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Volume-7 Issue-1, October 2017, ISSN: 2249-8958 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Page No.



 Divya Sanganabhatla

Paper Title:

 Current Approaches of Nanotechnology in Cancer Therapy

Abstract: Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field which combines engineering, biology, physics and chemistry. This field has evolved over the past half century and most scientists now agree that it has truly come of age. Nanotechnology is well placed in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer as it enables doctors and scientists to operate at a molecular and cellular level. This allows treatment to be focussed on specific areas without impacting surrounding organs and systems. Using nanotechnology, it is possible that cancer cells could be targeted and destroyed with almost no damage to surrounding healthy tissue. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the developments and future uses of nanotechnology in diagnosing and treating cancer. In addition, we will explain how the advances in the uses of nanotechnology, combined with other developments in medicine, have led scientists to predict that cancer will be eradicated in less than ten years

Index Terms: Cancer, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF), Nano Particles (NP), Radiation Therapy.

  1. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2011. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2011.
  2. Cai W, Chen X. Multimodality molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis. J Nucl Med. 08;49 Suppl 2:113S–128S.
  3. Cai W, Gao T, Hong H, Sun J. Applications of gold nanoparticles in cancer nanotechnology. Nanotechnol Sci Appl. 2008;1:11.
  4. Choi YE, Kwak JW, Park JW. Nanotechnology for early cancer detection. Sensors. 2010;10(1):428–455.
  5. David Rassam, Shiv Sharma. The Potential Role of Nanotechnology in Cancer Therapy. Research paper based on pathology lectures,Medlink;2010
  6. De la Isla A, Brostow W, Bujard B, Estevez M, Rodriguez JR, Vargas S, Castano VM. Nanohybrid scratch resistant coating for teeth and bone viscoelasticity manifested in tribology. Mat Resr Innovat. 2003;7:110–114.
  7. Elsersawi A. World of Nanobioengineering: Potential Big Ideas for the Future. Bloomington: AuthorHouse; 2010.
  8. Feinberg AP, Ohlsson R, Henikoff S. The epigenetic progenitor origin of human cancer. Nat Rev Genet. 2006;7(1):21–33.
  9. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer. 2010;127(12):2893–2917.
  10. Ferrari M. Cancer nanotechnology: opportunities and challenges. Nat Rev Cancer. 2005;5(3):161–171.
  11. Grodzinski P, Silver M, Molnar LK. Nanotechnology for cancer diagnostics: promises and challenges. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2006;6(3):307–318.
  12. Jamieson T, Bakhshi R, Petrova D, Pocock R, Imani M, Seifalian AM. Biological applications of quantum dots. Biomaterials. 2007;28(31):4717–4732.
  13. Jean-Mary F. Spectroscopic and Microscopic Studies of Aggregated Molecules Coated onto Nanomaterials. Ann Arbor: ProQuest; 2006.
  14. Kircher MF, Mahmood U, King RS, Weissleder R, Josephson L. A multimodal nanoparticle for preoperative magnetic resonance imag­ing and intraoperative optical brain tumor delineation. Cancer Res. 2003;63(23):8122–8125.
  15. Ma J, Wong H, Kong LB, Peng KW. Biomimetic processing of nanocrystallite bioactive apatite coating on titanium. Nanotechnology. 2003;14:619–623. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/14/6/310.[Cross Ref]
  16. Madani SY, Naderi N, Dissanayake O, Tan A, Seifalian AM. A new era of cancer treatment: carbon nanotubes as drug delivery tools. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:2963–2979.
  17. Nam JM, Stoeva SI, Mirkin CA. Bio-bar-code-based DNA detection with PCR-like sensitivity. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126(19):5932–5933.
  18. Neuwelt EA, Várallyay P, Bagó AG, Muldoon LL, Nesbit G, Nixon R. Imaging of iron oxide nanoparticles by MR and light microscopy in patients with malignant brain tumours. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2004;30(5):456–471.
  19. Sahoo SK, Parveen S, Panda JJ. The present and future of nanotechnology in human health care. Nanomedicine. 2007;3(1):20–31.





 M. Venkataramana, I. Srinu, M.N.V.V. Brahmam

Paper Title:

 Enhancement of Power Quality with Fuzzy Control of Dstatcom Supported Induction Generator

Abstract: The DC-link voltage of VSC used as DSTATCOM is regulated by the SMC which suppresses undershoots and overshoots in the DC-link voltage. This paper presents an implementation of sliding mode controller (SMC) along with a Fuzzy controller for a DSTATCOM (Distribution Static Compensator) for improving current induced power quality issues and voltage regulation of three-phase self-excited induction generator (SEIG). DSTATCOM is a shunt-connected custom power device specially designed for power factor correction, current harmonics filtering and load balancing and used for voltage regulation at a distribution bus. Here we are using the fuzzy controller compared to other controllers i.e. the fuzzy controller is the most suitable for the human decision-making mechanism, providing the operation of an electronic system with decisions of experts. The use of SMC for regulating the DC link voltage of DSTATCOM offers various advantages such as reduction in number of sensors for estimating reference currents and the stable DC link voltage during transient conditions. The SMC algorithm is successfully implemented on a DSTATCOM employed with a three-phase SEIG feeding single phase or three phase loads. In addition, using the fuzzy controller for a nonlinear system allows for a reduction of uncertain effects in the system control and improves the efficiency.

Index Terms: SMC, SEIG, DSTATCOM, DC-Link, PCC, VSC.


  1. Bansal, R.C.: ‘Three phase self-excited induction generators: an overview’, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., 2005, 20, (2), pp. 292–299
  2. Murthy, S.S., Singh, B., Gupta, S., et al.: ‘General steady-state analysis of three-phase self-excited induction generator feeding three-phase unbalanced load/ single-phase load for stand-alone applications’, IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2003, 150, (1), pp. 49–55
  3. Rai, H., Tandan, A., Murthy, S.S., et al.: ‘Voltage regulation of self-excited induction generator using passive elements’. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Electric Machines and Drives, September 1993, pp. 240–245
  4. Singh, B., Shilpakar, L.: ‘Analysis of a novel solid state voltage regulator for a self-excited induction generator’, IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib., 1998, 145, (6), pp. 647–655
  5. Singh, B., Murthy, S.S., Gupta, S.: ‘A solid state controller for self-excited induction generator for voltage regulation, harmonic compensation and load balancing’, J. Power Electron., 2005, 5, (2), pp. 109–119
  6. Rao, S., Murthy, S.S., Bhuvaneswari, G., et al.: ‘Design of a microcontroller based electronic load controller for self-excited induction generator supplying single phase loads’, J. Power Electron., 2010, 10, (4), pp. 444–449
  7. Singh, B., Murthy, S.S., Gupta, S.: ‘An improved electronic load controller for self-excited induction generator in micro-hydel applications’. Proc. IEEE Annual Conf., November 2003, vol. 3, pp. 2741–2746
  8. Rao, S., Abhishek, K.: ‘Mitigation of unbalanced currents in three-phase asynchronous generator supplying single-phase nonlinear load’. Proc. IEEE ICSET, 2012, pp. 246–251
  9. Singh, B., Murthy, S.S., Chilipi, R.S.R.: ‘STATCOM-based controller for a three phase SEIG feeding single phase loads’, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., 2014, 29, (2), pp. 320–331
  10. Ghosh, A., Ledwich, G.: ‘Power quality enhancement using custom power devices’ (Springer International Edition, Delhi, 2009)
  11. Singh, B., Solanki, J.: ‘A comparison of control algorithms for DSTATCOM’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 2009, 56, (7), pp. 2738–2745
  12. Singh, B., Kant, K., Arya, S.: ‘Notch filter based fundamental frequency component extraction to control DSTATCOM for mitigating current related power quality problems’, IET Power Electron. 2015, Early Access.





 Zaid Abulghanam, Nicolae Băran, Sayel M. Fayyad, Sameh Abu-Dalo

Paper Title:

 Experimental Researches Regarding the Obtaining of Fine Air Bubbles

Abstract: In this paper the authors present the constructive solution of a new type of fine air bubbles generator.  As the air output holes are located on a single row, the bubble columns that appear in the water mass generate a planar jet similar to a bubble curtain.  This bubble curtain can be used to depurate residual waters or to enrich basins or lakes with oxygen.  This fine bubble generator has Ø0.5mm holes, practiced by electro-erosion using an AG55L type machine that ensures the location of the holes in xoy coordinates as demanded by the designer. Images and results of experimental researches made on the fine bubbles generator, at different working levels, are exposed.

Keywords: Fine Bubbles Generator, Processing by Electro-Erosion, Bubble Curtain.


  1. Băran Gh., Băran N., “Hidrodinamica bulelor generate de difuzori poroşi”, Revista de Chimie ,vol. 54, no. 5 / 2003, pp.436-440.
  2. Baran Gh. a.s.o., “Performanţe ale generatoarelor de bule fine”, Hidrotehnica , vol. 53, 3-4 /2008, pp. 27-32.
  3. Donţu O., “Tehnologii şi sisteme de fabricaţie utilizate în mecatronică”, Printech Publishing House, Bucharest, 2003.
  4. Jinescu Gh, Vasilescu P., Jinescu C., “Dinamica fluidelor reale în instalaţiile de process”, Semne Publishing House, Bucharest, 2001.
  5. Georgescu S.C., “Evolution d’une bulle de gas“, Thèse, Institut Naţional Polytechnique de Grenoble, april 1999.
  6. Mateescu, A.Marinescu, N.Baran, “A new solution for constructing fine bubbles generators”, National Conference SRT Brasov, 21-22 may 2009.
  7. Băran N., Băran Gh., Mateescu G., “Experimental research regarding a new type of fine bubble generator”, Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Italy, 2009.
  8. Iomandi C., Petrescu V., “Mecanica fluidelor”, Didactic and Pedagogical Publishing House, Bucharest, 1979.
  9. Nicolae B., George M., Mihaela C., Rareș P., Albertino R. (2017) , Researches On The Use Of Air Filtration Elements In The Creation Of Microbubbles For Water Oxygenation. International Journal of Mechatronics and Applied Mechanics, 2017, Issue 1.
  10. Mihaela C.* , Nicolae B., Rareș P, Giovani R. (2017), Theoretical and Experimental Researches about the Pressure Loss of a New Type of Fine Bubble Generator. International Journal of Emerging Research in Management &Technology (Volume-6, Issue-2).





 C. Ramachandra, J. Venkatesh, Sarat Kumar Dash

Paper Title:

 Passive Voltage Contrast Technique for Semiconductor Device Analysis

Abstract: Passive voltage contrast is found to be very effective in localizing defect / fault at micron / submicron scale in semiconductor devices. It requires use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) System for analysis. Effectiveness of passive voltage contrast in identifying fault location is explained with case studies in DRAM devices.



