Analysis of Thrust Coefficient in a Rocket Motor
P Bose1, K M Pandey2
1P Bose, Research Scholar, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam, India.
2Dr. KM Pandey, Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam, India.
Manuscript received on january 17, 2012. | Revised Manuscript received on February 05, 2012. | Manuscript published on February 29, 2012. | PP: 30-33 | Volume-1 Issue-3, February 2012. | Retrieval Number: C0180011312/2011©BEIESP
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Abstract: In motors of artillery rockets and anti tank missiles solid propellant is used to provide high thrusts for short period of time. On fixing of propellant composition and its grain geometry nozzle design becomes the controlling factors for optimum performance of rocket. Thrust coefficient is one of the most important parameters for its performance. It is the thrust per unit chamber pressure and throat area. It is a dimensionless multiplication factor and signifies the degree to which the thrust is amplified by the nozzle. It is a function of gas property i.e. specific heat ratio of the gas and other thermodynamic parameters. It is also a function of nozzle geometry i.e. expansion ratio and pressure ratio. It is highest when the nozzle expands the gases exactly down to ambient pressure at the exit plane. However, thrust coefficient is independent of chamber pressure. In this paper thrust coefficient is analysed as a function of expansion ratio at three different values of specific heat ratio. It is observed that flow separation typically occurs when the ratio of exit pressure to atmospheric pressure is less than 0.25 to 0.35 and thus kept less than 0.40. Thrust coefficient losses are due to divergence of the flow at the nozzle exit, skin friction losses, two-phase flow and also propellant performance. These are minimized by developing proper propellant and designing suitable nozzle. However, the losses cannot be brought down to zero. The paper analyses the various parameters that affect the thrust coefficient and brought out methods to improve the performance of solid rocket motor.
Keywords: Flow separation, Nozzle throat area, Propellant, Rocket motor, Thrust coefficient.