Moss as Bio-indicator for Air Quality Monitoring at Different Air Quality Environment
Nurulshyha Md Yatim1, Nur Izzatul Afifah Azman2

1Nurulshyha Md Yatim*, Environmental Health Research Cluster (EHReC), Environmental Health Section, Institute of Medical Science & Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.
2Nur Izzatul Afifah Azman, Environmental Health Section, Institute of Medical Science & Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Manuscript received on May 03, 2021. | Revised Manuscript received on May 10, 2021. | Manuscript published on June 30, 2021. | PP: 43-47 | Volume-10 Issue-5, June 2021. | Retrieval Number:  100.1/ijeat.E25790610521 | DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.E2579.0610521
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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Abstract: Air quality monitoring by using bio-indicator currently being promoted and frequently used in studies due to their advantages compared to other scientific approaches. The advantages of using bio-indicator as a bio-monitoring in air quality are, it remains the cheapest, most available and simplest matrix for reliable atmospheric monitoring. This study was conducted to determine moss ability to be used as a bio-indicator for air quality monitoring when expose to different air quality environments. Four environmental conditions were chosen to conduct this study; urban area, reserve forest, living room and smoker’s room. Leucobryum glaucum or Holland moss is used as the bio-indicator to monitor the air quality. Gridded containers of moss were left at each study location for the duration of two weeks. Physical observation was monitored weekly by examining colour changes of the moss. Survivability rate of the moss was determined by counting the numbers of grid where moss growth in each container. The data was recorded through physical observation of moss responses and survivability rate towards different air quality environment. The data was analyzed by using SPSS. Moss reacted accordingly towards different air quality environments. Moss reacts mostly at highly polluted environment, in smoker’s room by changing from fresh green to brownish in color. In conclusion, moss can be used as a bio-indicator in air quality monitoring to determine air quality condition because moss changes its physical appearance and growth rate by the influenced of surrounding environment. 
Keywords: Air Quality Monitoring, Bio-Indicator, Moss, Urban, Smoker