  1. Ruediger Rosenkrantz “Failure localization with active and passive voltage contrast in SEM and FIB” Journal of Mateial Science, Mater Electron, Vol:22, pp: 1523 – 1535, 2011
  2. Nishikawa et all, “ An application of passive voltage contrast (PVC) to failure analysis of CMOS LSI using secondary electron collection” ISTFA Proceeding, pp: 239 – 243 1999
  3. Yuan et all, “Gray method of failure site isolation for flash memory devices using FIB passive voltage contrast techniques.” ISTFA Proceedings, pp: 202 – 205, 2005
  4. M. Shen et all, “ Couple passive voltage contrast with scanning probe microscope to identify invisible implant issue” ISTFA Proceedings, pp: 212 – 216, 2005
  5. D. Patterson et all, “Real time fault site isolation of front end defects in ULSI – ESRAM utilizing in – line passive voltage contrast analysis” ISTFA Proceedings, pp: 591 – 599, 2005





 A. Nachev

Paper Title:

 Measuring Factors of Employment by Classification Tree Models

Abstract: This paper presents a case study on data mining modeling, based on classification trees. The study analyzes data from a national household survey, which provides information about Irish labour and unemployment status of the respondents. Based on trained predictive models, we address some gaps in previous studies by providing means to measure and rank the employment factors and analyze their role over the studied period. Results from experiments show that features representing age and education appear as top factors affecting the employment status. Studying further each of those by VEC analysis, we find empirically the role of their values in employment success. Measuring the model performance, we came to the conclusion, that a carefully trained classification tree can outperform neural networks trained on the same data in terms of accuracy, but underperforms neural nets in terms of AUC.

Index Terms : classification, data mining, labour, classification trees.


  1. Alsultanny, Y. Labor Market Forecasting by Using Data Mining, International Conference on Computational Science, Procedia Computer Science 18, Elsevier, 2013, pp.1700-1709.
  2. Breiman, L., Friedman, J., Olshen, R.A., Stone, C. Classification and Regression Trees, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1984
  3. Cortez, P., Cerdeira, A., Almeida, F., Matos, T., Reis, J. Modeling wine preferences by data mining from physicochemical properties, Decision Support Systems, 47, no. 4, pp. 547–553, 2009.
  4. Cortez, P. “Data Mining with Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines using the R/rminer Tool”. In Proceedings of the 10th Industrial Conference on Data Mining (Berlin, Germany, Jul.). Springer, LNAI 6171, 572– 583, 2010.
  5. Cortez, P., Embrechts, M. Using sensitivity analysis and visualization techniques to open black box data mining models. Information Sciences vol. 225, 2013, pp.1-17.
  6. CSO: QNHS [Online], http://www.cso.ie/en/qnhs/
  7. Fawcett, T., An introduction to ROC analysis, Pattern Recognition Letters 27, No.8, 861–874, 2005
  8. Jantavan, B., Tsai, The Application of Data Mining to Build Classification Model for  Predicting  Graduate Employment, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, vol. 11 No 10, 2013.
  9. Kelly, E., McGuinness, S. (2014, online), Impact of the Great Recession on Unemployed and NEET Individuals’ Labour Market Transitions in Ireland, Economic Systems. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecosys.2014.06.004
  10. Kelly, E., McGuinness, S., O’Connell, P., Haugh, D., Pandiella, A. (2014), Transitions In and Out of Unemployment among Young People in the Irish Recession, Comparative Economic Studies, 56: 616-634.
  11. Kewley, R., Embrechts, M., Breneman, C. Data strip mining for the virtual design of pharmaceuticals with neural networks. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 11 (3), pp. 668–679, 2000
  12. Kirimi, J., Moturi, C. "Application of Data Mining Classification in Employee Performance Prediction", International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 146,No 7, 2016, pp. 28-35.
  13. Mishra, T., D. Kumar, "Students' Employability Prediction Model through Data Mining", International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 11. No. 4, 2016, pp. 2275-2282.
  14. Nachev, A., (2017) 'Using Multi-Layer Perceprons for Analysis of Labour Data', In Proc. of International Conference Artificial Intelligence, ICAI’17, Las Vegas, 17-20 Jul, pp.223-229.
  15. R Development Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, http://www.R-project.org, 2009.
  16. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/rpart/rpart.pdf
  17. Sapaat, M., A. Mustapha, J. Ahmad, K. Chamili, R. Muhamad, "A Classification-based Graduates Employability Model for Tracer Study by MOHE", Digital Information Processing and Communications, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 277-287.
  18. Sing, T., Sander, O., Beerenwinkel, N., Lengauer, T., ROCR: visualizing classifier performance in R., Bioinformatics 21(20):3940-3941, 2005.





 A. Vinay Chandra, K. Narender Reddy

Paper Title:

Empowering Rural Women In The Field of Biomass Technology Towards Uplifting Economic Status in India

Abstract: Women empowerment acts like a leader, mentor, guide, teacher and motivator. From 20th century the women entrepreneur breaks down the barriers and overcome this paradox. The international center for research on women (ICRW) has studied the ways in which the improved economic status of women positively affects children families and societies. Today 1.1 billion people globally lack access to electricity and 2.9 billion use solid biomass for cooking and heating, other resources energies like water saving, irrigation i.e. drip irrigation. In the technology of bio-mass the entrepreneur should investigate towards flour mill, harvesting operaters and irrigation techniques. Based on current trends it will take until 2080 to achieve universal access to electricity and 22nd century for access to non polluting energy for domestic process. In Telangana regions there is a stressed owing to farm yields and unpredictable rains, due to total family income constraints its pathetic and family are stressed unduly. The Rural Women Technology Park (RWTP) has been conceptualized and is being implemented in rural Telangana as a means of introducing Technological interventions. This paper inculcates the mobile gasified based energy services in rural women community of Warangal District, Telangana State towards the awareness program and case analysis conducted in the Mandal of Parkal by taking selected clusters of villages.

Keywords: Telangana State, Biomass energy services, Empowerment, Awareness programs.


  1. GudaganavarNagraJ, V. and GudaganavarRajashri, S.(2008) “Empowerment of Rural Women through SHG” Southern Economist, Vol. 47, No. 19, pp. 35-37.
  2. http://anewindia.org/
  3. http://www.indiacelebrating.com/social-issues/women-empowerment/
  4. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7906856/
  5. Suguna, M., (2011). Education and Women Empowerment in India. ZENITH: International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(8), 19-21. [11].
  6. Dasarati Bhuyan “Empowerment of Indian Women: A challenge of 21st Century” Orissa Review, 2006 [12].
  7. Statistical Report of Telangana 2016-2017.





 Tony Jose, Vijayakumar Narayanan

Paper Title:

 Nonlinearity Reduction in Subcarrier Multiplexed Radio Over Fiber Systems

Abstract: In subcarrier multiplexed (SCM) Radio over Fiber (RoF) systems, multiple radio frequency (RF) signals are combined in the electronic domain and transmitted simultaneously by modulating them on high-frequency optical carriers. The harmonic and intermodulation distortions generated due to the inherent nonlinearity of the laser transmitters causes severe performance degradation in multiuser RoF systems. This work aims to reduce the adverse effects due to the laser diode nonlinearity using external mechanisms. A predistortion technique is suggested for the suppression of the additional frequency components generated. A simulation study on the effect of nonlinearity on a three-user SCM-RoF system is carried out. A predistortion technique in which the input signals are preprocessed to mitigate the nonlinear effects is introduced into the system and the performance enhancement is verified.

Index Terms: Harmonic Distortion, Laser Diode, Nonlinearity, Predistortion, Radio over Fiber, Subcarrier Multiplexing.


  1. Beas, G. Castanon, I. Aldaya, A. Aragon-Zavala, and G. Campuzano, “Millimeter-wave frequency radio over fiber systems: A survey,” IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1593–1619, Fourth 2013.
  2. A. Thomas, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Millimeter-wave radio over fiber optical upconversion techniques relying on link nonlinearity,” IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 29–53, First quarter 2016.
  3. Novak, R. B.Waterhouse, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, P. A. Gamage, T. R. Clark, M. L. Dennis, and J. A. Nanzer, “Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 1–11, Jan 2016.
  4. E. Darcie, M. E. Dixon, B. L. Kasper and C. A. Burrus, "Lightwave system using microwave subcarrier multiplexing," Electronics Letters, vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 774-775, July 17, 1986.
  5. A. Davies and Z. Urey, "Subcarrier multiplexing in optical communication networks," Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 65-72, April 1992.
  6. Roselli, V. Borgioni, F. Zepparelli, F. Ambrosi, M. Comez, P. Faccin, and A. Casini, “Analog Laser Predistortion for Multiservice Radio-Over-Fiber Systems,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 21, No. 5, May 2003
  7. Wu and X. Zhang, “Impact of nonlinear distortion in radio over fiber systems with single-sideband and tandem single-sideband subcarrier modulations,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 2076–2090, May 2006.
  8. Vijayakumar Narayanan and Tony Jose, “Performance Improvement in Radio over Fiber (RoF) Links by Minimizing Nonlinearities in Sources and Amplifiers,”10th International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics-2010, IIT Guwahati.
  9. Tanaka, N. Taguchi, T. Kimura, and Y. Atsumi “A predistortion type equipath linearizer designed for radio-on-fiber system,” IEEE Trans. Microwav. Theory Tech. vol. 54, no.2, pp.938-944, Feb 2006.
  10. Gadheri, S. Kumar, D.E. Dodds, “Adaptive predistortion linearizer using polynomial functions,” IEEE Proc. Common., vol.141, no.2, pp.49-55, April 1994.





 Divya Sanganabhatla

Paper Title:

 Cell Encapsulation Technology-Applications in Therapy

Abstract: Entrapment of mammalian cells in physical membranes has been practiced since the early 1950s when it was originally introduced as a basic research tool. The method has since been developed based on the promise of its therapeutic usefulness in tissue transplantation. Encapsulation physically isolates a cell mass from an outside environment and aims to maintain normal cellular physiology within a desired permeability barrier. Numerous encapsulation techniques have been developed over the years. These techniques are generally classified as microencapsulation (involving small spherical vehicles and conformally coated tissues) and macroencapsulation (involving larger flat-sheet and hollow-fiber membranes). This review is intended to summarizes the state-of-the-art successes of microencapsulation, specifically with regard to the encapsulation of microorganisms, mammalian cells in treatment of various diseases.

Index Terms: Microencapsulated cell, Probiotic Bacteria, Alginate Solution, Liver Cell.


