Scylla Serrata Shells Calcination using Electric Furnace and Microwave Kiln
Vivien Yiik Mei Hii1, Fethma M Nor2, Denni Kurniawan3
1Vivien Yiik Mei Hii, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Miri, Malaysia.
2Fethma M Nor*, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Miri, Malaysia.
3Denni Kurniawan, Mechanical Engineering Programme Area, Universiti Teknologi Brunei, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam.
Manuscript received on July 20, 2019. | Revised Manuscript received on August 10, 2019. | Manuscript published on August 30, 2019. | PP: 500-504 | Volume-8 Issue-6, August 2019. | Retrieval Number: E7913068519/2019©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.E7913.088619
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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: To accommodate the rising demands for artificial bone substitutes, the possibilities of extracting calcium oxide (CaO) as precursor of hydroxyapatite (HAP) from Scylla serrata (crab) shells via electric furnace and microwave kiln heating (calcination) were investigated. The crab shells were obtained from food wastes from local restaurants in Miri, Malaysia. They were treated by calcination with temperatures of 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C for 3 and 4 hours in electric furnace. The shells were also calcined in microwave kiln at power levels of 60%, 80% and 100% for 1 hour. Characterization on the calcined shell samples were done using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Diffractometer (XRD). Based on the FTIR and XRD spectra, it was found that calcium oxide was obtained through calcination at temperatures ≥ 800°C. The results also indicated that a higher calcination temperature and duration would yield Ca O with larger crystallite size. Through calcination in microwave kiln, Ca O was readily produced when calcination was done at 60% power.
Keywords: Calcination, calcium oxide, crab shell, furnace, microwave.