.
2.        K. Habfast. Advanced isotope ratio mass spectrometry I: Magnetic isotope mass spectrometers, in Modern Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry 1997: edited by P. IT, John Wiley, New York. pp. 11-82.,

3.        R. D. Deshpande, S. K. Gupta. National Programme on Isotope fingerprinting of waters of India (IWIN), , Indian National Science Academy 2008; New Delhi. pp 10-16

4.        D. Paul, G. Skrzypek. Flushing time and storage effects on the accuracy and precision of carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of sample using the Gasbench II technique, Rapid Commun. in Mass Spectrometry 2006; 20 pp. 2033-2040.

5.        T. K. Dalai, S. K. Bhattacharya and S. Krishnaswami. Stable Isotopes in the Source

6.        S. Sengupta and A. Sarkar. Stable isotope evidence of dual (Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal) vapour sources in monsoonal precipitation over north India, Earth and Planet.  Sci. Let. 2006; 250 pp.511–521.

7.        H. Craig.  Isotopic standards for carbon and oxygen and correction factors for mass-spectrometric analysis of carbon dioxide, Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta, 1957;

8.        J. R. Gat, R. Gonfiantini. Stable Isotope Hydrology. Deuterium and Oxygen-18 in the Water Cycle. A Monograph prepared under the aegis of the IAEA/UNESCO working group on nuclear techniques in hydrology of the international hydrologyical programme. Technical Reports Series No. 1981; 210 pp.337

9.        S. T. Nelson. A simple, practical methodology for routine VSMOW/SLAP normalization of water samples analysed by continuous flow method, Rapid Commun. in Mass Spectrometry, 2000; 14: pp. 1044-1046.

10.     Z. D. Sharp, V.  Atudorei and  T. Durakiewicz. A rapid method for determination of hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios from water and hydrous minerals, Chem. Geol. 2001;178pp. 197-210.



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