  1. Abalovich, M. C. Bacqué, D. Grana, and J. Milei, “Pig pancreatic islet transplantation into spontaneously diabetic dogs,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 328–330, 2009.
  2. J. Shapiro, J. R. T. Lakey, E. A. Ryan et al., “Islet transplantation in seven patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 4, pp. 230–238, 2000.
  3. Urbanska, J. Bhathena, C. Martoni, and S. Prakash, “Estimation of the potential antitumor activity of microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus yogurt formulation in the attenuation of tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) Mice,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 264–273, 2009.
  4. Omer, V. F. Duvivier-Kali, N. Trivedi, K. Wilmot, S. Bonner-Weir, and G. C. Weir, “Survival and maturation of microencapsulated porcine neonatal pancreatic cell clusters transplanted into immunocompetent diabetic mice,” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 69–75, 2003.
  5. Urbanska, A. Paul, J. Bhathena, and S. Prakash, “Suppression of tumorigenesis: modulation of inflammatory cytokines by oral administration of microencapsulated probiotic yogurt formulation,” International Journal of Inflammation, vol. 2010, Article ID 894972, 2010
  6. Tuch, G. W. Keogh, L. J. Williams et al., “Safety and viability of microencapsulated human islets transplanted into diabetic humans,” Diabetes Care, vol. 3 no. 10, pp. 1887–1889, 2009.
  7. Gibbs, S. Kermasha, I. Alli, and C. N. Mulligan, “Encapsulation in the food industry: a review,” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 213–224, 1999.
  8. Kasiske, H. A. Chakkera, T. A. Louis, and J. Z. Ma, “A meta-analysis of immunosuppression withdrawal trials in renal transplantation,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1910–1917, 2000.
  9. Lacroix, F. Grattepanche, Y. Doleyres, and D. Bergmaier, “Immobilised cell technologies for the dairy industry,” in Applications of Cell Immobilisation Biotechnology, chapter 18, pp. 295–319, Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2005.
  10. Martoni, J. Bhathena, A. M. Urbanska, and S. Prakash, “Microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase producing Lactobacillus reuterifor oral targeted delivery in the gastrointestinal tract,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 225–233, 2008.
  11. Tomaro-Duchesneau, S. Saha, M. Malhotra et al., “Lactobacillus fermentumNCIMB, 5221 has a greater ferulic acid production compared to other ferulic acid esterase producing Lactobacilli,” International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2012.
  12. Tomaro-Duchesneau, S. Saha, M. Malhotra et al., “Probiotic ferulic acid esterase active Lactobacillus fermentumNCIMB, 5221 APA microcapsules for oral delivery: preparation and in vitrocharacterization,” Pharmaceuticals, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 236–248, 2012
  13. Wischke and S. P. Schwendeman, “Principles of encapsulating hydrophobic drugs in PLA/PLGA microparticles,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 364, no. 2, pp. 298–327, 2008.
  14. Garofalo, M. Eng, and T. M. S. Chang, “Immobilization of P. Pictorumin open pore agar, alginate and polylysine-alginate microcapsules for serum cholesterol depletion,” Biomaterials, Artificial Cells, and Artificial Organs, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 271–289, 1989.
  15. Smets, M. Najimi, and E. M. Sokal, “Cell transplantation in the treatment of liver diseases,” Pediatric Transplantation, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 6–13, 2008.
  16. Abouna, “Organ shortage crisis: problems and possible solutions,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 2008.
  17. Bhathena, C. Tomaro-Duchesneau, C. Martoni et al., “Effect of orally administered microencapsulated FA-producing L. fermentumon markers of metabolic syndrome: an in vivo analysis,” Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism, vol. 2, article 009, 2012.
  18. P. Duffy, J. C. Hong, D. G. Farmer et al., “Vascular complications of orthotopic liver transplantation: experience in more than 4,200 patients,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 208, no. 5, pp. 896–903, 2009.
  19. J. Scanlon, “Cancer gene therapy: challenges and opportunities,” Anticancer Research, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 501–504, 2004.
  20. M. Chow, Z. C. Liu, S. Prakash, and T. M. S. Chang, “Free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus and effects of metabolic induction on urea removal,” Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobilization Biotechnology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 425–434, 2003.
  21. L. Jones, C. J. Martoni, M. Parent, and S. Prakash, “Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteriNCIMB, 30243 yoghurt formulation in hypercholesterolaemic adults,” The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 107, no. 10, pp. 1505–1513, 2012.
  22. L. Jones, H. Chen, W. Ouyang, T. Metz, and S. Prakash, “Microencapsulated genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum 80 (pCBH1) for bile acid deconjugation and its implication in lowering cholesterol,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2004, no. 1, pp. 61–69, 2004.
  23. T. Van Leeuwen, A. E. Grulich, S. P. McDonald et al., “Immunosuppression and other risk factors for lip cancer after kidney transplantation,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 561–569, 2009.
  24. Vivarelli, A. Dazzi, M. Zanello et al., “Effect of different immunosuppressive schedules on recurrence-free survival after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma,” Transplantation, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 227–231, 2010.
  25. Y. Wang, Y. T. Yu, and T. M. S. Chang, “New method for preparing more stable microcapsules for the entrapment of genetically engineered cells,” Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobilization Biotechnology, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 257–269, 2005
  26. B. Elliott, L. Escobar, P. L. J. Tan, M. Muzina, S. Zwain, and C. Buchanan, “Live encapsulated porcine islets from a type 1 diabetic patient 9.5 yr after xenotransplantation,” Xenotransplantation, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 157–161, 2007.
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  28. Prakash and T. M. S. Chang, “Preparation and in vitroanalysis of microencapsulated genetically engineered E. coli DH5 cells for urea and ammonia removal,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 621–626, 1995.
  29. Prakash, C. Tomaro-Duchesneau, S. Saha, and A. Cantor, “The gut microbiota and human health with an emphasis on the use of microencapsulated bacterial cells,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2011, Article ID 981214, 12 pages, 2011.
  30. Prakash, R. Coussa, C. Martoni, J. Bhathena, and A. M. Urbanska, “Oral microencapsulated live Saccharomyces cerevisiaecells for use in renal failure uremia: preparation and in vivo analysis,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2010
  31. Kobayashi, Y. Aomatsu, H. Iwata et al., “Indefinite islet protection from autoimmune destruction in nonobese diabetic mice by agarose microencapsulation without immunosuppression,” Transplantation, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 619–625, 2003.
  32. L. Van Belle, K. T. Coppieters, and M. G. Von Herrath, “Type 1 diabetes: etiology, immunology, and therapeutic strategies,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 79–118, 2011.
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 G. Jhansi

Paper Title:

 Design of MIPS based 64-bit RISC Processor

Abstract: A major paradigm shift where power dissipation has become an important consideration as performance and area. RISC is termed as Reduced Instruction Set Computer, computer arithmetic-logic unit that uses a minimal instruction set, emphasizing the instructions used most often and optimizing them for the fastest possible execution In this work, a 64 bit RISC processor is presented with higher performance and efficiency being the main aim. This processor comprises of Control unit, general purpose registers, Arithmetic and logical unit, shift registers. Control unit follows instruction cycle of 3 stages fetch, decode and execute cycle. According to the instruction to the fetch stage, control unit generate signal to decode the instruction. The architecture supports 16 instructions for arithmetic, logical, shifting and rotational operations.

Keywords: RISC, control unit, ALU, shift register, instruction cycle.


  1. David A Patterson, John L Hennessy "Computer Organization and Design - The Hardware- Software Interface" 3rd Edition.
  2. Rupali S. Balpande , Rashmi S. Keote, " Design of FPGA based Instruction Fetch and Decode Module of 32 bit RISC ( MIPS ) Processor.
  3. Linder, Schimd "Processor Implementation in VHDL" University of Ulster 2012 pg: 1-20.
  4. Dalal, A.Ganesh, Aishwarya.D “An 8 bit Power-Efficient MIPS Processor “Advanced VLSI Design Sping 2014 Pg: 1-6





 Navneet Kumar, Linsu Sebastian

Paper Title:

 Numerical Investigation of Predetonator of Pulse Detonation Engine Tube

Abstract: Pulse detonation engine (PDE) is future propulsion technology that involves detonation of fuel to produce thrust more efficiently than the available current engines. The PDE can provide static thrust for a ramjet or scramjet engine, or operate in combination with turbofan systems. The objective of present study was to observe the effect of predetonator (having disturbances in the form of Shchelkin spiral) on the detonation velocity, pressure and length of PDE tube. In this project a new design has been developed for Predetonator. Initiation and propagation of detonation waves inside predetonation tube has been done by two-step detonation initiation method, low energy ignition system (total energy of 50mJ), and effective Shchelkin spiral of blockage area ratio of 0.43. Liquid kerosene, gaseous oxygen and nitrogen were used as fuel, oxidizer and purge gas respectively with 420mm predetonator, a convergent-divergent nozzle and a 415mm long tube for main detonation has been used. In the present study the filling processes is modeled numerically using CFD code FLUENT. Calculations for the gas flow are carried out by solving the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the k "turbulence model. Numerical analysis of the geometry made has been done by using GAMBIT and FLUENT for two dimensional predetonator model and results have been observed in the form of pressure, velocity and temperature contours at different time step. Numerical analysis obtained results have been compared with the calculated results from NASA CEA code for respective conditions.

Keywords: Detonation, Deflagration, Predetonator and Pulse Detonation Engines (PDE).


  1. FA Bykovskii, VV Mitrofanov, and EF Vedernikov. Continuous detonation combustion of fuel-air mixtures. Combustion, Explosion and Shock Waves, 33(3):344–353, 1997.
  2. J-L Cambier. Preliminary modeling of pulse detonation rocket engines. In 35th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, page 2659, 1999.
  3. J Chao, T Otsuka, and JHS Lee. An experimental investigation of the onset of detonation. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 30(2):1889–1897, 2005.
  4. Dmitry Davidenko, Iskender G¨okalp, and Alexey Kudryavtsev. Numerical study of the continuous detonation wave rocket engine. In 15th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, page 2680, 2008.
  5. Shmuel Eidelman andWilliam Grossmann. Pulsed detonation engine experimental and theoretical review. In 28th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, page 3168, 1992.
  6. Wei Fan, Chuanjun Yan, Xiqiao Huang, Qun Zhang, and Longxi Zheng. Experimentalinvestigation on two-phase pulse detonation engine. Combustion and Flame, 133(4):441–450, 2003.
  7. Jonas Gustavsson, Venkata Nori, and Corin Segal. Inlet/engine interactions in anaxisymmetric pulse detonation engine system. Journal of propulsion and power, 19(2):282–286, 2003.
  8. Patrick Hutchenson, Chris Brophy, Jose Sinibaldi, Charles Cathey, and Martin Gunderson. Investigation of flow field properties on detonation initiation. In 42nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, page 5099, 2006.
  9. TK Jindal. Pulse detonation engine-a next gen propulsion. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www. ijmer. com, 2(6), 2012.
  10. Veera Venkata Suneel Jinnala. Transient flow analysis of filling in pulse detonation engine. 2010.
  11. Robert G Johnson. Design, characterization, and performance of a valveless pulse detonation engine. PhD thesis, Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School, 2000.
  12. K Kailasanath. Research on pulse detonation combustion systems: a status report. In 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including The New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, page 631, 2009.
  13. Nitin Kukreja, Manoj Joishi, Bhavesh Singal, and Linsu Sebastian. Computationally investigating the pre detonation tube of pulse detonation engine.
  14. Chiping Li and K Kailasanath. Partial fuel filling in pulse detonation engines. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 19(5):908–916, 2003.
  15. Jian-Ling Li, Wei Fan, Chuan-Jun Yan, Hong-Yan Tu, and Kai-Cheng Xie. Performance enhancement of a pulse detonation rocket engine. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 33(2):2243–2254, 2011.
  16. Louis A Povinelli and Shaye Yungster. Airbreathing pulse detonation engine performance. 2002.
  17. LI Qiang, FanWei, Chuan-jun YAN, Cheng-qi HU, and Ye Bin. Experimental investigation on performance of pulse detonation rocket engine model. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 20(1):9–14, 2007.
  18. Robert J Santoro, Vigor Yang, Joseph E Shepherd, and Chung K Law. A multidisciplinary study of pulse detonation engine propulsion. Technical report, DTIC Document, 2003.
  19. E Schultz, E Wintenberger, and J Shepherd. Investigation of deflagration to detonation transition for application to pulse detonation engine ignition systems. In Proceedings of the 16th JANNAF Propulsion Symposium, pages 175–202, 1999.
  20. PWolanski, J Kindracki, and T Fujiwara. An experimental study of small rotating nation engine. Pulsed and continuous detonations, pages 332–338, 2006.
  21. Piotr Wola ´ nski. Detonation engines. Journal of KONES, 18:515–521, 2011.
  22. R Zitoun and D Desbordes. Propulsive performances of pulsed detonations. Combustion Science and Technology, 144(1-6):93–114, 1999.





 Sonal Tiwari, Nitin Choudhary

Paper Title:

 An Efficient Method for Indian Number Plate Recognition

Abstract: Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) became a very important tool in our daily life because of the unlimited increase of cars and transportation systems, which make it impossible to be fully managed and monitored by humans. On rising population and on growing need of the people, there is a big rise of using vehicles for the last decades. This increase in the number of vehicles must control from the perspective of security and management. However, controlling a huge amount of traffic is a major problem to be solved. In order to maintain traffic problem and controlling a crime and various agencies working in the field of Indian license plate recognition system. We found some general problem. Here we mention problemRate of recognition low.

  • Creation of template.
  • Recognition time is very high.
  • Standard deviation error of most of the method nearer.

Yet, it’s a very challenging problem, due to the diversity of plate formats, different scales, rotations and non-uniform illumination conditions during image acquisition.The objective of this paper is to develop an accurate and automatic number plate recognition system. In this paper we propose a license plate recognition technique for the improvement of the recognition rate and recognition time for recognition of the number and the character of the vehicle license plate. We proposed a new technique of Neural Network for Vehicle license plate recognition. The Neural Network generates less recognition times and improves the recognition time of the license recognition system. Our work shows better performance as compare to the correlation method which is one of the efficient techniques for matching. Therefore, the standard deviation error reduces which comes from the data lost during the pre-processing in the recognition process.

Keywords: Edge Detection, Segmentation, Neural Networks, correlation method, Radial Basis Function.


  1. Baoming Shan “Vehicle License Plate Recognition Based on Text-line Construction and Multilevel RBF Neural Network” Journal of computer science Vol. no. 6 pp. 246-253 February 2011.
  2. Chetan Sharma and Amandeep Kaur “Indian Vehicle License plate Extraction and Segmentation” International Journal of Computer Science and Communication Vol. No. 2, pp. 593-599, July-December 2011.
  3. N. Anagnostopoulos, I. Anagnostopoulos, V. Loumos, and E. Kayafas “A license plate recognition algorithm for Intelligent Transportation System applications” T ITS-05-08-0094 August 29, 2005.
  4. Chirag N. Paunwala, Suprava Patnaik “A Novel Multiple License Plate Extraction Technique for Complex Background in Indian Traffic Conditions” International Journal of Image Processing (IJIP) Vol. 4, No (2).
  5. Hsien-Chu WU, Chwei-Shyong TSAI, and Ching-Hao LAI “A License Plate Recognition System in E-Government” Information & Security. An International Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2. pp. 199-210 2004.
  6. Nureddin A. Abulgasem, Dzulkili Mohamad, Siti Zaiton Mohamad Hashim “Automatic License Plate Detection and Recognition Using Radial Basis Function Neural Network” Indian Journal of Computer Vision and Applications Vol. 1.No. 1 pp. 15-23 2011.
  7. Bo Li, Zhi-yuang, Jian-zhong Zhou and Hua-li Dong “An Algorithm for License Plate Recognition Using Radial Basis Function Neural Network” International Symposium on Computer Science and Computational Technology pp. 569-572 2008.
  8. Anuja p. Nagare “License Plate Character Recognition System using Neural Network” International Journal of Computer Application (0975 – 8887) Volume 25-No. 10, July 2011.
  9. Othman Khalifa, Sheroz Khan, Rafiqul Islam and Ahmed Suleiman “Malaysian Vehicle License Plate Recognition” International Arab Journal of Information Technology Vol.4. No.4. pp. 359-364 October 2007.
  10. Shyang-Lih Chang, Li-Shien Chen, Yun-Chung Chung, and Sei-Wan Chen, Senior Member, IEEE “Automatic License Plate Recognition” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol. 5, No. 1 pp. 42-53, MARCH 2004.
  11. Chih-Hai Fan and Yu-Hang Peng “Vehicle License Plate Recognition System Design” Chung Hua Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 47-52 2009.
  12. Z X Chen, CY Liu, G Y Wang & J G Liu “Automatic License plate location and recognition” Indian Journal of Engineering and material sciences Vol. 14, pp. 337-345 October 2007.
  13. Chih-Hai Fan and Yu-Hang Peng “Vehicle License Plate Recognition System Design” Chung Hua Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 47-52 2009.
  14. Z X Chen, CY Liu, G Y Wang & J G Liu “Automatic License plate location and recognition” Indian Journal of Engineering and material sciences Vol. 14, pp. 337-345 October 2007.
  15. Chirag N. Paunwala, Suprava Patnaik “A Novel Multiple License Plate Extraction Technique for Complex Background in Indian Traffic Conditions” International Journal of Image Processing (IJIP) Vol. 4, No (2).
  16. Nureddin A. Abulgasem, Dzulkili Mohamad, Siti Zaiton Mohamad Hashim “Automatic License Plate Detection and Recognition Using Radial Basis Function Neural Network” Indian Journal of Computer Vision and Applications Vol. 1.No. 1 pp. 15-23 2011.
  17. Bo Li, Zhi-yuang, Jian-zhong Zhou and Hua-li Dong “An Algorithm for License Plate Recognition Using Radial Basis Function Neural Network” International Symposium on Computer Science and Computational Technology pp. 569-572 2008.
  18. Kranthi, K. Pranathi, A. Srisaila “Automatic Number Plate Recognition” International Journal of Advancement in Technology Vol.2, No.3 July 2011.
  19. Ashim Kumar Ghosh, Swapan K.D Sharma, Md. Nazrul Islam, Suchitra Biswas, Sameya Akhtar “Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR) for Bangladeshi Vehicles” Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol. 11, No. 21 pp. 69-73 December 2011.
  20. ME Student, Associate Professor” Automatic Number Plate Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)” Vol: 02 Issue: 04 | July-2015.
  21. Varsha K. Hadke, Pawan. K. Ajmera” Comparative study of License Plate Recognition” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 3 Issue 3, March – 2014
  22. Akoum, B. Daya, P. Chauvet “Two Neural Networks for License Number Plate Recognition” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology © 2005 – 2009.





 Jamil Islam, Hasan-ur-Rahman, H.M Mamun Al Rashed

Paper Title:

The Effect of Magnesium and Heat Treatment on the Hardness as well as Microstructures of Aluminium Copper Binary Alloys

Abstract: Cast Al – Cu- Mg alloys have been widely applying in aircraft and aerospace industries since many years due to their extraordinary mechanical properties like super strength and super strength-to-weight ratio. In this research an intensive investigations have been made on their mechanical behaviors and microstructural changes due to casting magnesium and copper with mother Aluminium cast. The hardness profile indicates the great effect of magnesium and copper when doped with Aluminium cast. Heat treatment for 2 hours at 3800C has been conducted for observing the mechanical properties changes and microstructural also. The effect of Magnesium and ageing on microstructure was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. Moreover, the chemical compositions were determined using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) and EDS analysis.

Index Terms: Aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys, effect of magnesium, heat treatment effect, Microstructural changes. 


  1. Wei Wen, Yumin Zhao, J.G. Morris, “ The effect of Mg precipitation on the mechanical properties of 5xxx aluminum alloys”
  2. Qasim ZS, Jabbar MA1 and Hassan JJ, “ Enhancement the Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Casting Alloys (A356) by Adding Nanorods Structures from Zinc Oxide”
  3. Bailey, John A. (1969). The plain strain forging of aluminium and an aluminium alloy at low strain rates and elevated temperatures. International Journal of Mechanical Science, 11(6), 491–507
  4. Wu, H. Y. (2000). Influence of strain rates and strain states on the formability of a superplastic 8090 aluminum alloy. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 101(1), 76–80
  5. Microstructure of Aluminum Alloys, Metals Handbook, Atlas of Microstructures of Industrial Alloys, 8th ed., Vol 7, American Society for Metals, 1972, p 242-272
  6. Metallographic Technique for Aluminum Alloys, Metals Handbook, Metallography, Structures and Phase Diagrams, 8th ed., Vo18, American Society for Metals, 1972, p 120-129
  7. T. Hahn and A.R. Rosenfeld, Metallurgical Factors Affecting Toughness of Aluminum Alloys, 5th annual AIME meeting, May 1973
  8. Sh Raanjbar B., Akbari S. A. A., and Shab A.R., 2010 “Sequence effects of Twist Extrusion and Rolling on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 8112” Journal of Physics: Conference Series 240, 1-5.
  9. Davis, D. J., and Oelmann, A., 1983, The Structure, Properties and Heat Treatment of Metals. Piman Books Limited.
  10. Kelly, P. M. (1973). The quantitative relationship between microstructureand properties in two-phase alloys. International Metal Reviews, 18(1),31–36.
  11. Ibrahim, O., 2007 “A Study on the Re-solution Heat Treatment of AA2618 Aluminum Alloy” Materials Charaterisation, 58(3) 3, 312-317.
  12. Blawert, C., N. Hort and K.U. Kainer, 2004. Automative applications of magnesium and its alloys, Trans. Indian Inst. Met., 57(4): 397-408.





 Cengiz POLAT

Paper Title:

Dynamic Analysis of Structures using a Solid-Shell Element

Abstract: Dynamic analysis of some structures are performed using a solid-shell element. An eight node solid-shell element is used in the analyses. The Assumed Natural Strain (ANS) and the Enhanced Assumed Strain (EAS) methods are used to alleviate the locking problems. The governing equations are solved employing the Newmark’s integration technique. Several benchmark problems are solved to demonstrate the efficiency of the element.

Keywords: Solid-shell element; ANS-EAS method, Dynamic Analysis.


  1. Polat, C., & Calayir, Y. (2010). Nonlinear static and dynamic analysis of shells of revolution. Mechanics Research Communications, 37(2), 205-209.
  2. Hauptmann, R., Schweizerhof, K., 1998. A systematic development of ‘solid-shell’ element formulations for linear and non-linear analyses employing only displacement degrees of freedom. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 42, 49-69.
  3. Hauptmann, R., Scheizerhof, K., Doll, S., 2000. Extension of the “solid-shell” concept for application to large elastic and large elastoplastic deformations. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 49, 1121-1141.
  4. Sze, KY., Yao, LQ., 2000. A hybrid stress ANS solid-shell element and its generalization for smart structure modelling. Part I: solid-shell element formulation. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 48, 545-564. 
  5. Sze, KY., Yao, LQ., Yi, S., 2000. A hybrid stress ANS solid-shell element and its generalization for smart structure modelling. Part II: smart structure modelling. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 48, 565-582. 
  6. Harnau, M., Schweizerhof, K., About linear and quadratic ”solid-shell” elements at large deformations. Computers and Structures 80, 805-817.
  7. Vu-Quoc, L., Tan, , 2003. Optimal solid shells for non-linear analyses of multilayer composites. I. Statics. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 192, 975-1016.
  8. Sousa, RJA., Cardoso, RPR., Fontes Valente, RA., Yoon, YW., Gracio, JJ., Natal Jorge, RM., 2004. A new one-point quadrature enhanced assumed strain (eas) solid-shell element with multiple integration points along thickness- part 1: geometrically linear applications. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 62, 952-977.
  9. Tan, XG., Vu-Quoc, L., 2005. Optimal solid shell element for large deformable composite structures with piezoelectric layers and active vibration control. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 64, 1981-2013. 
  10. Sousa, RJA., Cardoso, RPR., Valente, RAF., Yoon, JW., Gracio, JJ., Jorge, RMN., A new one-point quadrature Enhanced Assumed Strain solid-shell element with multiple integration points along thickness Part II – Nonlinear Applications, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 67, 160-188. 
  11. Zienkiewicz, OC., Taylor, RL., Too, JM., 1971. Reduced integration techniques in finite element method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 3, 275-290.
  12. Hughes, TJR., Cohen, M., Haroun, M., 1978. Reduced and selective integration techniques in the finite element analysis of plates. Nuclear Engineering and Design 46, 203-222.
  13. Bucalem, ML., Bathe, KJ., 1993. Higher-order MITC general shell elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 36, 3729-3754.
  14. Andelfinger, U., Ramm, E., 1993. EAS-elements for two-dimensional, three-dimensional, plate and shell structures and their equivalence to HR-elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 36, 1311-1337.
  15. Polat, C. (2010). Co-rotational formulation of a solid-shell element utilizing the ANS and EAS methods. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 48(3), 771-788.
  16. Polat, C. (2010). An assessment of a co-rotational EAS brick element. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, 7(1), 77-89.
  17. Valente, RAF., 2004. Developments on shell and solid-shell finite elements technology in nonlinear continuum mechanics. D. Thesis, University of Porto, Portugal.
  18. Calayır, Y. and Polat, C., 2002, Çok Katlı Düzlem Çerçevelerin P-Delta Etkisi Dikkate Alınarak Deprem Analizi, Balıkesir Üniversitesi, IV. Mühendislik-Mimarlık Sempozyumu, 531-540.
  19. Calayır, Y. ve Polat, C., 2002, An Iterative Approach for Seismic Analysis of Multistory Plane Frames Including P-Delta Effects, Symposium Proc. CREATING THE FUTURE 2nd FAE International Symposium, 209-214, Gemikonagı, TRNC.
  20. Bathe, K. J., 1976, Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 528p.





 Germain Wende Pouiré Ouedraogo, Boureima Kaboré, Sié Kam, Dieudonné Joseph Bathiébo

Paper Title:

 Determination of Physical and Chemical Properties of Okra During Convective Solar Drying

Abstract: Convective solar drying of okra was carried out for three different types of cuts. Using the variation of the reduced water content or the moisture content of okra as a function of time, we were able to determine the diffusion coefficient of okra. And the mass transfer coefficient. The diffusion coefficient of okra varies from   to     depending on the shape of the cut. By applying the Arrhenius relation dependent on the temperature of the drying air, the energy of activation of the okra obtained varies from 20.497 to 39.864 kJ.mol-1.

Index Terms: okra, diffusion coefficient, mass transfer coefficient, activation energy, convective solar drying.


  1. Sankar, J.C. Abdul, P. Manivannan, A. Kishorekumar, R. Somasundaram, and R. Panneerselvam, "Relative Efficacy of Water Use in Five Varieties of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)" Moench. under Water-Limited Conditions Colloids and Surfaces. Biointerfaces, 2008, 62, pp. 125-129.
  2. Kumar, S. Prasad, and G.S. Murthy, "Optimization of microwave assisted hot air drying conditions of okra using response surface methodology". Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2011.
  3. Camciuc, M. Deplagne, G. Vilarem, and A. Gaset, Ocra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.) a Crop with Economic Potential for Set Aside Acreage in Frances Industrial. Crops and Products, 1998, vol. 7, pp. 257-264.
  4. Doymaz, Drying characteristics and kinetics of okra. Journal of Food Engineering, 2005, Vol. 69, pp. 275-279.
  5. S. Shivhare, A. Gupta, , A.S Bawa and P. Gupta, "Drying characteristics and product quality of okra". Drying Technology, 2000, Vol. 18, Number 1 & 2, pp.409-419.
  6. Kumar, and S. Prasad, Microwave-convective drying characteristics of okra. An ASABE Meeting Presentation, 2010.
  7. K. Obiakor, Experimental evaluation of mechanical dehydration of Nigerian cocoa beans. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 1975, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 12-18.
  8. Crank, The mathematics of diffusion second edition, London,UK: Oxford University Press, 1975.
  9. H. Ouoba, H. Desmorieux, F. Zougmore et B. Naon, Caractérisation du séchage convectif du gombo, influence de la découpe et de ses constituants, Afrique Science 2010, 06(2), pp. 37 – 48.
  10. Z. Sahin, I. Dincer, B. S. Yilbas and M. M. Hussain, “Determination of drying times for regular multi-dimensional objects,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, April 2002, vol. 45,no. 8, pp. 1757–1766.
  11. Dincer and M. M. Hussain, “Development of a new Bi–Di correlation for solids drying,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, July 2002, vol. 45, no. 15, pp. 3065–3069.
  12. Dadalı, D. K. Apar, and B. özbek, "Estimation of Effective Moisture Diffusivity of Okra for Microwave Drying", Drying Technology, 2007, 25(9), pp. 1445-1450.
  13. Kaymak-Ertekin, ‘Drying and Rehydrating Kinetics of Green and Red Peppers’, Journal of Food Science, 2002, Vol. 67, N°1, pp. 168 – 175.
  14. V. Mana, T. Orikasab, Y. Muramatsuc and A. Tagawaa, "Impact of Microwave Drying on the Quality Attributes of Okra Fruit", Food Processing & Technology, 2012.





 Bhavik Patel, Kiran Patel, Tushar Patel, Harshad Patel

Paper Title:

Parametric Evaluation Performance of Ti-6Al-4V using Coated & Uncoated Carbide Insert in CNC Turning - A Review

Abstract: This study consists a comparison of outcomes obtained by PVD coated carbide insert and uncoated carbide insert during dry turning Ti6Al4V which is titanium alloy. It has many applications such as aerospace components, medical surgical parts etc. due to their properties such as high strength to weight ratio, better corrosion resistance and heat treatable. In this experiment, turning was carried out using different cutting parameters like speed, feed and depth of cut. Design of Experiment was based on Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. Surface roughness was measured for different combination of input parameter. The analysis of variance is carried to get the optimal levels and to analyze the effect of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness with different inserts of tools.

Key words: Titanium alloy, Dry machining, Taguchi method, PVD Coated, Uncoated carbide Insert


  1. Ahmad Yasir M.S, Che Hassan C.H, Jaharah A.G,Yanuar B, Gusri A.I, Nagui H.E. “Cutting ForceAnalysis and Performance of PVD coated tungsten carbide When Milling of Ti6Al4V under MQL”
  2. Rajendra Pawar and Raju Pawade “Surface Integrity Analysis in Dry High Speed Turning ofTitanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V”, International Conference on Trends in Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, pp.190-199, 2012.
  3. Digvijay K. Patil and Suresh M. Sawant, “A Parametric Study on Performance of Titanium AlloyUsing Coated and Uncoated Carbide Insert in CNC Turning” , International Journal of Advanced Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 4, pp. 557-563 , 2014..
  4. Ibrahim Deiaba, Syed Waqar Razaa, Salman Pervaiza “Analysis of Lubrication Strategies forSustainable Machining during Turning of Titanium Ti6AlV alloy” , CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, pp. 766-770, 2014.
  5. Srinivas Athreya, Dr Y.D.Venkatesh “Application Of Taguchi Method For Optimization Of Process Parameters In Improving The Surface Roughness Of Lathe Facing Operation” , International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES), Volume 1, Issue 3 ,pp. 13-19 , 2012.
  6. Gusri Akhyar Ibrahima, Che Hassan Che Haronb and Jaharah Abd. Ghani “Tool Wear Performance of CVD-Insert during Machining of Ti6Al4V ELI at High Cutting Speed”, Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 443, pp. 371-375, 2010.





 Otchere Peter Kweku

Paper Title:

 Wireless Mobile Charger using Inductive Coupling

Abstract: This system demonstrates the concept of wireless mobile charging system using the principle of inductive coupling. The system allows users to wirelessly charge their mobile phones without plugging in the mobile adapter. The system is demonstrated using a charging pad where users just need to place their adapter circuit to charge the mobile phone. For this purpose the advanced power transfer concept is utilized. A high frequency transformer is used to convert mains input 230V AC to 12 V DC. This output is supplied to the charging pad coil. When the adapter coil comes in range of the charging pad coil, the power is thus transferred wirelessly to the receiving coil and this 12 V DC is provided to the adapter circuit which is used to convert this 12 V DC to 5V DC which is then supplied to the mobile phone. So this allows us to charge the mobile phone wirelessly without plugging it in. The system can be further enhanced by integrating the charging adapter within the mobile itself so that users will just need to place their mobile phones on the charging pad to charge it.

 Index Terms: Advanced power transfer, inductive coupling, mobile charger, wireless.


  1. http://nevonprojects.com/wireless-mobile-charging-project/
  2. http://powerbyproxi.com/wireless-charging/
  3. Nikola Tesla, “The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires as a Means for Furthering Peace,” Electrical World and Engineer.Jan. 7, p. 21, 1905.
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  5. G. Egan, D. L. O'Sullivan, J. G. Hayes, M. J. Willers, and C. P. Henze,
  6. Chawla and S. Tosunoglu, _State of the art in inductive charging for electronic appliances and its future in transportation,_ 2012 Florida Conference on Recent Advances in Robotics, May 2012.
  7. M. J. D. J. André KursAristeidisKaralis and M. S. Peter Fisher, _Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances,_ Science, vol. 317, pp. 83_85, June 2007.
  8. Kline, _Capacitive power transfer,_ M.S. thesis, University of California at Berkeley, Berkely, CA, 2010.
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  10. Ishiba, J. Ishida, K. Komurasakil, and Y. Arakawa, Wireless power transmission using modulated microwave, Conference Paper, Uji, Kyoto, Japan, 2011.
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  12. Butcher, Microwave point-to-point antennas and rf safety, Pamphlet, 2012. [Online]. Available: http : / / www . sitesafe . com / PDFs / Microwave % 20Point - to - Point % 20Antennas%20and%20RF%20Safety-PE.pdf.
  13. Gould, R. Gordon(1959). "The LASER, Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation". In Franken, P.A. and Sands, R.H. (Eds.). The Ann Arbor Conference on Optical Pumping, the University of Michigan, 15 June through 18 June 1959.p. 128. OCLC 02460155.
  14. Global market revenue for wireless charging to rise by nearly factor of 40 by 2018, Web Page, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://press.ihs.com/press-release/design- supply - chain / global - market - revenue - wireless - charging - rise - nearly - factor-40-2018.
  15. WHO | standards and guidelines, WHO, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.who. int/pehemf/standards/en/.
  16. "How can an electric toothbrush recharge its batteries when there are no metal contacts between the toothbrush and the base?"How Stuff Works. Blucora. Retrieved 2007-08-23.[6] ^ Jump up to:ab US 6972543 "Series resonant inductive charging circuit"
  17. Researchers (2017)
  18. http://www.electrical4u.com/design-of-high-frequency-pulse-transformer/
  19. http://www.engineersgarage.com/electronic-components/7805-voltage-regulator-ic
  20. http://www.technologystudent.com/elec1/transis1.htm
  21. http://electromechanicalcomponents.guardian-electric.com/item/all-categories/custom-electrical-coils/item-1316?
  22. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/led.htm
  23. http://chicago-29.kuxnya.biz/
  24. http://www.explainthatstuff.com/resistors.html
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  28. https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/connector-basics/usb-connectors
  29. https://www.tu-eshop.com/PBT-2-pin-Connector
  30. Livewire simulation software





 Behçet Kocaman, Mustafa Akdağ, Serhat Berat Efe, Metin Akdeniz

Paper Title:

 Implementation and Performance Analysis of a Hybrid PV-Wind Energy System

Abstract: This paper proposes physical installation and analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic - wind energy system in islanded mode that constructed at the Rahva Campus of Bitlis Eren University. As the purpose of the study, a hybrid system is physically installed and connections are completed. System is analyzed by using the values that obtained separately at various times from distributed generating units, which are photovoltaic system and wind turbine, and results of the performance analysis of the system are discussed.

Index Terms: Hybrid Energy System, Photovoltaic System, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy System.


  1. S. Dihrab, and K. Sopian, “Electricity generation of hybrid PV/wind systems in Iraq,” Renewable Energy, S. vol. 35, pp. 1303–1307, 2010.
  2. M. de Christo, J. F. Fardin, D. S. L. Simonetti, L. F. Encarnaçao, and C. E. de Alvarez, “Design and analysis of hybrid energy systems: The Brazilian Antarctic Station case,” Renewable Energy, vol. 88, pp. 236–246, 2016.
  3. M. Hoque, I. K. A Bhuiyan, R. Ahmed, A. A. Farooque, and S. K. Aditya, “Design, Analysis and Performance Study of a Hybrid PV Diesel - Wind System for a Village Gopal Nagar in Comilla,” Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Physics and Space Sciences, vol. 12 no. 5, pp. 13-17, 2012.
  4. Dursun, and O. Kilic, “Comparative evaluation of different power management strategies of a stand-alone PV/Wind/PEMFC hybrid power system,” Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 34, pp.81–89, 2012.
  5. Akkılıç, Y. S. Ocak, and M. Yılmaz, “Analysing Enhancement of Electricity Generating Capacity with Solar Tracking System of the Most Sunning Region of Turkey,” Journal of Clean Energy Technologies, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 291-295, 2015.
  6. Yılmaz, and “Fevzi Kentli, Increasing of Electrical Energy with Solar Tracking System at the Region Which Has Turkey’s Most Solar Energy Potential,” Journal of Clean Energy Technologies, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 287-290, 2015.
  7. S. Cengiz, and M.S. Mamiş, “Thermal Solar Energy Use and Turkey Analysis,” Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 88-91, 2015.
  8. Akdağ, S. Rüstemli, and Ç. Polat Dautov “Bitlis İli Elektrik Enerjisinin Dünü, Bugünü ve Yarını,” Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, vol. 5, no. 2, pp.172-182, 2016.
  9. Kentli, and M. Yilmaz, “Mathematical Modelling of Two-axis Photovoltaic System with Improved Efficiency,” Elektronika Ir Elektrotechnika, vol. 21, no. 4, pp.40-43, 2015.
  10. S. Cengiz, M.S. Mamiş, and Y. Yurci, “Cost Comparison of Constant and Tracking System PV Panels with Stirling Motor-Operated Systems,” Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 26-28, 2016.
  11. S. Cengiz, M.S. Mamiş, and M. Kaynaklı, “The Temperature-Pressure-Frequency Relationship Between Electrical Power Generating in Stirling Engines,” Kırıkkale Üniversitesi Uluslararası Mühendislik Araştırma ve Geliştirme Dergisi, vol. 9, no. 2, 2017.
  12. Rustemli, F. Dinçer, and M. N. Almali, “Research On Effects of Environmental Factors On Photovoltaic Panels and Modelling with Matlab/Simulink,” Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review), vol. 88, no. 7a, pp: 63 - 66, 2012.
  13. Rustemli, and F. Dinçer, “Economic Analysis and Modeling Process of Photovoltaic Power Systems,” Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review), vol. 87, no 9a, pp: 243 – 247, 2011
  14. Rustemli, and F. Dinçer, “Modeling of Photovoltaic Panel and Examining Effects of Temperature in Matlab/Simulink,” Elektronika IR Elektrotechnika (Electronics And Electrical Engineering), vol. 3, no. 109, pp: 35 - 40, 2011.
  15. D. Vick, and B. A. Neal, “Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems,” Solar Energy, vol. 86, pp.1197–1207, 2012.
  16. B. Efe, M. Cebeci, “Artificial Neural Network Based Power Flow Analysis for Micro Grids,” Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 42-47, 2015.
  17. S. B. Efe, B. Kocaman, “Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynaklı Hibrit Sistemin Fiziksel Olarak Gerçeklenmesi ve Analizi,” International Symposium on Innovative Technologies in Engineering and Science Azerbaijan, 2017.





 P. Arun Kumar, C. Rajeev Senan, B. Ajith, M. Ponnuswamy, P. Balachandran

Paper Title:

 Investigation on the Effect of Thrust Chamber Geometric Parameters on the Performance of NTO/MMH Thrusters

Abstract: Hypergolic bipropellant radiation cooled thrusters utilizing Mono-methyl Hydrazine and Nitrogen Tetroxide are commonly used in spacecraft missions for attitude and orbit control. The performance index of a rocket engine is the specific impulse which is a function of combustion efficiency, known as C* efficiency, and the nozzle efficiency. An experimental investigation is carried out   to evaluate the effect of combustion chamber design parameters on performance(C*efficiency) for varied injector spray and atomisation characteristics as well as injection pressures. Analytical model with empirical correlation available in the literature   is used as a tool for understanding  the physical process in the combustion chamber and predicting C* efficiency which was validated with experiments. Design variables considered are characteristic length and the contraction ratio. Cold flow evaluation of the injector using simulant water was done to evaluate the droplet size and injection velocity, which is normalised to the propellant flow conditions. Hot test for 10s using the stainless steel chamber was done at sea level with instrumentation for chamber pressure, mass flow rate of propellants and throat temperature. Results show that for a given injection and operating conditions, there exists a range of L* and contraction ratio where C*efficiency will be optimum and less sensitive. Trends in throat temperature measured are also evaluated. This paper presents the details of the investigation.

Keywords: Hypergolic bipropellants, C* efficiency, L*, Contraction Ratio


  1. Richard J.Preim and Marcus F.Heidmann, Propellant vaporization as a design criterion for Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber, Technical report R- 67.
  2. Richard J.Preim and Marcus F.Heidmann, Vaporisation of Propellants in Rocket Engines, ARS 13th Annual Meeting, NewYork, November 17-21, 1958.
  3. Thomas F. Seamans and Marcel Vanpee, Development of a Fundamental Model of Hypergolic Ignition in Space-Ambient Engines, AIAA Journal, pp 1616-1624, Vol.5, No.9, September 1967.
  4. Timothee L. Pourpoint and William E.Anderson, Environmental Effects on Hypergolic Ignition, 41st AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE  Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA-2005-3581, July 10-13, 2005, Tucson, USA.
  5. Swanand V. Sardeshmukh, Stephen D. Heister, Haifeng Wang, and Venkateswaran Sankaran, Kinetic Modeling of Hypergolic Propellnts, 49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA 2013-4157, July 14 - 17, 2013, San Jose, CA, USA.
  6. Knub, D.Preclik and D.Estublier, Flow Field Prediction within Liquid Film Cooled Combustion Chambers of Storable Bi-Propellant Rocket Engines, 34th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA-98-3370, 13-15 July, 1998, Cleveland, OH, USA.
  7. ZHANG Lian-bo, CHU Min and XU xu, Performance Prediction of Apogee Attitude and Orbit Control Thruster for MMH/NTO Hypergolic Bipropellant, 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA-2014-3572 July 28-30, 2014, Cleveland, OH, USA.
  8. Laurent Catoire, Nabiha Chaumeix and Claude Paillard, Chemical Kinetic Model for Monomethyl hydrazine/Nitrogen Tetroxide Gas–Phase Combustion and Hypergolic Ignition, Journal of Propulsion and Power, pp 87-92, Vol.20, No.1, January-February 2004.
  9. P.Green et al, Injection and Combustion of Hypergolic Bipropellants, Technical Report No.AFRPL-TR-69-48, April 1969.
  10. L.Kors, L.B.Bassham and R.E.Walker, A Liquid Rocket Performance Model Based on Vaporisation Interactions, Journal of Spacecraft and Rocket, pp 1133-1138, Vol.6, No.10, October 1969.
  11. Gordon Sanford and Mcbride, Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Composition, Rocket Performance, Incident and Reflected Shocks and Chapman-Jougnet Detonation, NASA SP 273.
  12. Ulrich Gotzid and Eckhard Davies, Development Status of Astriums New 22N Bipropellant Thruster Family, 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA-2003-4777, 20-23 July 2003, Alabama, USA.
  13. P. Vasilyev, V.M.Kudryavstev, et al, Fundamentals of Theory and Calculation of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines (Volume II-III), Report FTD-MT-24-253-68.
  14. R.Soltani, K.Ghorbanian, M.Ashjaee, M.R. Morad, Spray Characteristics of a liquid – liquid coaxial swirl atomizer at different mass flow rates, Aerospace Science and Technology Journal, pp 592-604, Vol.9, Issue 7, October  2005.
  15. C.Schindler and L.Schoenman, Development of a Five-Pound Thrust Bipropellant Engine, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, pp 435-442, Volume13, No.7, July 1976.
  16. Hardgrove and H.Krieg(Jr.), High Performance Throttling and Pulsing Rocket, 20th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA-84-1254, 11-13, June 1984, Ohio, USA.
  17. Arun Kumar, C.RajeevSenan, B. Ajith et al, Investigations on the Effect of Variations in Characteristic Length(L*) and Contraction Ratio of the Combustion Chamber on the Performance of a Liquid Hypergolic Bipropellant Thruster, 65th International Astronautical Congress, paper no. IAC-14-C4.3.6, 29thSeptember-3rd October 2014, Toronto, Canada.
  18. Arun Kumar, S.Venkateswaran, B. Ajith et al, Effect of Variation of Chamber Geometry on the Performance of a Small Scale Bipropellant Thruster, 58th International Astronautical Congress, paper no. IAC-07-C4.3.08, September2007, Hyderabad, India.
  19. John R. Howell, Mary K.Strite, et al, Analysis of Heat – Transfer Effects in Rocket Nozzles Operating with very High Temperature Hydrogen, Report NASA TR- R-220.
  20. George P Sutton, Oscar Biblarz, Rocket Propulsion Elements, Wiley Publications, 8th edition, January 2010.





Amogh Raut, Aniket Patil

Paper Title:

Design Analysis of Chassis used in Students’ Formula Racing Car using FEA Tool

Abstract: In this paper, the overall design process for a Formula SAE vehicle will be explored, as well as the many challenges that must be overcome. Several factors will be taken into account, including modelling and analysis, and overall manufacturing and performance of chassis. This project will be split into several phases: analysis, testing and validation of the FSAE vehicle and the design, analysis, manufacturing. All decisions for design were based on all pros and cons from previous FSAE testing and competition results. The competition consists of various sub events for which points are given and cumulative score is recorded for deciding the ranks. Following the technical inspection are the sub events which include the static events like tilt test, brake test, cost report presentation, engineering design report and business presentation, dynamic events like acceleration test, skid pad, autocross and endurance test. In this high octane scenario a car is expected to perform high on acceleration, handling, braking, aesthetics, ergonomics, fabrication and maintenance with least investment in fabrication without compromising on safety of the driver at different track configurations.

 Keywords: Chassis, Design, FSAE, Line Element.


1.         SAE Supra Rulebook 2017.

2.         Author: William F. Milliken and Douglas L. Milliken “Race Car Vehicle Dynamics”.

3.         Author: Akash Sood International Journal of Mechanical Engineering And Technology (IJMET) Volume 6, Issue 11, Nov 2015, Pp. 202-212, Article Id: Ijmet_06_11_023 “Analysis Of Space Frame Of Formula SAE At High Speed With Ergonomic And Vibration Factors”.

4.      Author: Prajwal Kumar IJRET: International Journal Of Research In Engineering And Technology EISSN: 2319-1163 | PISSN: 2321-7308 “Design and Analysis of A Tubular Space Frame Chassis Of A High Performance Race Car”.

5.         Author: Abhijeet Das International Journal of Science And Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online): 2319-7064 “Design of Student Formula Race Car Chassis”.





Vishal Pravinbhai Vekariya

Paper Title:

Prototype of Vertical Axis Savonius type Wind Turbine with 2.3kWh Power Generation

Abstract:  In recent scenario the energy utilization is most impacted topic in research and development section. Research work on wind and solar section has been considerably increased due to its availability and effectiveness. In wind section, windmill is one of the way, through which we can use maximum percentage of wind energy. The Horizontal Axis Wind turbine can be said tradition equipment for wind energy utilization. Due to its characteristics it is not used for household purpose. In case of Vertical Axis Windmill, due its type of blade, it is compactable for household purpose. For the main aim to choose this type of design, it is suitable for varying condition of weather.

 Keywords:  Energy Utilization, Magnetic Levitation, Savonius Blade, Vertical Axis.


1.         Antonio Gagliano, Francesco Nocera.International journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering(IJEEE) 2013. Assessment of micro-wind turbines performance in the urban environments: an aided methodology through geographical information system

2.         F. Sigernes, University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS), Norway.” DRAFT: Savonius wind rotor basics”

3.         Ashwin Dhote1, Prof. Vaibhav Bankar2 “DESIGN, ANALYSIS AND FABRICATION OF SAVONIUS VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE”, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Volume: 02 Issue: 03 | Jun-2015


5.         http://www.hibid.co.uk/metcalc/metcalc.html

6.         https://www.kjmagnetics.com/fieldcalculator.asp

7.         https://www.electrical4u.com/lenz-law-of-electromagnetic-induction/

8.         https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savonius_wind_turbine





A.  Mahdy, S. M. EL-Hakim, M. Abdel Hakim

Paper Title:

Modeling and Control of Inversely Connected Rotors of Brushless Doubly Fed Twin Stator Induction Generator

Abstract: This paper presents a steady state and dynamic modeling of inversely connected rotors of Brushless Doubly Fed Twin Stator Induction Generator (BDFTSIG). The BDFTSIG consists of two identical machines, one is called power machine whose stator is connected directly to the grid and the other machine is called control machine whose stator is connected to a pulse width modulation converters. A vector control scheme is applied on the grid side converter (GSC) to control the DC link bus voltage; another vector control scheme is applied on the control machine side converter (CMSC) for synchronization and also to control the active and reactive power delivered to the grid. The system is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show a good performance comparing with conventional doubly fed induction generator, under various loading and rotor speed conditions.

 Keywords: BDFTSIG, vector control, inversely connected rotors.


1.    U. Shipurkar. H. Polinder, J.A. Ferreira, “A Review of Methods to Increase the Availability of Wind Turbine Generator Systems”, CPSS Transactions on power electronics and applications, Vol. 1, No. 1, Dec. 2016, pp. 66-82.

2.    R. Bia, K. Qianb, C. Zhoua, D. M. Hepburna, J. Rong, “ A survey of failures in wind turbine generator systems with focus on a wind farm in China”, International Journal of Smart Grid and Clean Energy, Vol. 3, No. 4, Oct. 2014. pp. 366-373.

3.    K. Fischer, F. Besnard, L. Bertling, “Reliability-Centred Maintenance for Wind Turbines Based on Statistical Analysis and Practical Experience”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol.27, Issue: 1, March 2012, pp. 184-195.

4.    P.C. Roberts, R.A. McMahon, P.J. Tavner, J.M. Maciejowski, T.J. Flack, X. Wang, “Performance of Rotors in a Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Machine (BDFM)”, Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Electrical machines, Cracow, Poland, 2004, pp. 450–455.

5.    P.C. Roberts, R.A. McMahon, P.J. Tavner, J.M. Maciejowski and T.J. Flack,“Equivalent circuit for the brushless doubly fed machine (BDFM) including parameter estimation and experimental verification”, IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 4, 2005, pp. 933-942.

6.    F. Blazquez, C. Veganzones, D. Ramirez, and C. Platero, “Characterization of the Rotor Magnetic Field in a Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Machine”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2009, pp. 599-607.

7.    S. M. Allam, A. M. Azmy, and M. A. El-Khazendar, “A General Model for Describing the Performance of Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Machines”, The Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2010, pp. 1-9.

8.    Hamed Gorginpour1, Hashem Oraee, Richard A. McMahon, “Performance Description of Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Machine in Its Asynchronous and Variable Speed Synchronous Modes”, Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 3, 2011, pp. 490-511.

9.    M. N. Hashemnia and F. Tahami,“Steady State Analysis of Brushless Doubly Induction Machine Taking Core Loss into Account”, 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2012, pp. 2030-2035.

10.  Duro Basic, Jian Guo Zhu, and Gerard Boardman, “Transient Performance Study of a Brushless Doubly Fed Twin Stator Induction Generator”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2003, pp. 400-408.

11.  Basic Duro, Zhu Jianguo, and Boardman Gerard, “Modeling and steady state performance analysis of brushless doubly fed twin stator induction generator”, Australian Power engineering Committee, Monash Univ. Melbourne, Australia, 2002, pp. 6.

12.  Marek Adamowicz, Ryszard Strzelecki, and Daniel Wojciechowski, “Steady State Analysis of Twin Stator Cascaded Doubly Fed Induction Generator”, Compatibility in Power Electronics, 2007, pp. 1-5.

13.  Zoheir Tir, Hammoud Rajeai, and Rachid Abdessemed, “Analysis and vector control of a cascaded doubly fed induction generator in wind energy applications”, Revue des Energies Renouvelables , SMEE’10 Bou Ismail Tipaza, 2010, pp. 347 – 358.

14.  Kostyantyn Protsenko and Dewei Xu,, “Modeling and Control of Brushless Doubly-FedInduction Generators in Wind Energy Applications”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, VOL. 23, No. 3, 2008, pp. 1191-1197.

15.  Bensadeq, P. W. Lefley, “Design and Control of the Brushless Doubly Fed Twin Induction Generator (BDFTIG)”, 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2010, pp. 72-76.

16.  R. Pena, J.C. Clare, and  G.M. Asher, “A doubly fed induction generator using back to back PWM converters supplying an isolated load from variable speed wind turbine”, IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl. Vol. I43, No. 5, 1996, pp. 380-387.

17.  R. Pena, J.C. Clare, and G.M. Asher,“Doubly fed induction generator using back-to-back PWM converters and its application to variable speed wind-energy generation”, IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl. Vol. I43, No. 5, 1996, pp. 231-241.

18.  Wei Qiao,“Dynamic Modeling and Control of Doubly Fed Induction Generators Driven by Wind Turbines”, IEEE/PES Power Systems Conference and Exposition, 2009, pp. 1-8.

19.  Gilsung Byeon, In Kwon Park, and Gilsoo Jang, “Modeling and Control of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) Wind Power Generation System for Real-time Simulations”, Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010, pp. 61-69.

20.  Riyadh Rouabhi, Rachid Abdessemed, Aissa Chouder, Ali Djerioui, “Power Quality Enhancement of Grid Connected Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Using Sliding Mode Control”, International Review of Electrical Engineering (I.R.E.E.), Vol. 10, No. 2, 2015, pp. 266-276





Tanushree Debilata Das, Ramdulari Pradhan, Debabrata Singh, Adyasha Rath, Sonali Pattnaik

Paper Title:

Performance Analysis of Devices in Double Gate MOSFET

Abstract:  The silicon CMOS technology moves into the sub-20nm regime and due to manufacturing limits the fundamental curb the traditional scaling of transistors. Rapid development in device structures and materials will be need for transistor miniaturization and improvement of performances. Device dimensions are approaching to their scaling limit rise to undesirable effects i.e. drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), gate leakage current, short channel effects etc. Tri-Material Double Gate (DMDG) structure offers an alternative way of simultaneous SCE suppression and improved device performance by careful control of the gate material work function. We study and analyze the short channel effects (SCE), potential distributions, impact ionization, ion scattering, hot carrier effect and sub threshold swing. Analysis and comparative study of the electrical characteristics of DOUBLE GATE FETs shows that TMDG MOSFET exhibits better performance than DMDG and SMDG MOSFET in terms of surface potential, electric field, carrier mobility, and electron velocity to suppress the scaling effects like DIBL, HCEs etc.

 Keywords: Dual Material Double Gate FETs, Scaling, short channel effects (SCE), potential distributions, impact ionization, ion scattering, sub threshold swing


1.      Kaushik Roy, Saibal Mukhopadhyay, Hamid Mahmoodi-Meimand, “Leakage Current Mechanisms and Leakage    Reduction Techniques in Deep-Sub-micrometre CMOS Circuits”, IEEE Transaction on Electron Devices, vol.     91, no. 2, pp. 305-327, Feb., 2003.

2.      M. Saxena, S. Haldar, M. Gupta, R.S. Gupta, “Unified model for physics-based modelling of a new device   architecture: triple material gate oxide stack epitaxial channel profile (TRIMGAS Epi) MOSFET”,IEEE   Trans. Electron Devices, 49, 1928–1938,2002.

3.      K. Goel, M. Saxena, M. Gupta, RS. Gupta “Silicon Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field- Effect Transistors with Dual Work Function Gate” ,  IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 53, 1623–1633, 2006.

4.      P. Razavi and A. A. Orouji, “Nanoscale triple material double gate (TM-DG) MOSFET for improving short channel effects”, International Conference on Advances in Electronics and Micro-electronics, 11–14,2008.

5.      H. Alexander Kloes, "MOS: A New Physics-Based Explicit Compact Model for Lightly Doped Short-Channel Triple-Gate SOI MOSFETs," IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 349-358, 2012.

6.      R. Oberhuber, G. Zandler, and P. Vogl, “Sub-band structure and mobility of two-dimensional holes in strained Si/SiGe MOSFET’s”, The American Physical Society, vol. 58, no. 15, pp. 9941-9948, Oct., 1998.

7.      W Long, H. Ou, J. M. Kuo, K.K. Chin, “Dual-material gate (DMG) field effect transistor”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 865-870, May, 1999.

8.      N. Xou, “Nanoscale Bulk MOSFET Design and Process Technology for Reduced Variability96”, Ph.D Thesis, University of California at Berkeley, 2010.

9.      Koushik Roy,” Leakage Current Mechanisms and Leakage Reduction Techniques in Deep-Sub micrometer CMOS Circuits”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices,2012.

10.   C.L. Huang, N. Arora, A. Nasr, D. Bell, “Effect of poly-silicon depletion on MOSFET  I-V characteristics”, Electronics Letters, vol.29, 13, p.1208-9, June 1993.

11.   Mohankumar, B. Syamal and C. K. Sarkar, “Influence of channel and gate engineering  on the analog and rf performance of DG MOSFETs”, IEEE Transaction    on Electron Devices, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 820-826, Apr., 2010.

12.   L. Jin, L. Hongxia, L. Bin, C. Lei, and Y. Bo,“Two-dimensional threshold voltage   analytical model of DMG strained-silicon-on insulator MOSFETs”, Journal of   Semiconductors, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 084008 (1-6), Aug., 2010.

13.   W. Zhang and J. G. Fossum, “On the threshold voltage of strained-Si-Si1−xGexMOSFETs”, Electron Devices, IEEE Transaction on Electron Device, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 263–268, Feb., 2005.

14.   D. Singh, B.K. Pattanayak et.al., “ Safety & Crime Assistance System for a Fast Track Response on Mobile Devices in Bhubaneswar”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Vol. 556, Computational Intelligence in Data Mining, 978-981-10-3873-0, 421502_1_En,April  2017.

15.   M. J. Kumar, V. Venkataraman and S. Nawal,“ Simple Analytical Threshold Voltage    Model of Nanoscale Single-Layer Fully Depleted trained-Silicon-on-Insulator MOSFETs”, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 53, no. 10,  pp. 2500-187, Mar., 2006.

16.   V. Venkataraman, S. Nawal and M. J. Kumar, “Compact analytical threshold-voltage     model of nanoscale fully depleted strained-Si on silicon–germanium-on-insulator (SGOI) MOSFETs”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 554- 562, Mar. 2007.

17.   S. Bhushan, S. Sarangi, A. Santra, M. Kumar, S. Dubey, S. Jit and P. K. Tiwari, “An analytical surface potential model of strained-si on silicon-germanium MOSFET including the effects of interface charge”, Journal of Electron Device, vol.15, pp. 1285-1290, Sept., 2012.

18.   Kirti Goel, Manoj Saxena, Mridula Gupta, and R. S. Gupta,” Modeling and Simulation of a Nanoscale Three-Region Tri-Material Gate Stack (TRIMGAS) MOSFET for Improved Carrier Transport Efficiency and Reduced Hot-Electron Effects”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, VOL. 53, NO. 7, JULY 2006.

19.   M. saxena,S. Haldar,M. gupta, and R. S. Gupta,‟Physics –based analytical modelling of potential and electric field distribution in dual material gate(DMG)-MOSFET for improved hot electron effect and carrier transport efficiency,”IEEE trans. Electron Device,vol. 50,no. 4,pp. 1027-1035,april 2003.

20.   D. Singh, B.K. Pattanayak, “Ambient Energy Harvesting and Management on the Sensor Nodes in a Wireless Sensor Network”, ID-6292, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER),vol-7(3),2017.

21.   D. Singh, B.K. Pattanayak, “Analytical Study of an Improved Cluster based Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 9(37), October 2016.





Prakash Choudhary, Neha Mahala, Khusboo Uprety, P K Bhagat

Paper Title:

Application of Polar Harmonic Transforms in Thumb Impression Recognition

Abstract: Fingerprint recognition refers to the methods of matching or verifying a known and questioned fingerprint against another fingerprint to ascertain if the impressions are the same. Fingerprints are the most popular biometrics to authenticate a person as it is unique and permanent throughout a person’s life. Polar Harmonic Transforms (PHTs) are orthogonal rotation invariant 2D transforms that provide various numerically stable features for fingerprint recognition. The kernel functions of PHTs are basic waves and harmonic in nature that consists sinusoidal functions that are inherently computation intensive that can be used to generate rotation invariant features. PHTs are characterized by low time complexity and numerical stability. In this paper, Polar Harmonic Transforms (PHTs) are introduced for rotation invariance in thumb impression recognition, namely, Polar Complex Exponential Transform (PCET), Polar Cosine Transform (PCT), and Polar Sine Transform (PST). Orthogonal kernels of PHTs are more effective in terms of information compactness and minimal information redundancy. A fast approach of computation of Polar Harmonic Transform for thumb impression recognition with low values of FAR and FRR have been implemented. The accuracy obtained is above 80 percent.

 Keywords: Fingerprint, PCET, PCT, PHT, PST, Rotation Invariant PHT


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Kamal Bunkar, Prakash Choudhary, Neha Mahala, P K Bhagat

Paper Title:

Design of Elastic Application for Seamless Cloud Computing

Abstract: Mobile cloud computing is an emerging technology. Unlike previous definition of mobile cloud computing, mobile node now has become a part of deployment of cloud application. But present issues in the currently existing network infrastructure create problems in connecting mobile devices to cloud hosting server. We present a protocol for elastic applications which uses application partitioning technique to facilitate the mobile cloud computing in disconnected network. Application partitioning is a technique that aims to split a complex application into components called as weblets. An elastic application consists of one or more weblets, each of which can be launched on a device if wireless network is not responding. The proper organization of weblets with client side data storage technique drives mobile cloud computing into a new era of wireless cloud computing. The initial phase of our work approach proposes algorithms for application partitioning and in the latter part we have explained protocol for elastic application through client side data storage mechanism. We present results of experimentation done by changing different cost parameters.

 Keywords: About four key words or phrases in alphabetical order, separated by commas.


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9.      E. Tilevich and Y. Smaragdakis, “J-Orchestra: Automatic Java Application Partitioning”, In Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on ObjectOriented Programming, Malaga, Spain, 2002, pp. 178-204.

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Naseer Salman Kadhim, Qais Hussein Hassan

Paper Title:

Investigation on the Effects of Gasoline Fuel Types on Exhaust Emissions

Abstract:  An experiment was executed at internal combustion engines laboratory/ Institute of Technology Baghdad – Middle Technical University to evaluate the performance and emission of a single-cylinder, four-stroke naturally aspired gasoline engine. The tested engine was fueled by four types of fuel: imported gasoline (A1), Al-Shuaiba refinery gasoline (A2), Al-Dora refinery gasoline (A3), and Al-Nasiriyah refinery gasoline (A4). The engine was operated within three levels of speed 1500, 2000 and 2500rpm under three levels of torques 2, 4 and 6Nm. The engine exhaust emissions which include oxygen gas (O2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) were measured using a gas analyzer device and smoke meter. The experimental results were statistically analyzed using the Split-Split plot design and SAS (2012) software based on a complete randomized design (CRD) within three replications. The least significant differences (L.S.D = 0.05) under probability of 0.05 was utilized to compare the means of treatments. The results show that the lowest value of O2 that was 20.1% was recorded within the A1 while this gas increased to be 22.95% by using A4. The value of CO with A1 decreased to be 0.1% while it raised to be 6.21% with A4. The CO2 increased within A1 to be 20.11% whereas it declined with A4 to be 11.26%. The rates of HC and NOx decreased within A1 to be 39 and 275.7 parts per million (ppm); however, they increased by using A4 to be 341 and 2393.3 ppm, respectively.

 Keywords: exhaust emissions, engine speed, engine torque, gasoline fuels, and environment


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Kishu Gupta, Ashwani Kush

Paper Title:

A Review on Data Leakage Detection for Secure Communication

Abstract: Data is an important asset for an enterprise. Data must be confined against loss and damage. In IT field massive amount of data is being exchanged among multiple parties at every moment. During data sharing, a great probability of data vulnerability, breach or variation exists. Along with data availability and accessibility data security is also very important. The term Data leakage is expressed as the accidental or unintentional allocation of confidential or sensitive data to a not permitted third party. This paper focuses on the data leakage concept, DLD modules & techniques to identify data leakage. A literature review for data leakage techniques is been presented in this paper. Commonly, water marking technique is used to handle the data leakage and hence causes data alteration. Distributor can allege his rights over the data if this altered watermark copy of data does exist at some not permitted location [1]. Various Data allocation strategies are in use to prevail over disadvantages for using watermark; these techniques enhance the probability of detecting guilty parties. The guilty agent(s) is an individual or a group of malicious users who cause data breach. Finally the algorithms were implemented which enhances the chance to detect guilty agents using fake objects.

 Keywords: Data Leakage, Data Leakage Detection, Data Leakage Prevention, Encryption, Watermarking.


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2.      Shabtai, Y. Elovici, and L. Rokach,. NewYork: Springer, 2012, ch. Introduction to Information Security and Data Leakage, pp. 1-87.

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4.      N. Rechal and S. Aliyoglu, "A Survey On Data Leakage/Loss Prevention Systems (DLPs)".

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6.      Baby and H. Krishnan, "A Literature Survey on Data Leak Detection And Prevention Methods," International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 2416-2418, May- June 2017.

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9.      P. Buneman, S. Khanna, and W. C. Tan, "Why and Where: A Characterisation of Data Provenance," in International conference on database theory (ICDT), 2001, pp. 316-330.

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14.   R. Mogull, "Understanding and Selecting a Data Loss Prevention Solution," SANS, Securosis, LLC., Arizona, White Paper 2010.

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16.   P. Raman, H. G. Kayacık, and A. Somayaji, "Understanding Data Leak Prevention," in 6th Annual Symposium on Information Assurance(ASIA’11), Albany, NewYork, USA, 2011, pp. 27-31.

17.   Agarwal, M. Gaikwad, K. Garg, and V. Inamdar, "Robust Data leakage and Email Filtering System," in International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies (ICCEET), IEEE, 2012, pp. 1032-1035.

18.   N. P. Jagtap, S. J. Patil, and A. K. Bhavsar, "Implementation of data watcher in data leakage detection system," International Journal of Computer & Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 44-47, August 2012.

19.   S. A. Kale and S. V. Kulkarni, "Data Leakage Detection," International Jouranl of Advance Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 668-679, November 2012.

20.   Kumar, A. Goyal, A. Kumar, N. K. Chaudhary, and S., S. Kamath, "Comparative Evaluation of Algorithms for Effective Data Leakage Detection," in IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT 2013), vol. 13, 2013, pp. 177-182.

21.   G. Katz, Y. Elovici, and V. Shapira, "CoBAn: A Context Based Model for Data Leakage Prevention," Elsevier, Information Sciences, vol. 262, no. 1, pp. 137-158, October 2014.

22.   X. Shu and D. Yao, "Privacy-Preserving Detection of Sensitive Data Exposure," IEEE Transactions on Information forensics and Security, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1092-1103, May 2015.

23.   M. Backes, N. Grimm, and A. Kate, "Data Lineage in Malicious Environments," IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 178-191, March/April 2016.

24.   Sultan, E. Sithirasenan, and V. Muthukkumarasamy, "A Survey on Data Leakage Prevention Systems," Elsevier Journal of Network And Compute rApplications, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 137-152, January 2016.

25.   S. Peneti and B. P. Rani, "Data Leakage Pevention System with Time Stamp," in International Conference on Information Communication and Embedded System (ICICES), 2016, pp. 1-3.

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28.   R. Karthik, S. Ramkumar, and K. Sundaram, "Data Leakage Identification and Blocking Fake Agents Using Pattern Discovery Algorithm," International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 5660-5667, September 2014.

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TIJANI, Murtadha Adekilekun, AKINLEYE, Monsuru Tunde, JAIYEOBA, Kehinde Folake

Paper Title:

Engineering Properties of Laterites Obtained in Ede, Southwestern Nigeria

Abstract: Engineering properties of laterites obtained from four different pits in Ede were evaluated to determine their suitability for road construction. Samples from each pit sites were subjected to sieve analysis, atterberg limits, linear shrinkage, compaction and California bearing ratio adopting British Standard 1377 (1990) testing methods. The sieve analysis results showed that percentage passing No 200 sieve ranged between 12.4 and 33.6%. The liquid, plastic limit and plasticity index varied between 24.0 to 34.7%, 16.7 to 23.6% and 7.3 to 11.1% respectively. The linear shrinkage is of the order 4.0 to 7.0%. The maximum dry density ranged from 1.72g/cm3 to 2.12g/cm3 while optimum moisture content varied from 9.0 to 11.1%. California bearing ratio ranged between 35 to 85%. The soils were classified as A-2-4 and A-2-6 which implied that they are suitable for sub-grade, good fill and sub-base and base materials. This geotechnical data obtained will be useful for future road foundation design and construction in the study area.

Keywords: Laterites, engineering properties, road construction, Ede.


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