Assessment of Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems for Sanitation of Small Communities using A Qualitative Approach Methodology: A Case Study from Northern India
Pankaj Banyal1, N Singh2, A.A Kazmi3
1Pankaj Banyal, Post Graduate Scholar,  Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.
2N Singh, Research Scholar, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.
3A.A Kazmi, Professor,  Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.
Manuscript received on March 07, 2015. | Revised Manuscript received on March 20, 2015. | Manuscript published on April 30, 2015. PP: 32-39 | Volume-4 Issue-4, April 2015. | Retrieval Number:  D3833044415/2013©BEIESP

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Abstract: To date different technologies based wastewater treatments have been actualized at full scale level over the world; however the integral elements for the determination of most suitable treatment framework are still obscure. The present study is fervent to the investigation of 11 decentralized sewage treatment plants in Northern India using a qualitative approach methodology in which distinctive focus was paid to economic indicator of these plants. A total of eight technologies i.e. Package type (including Anaerobic , Anaerobic +Aerobic treatment and Anaerobic +Aerobic treatment ), and cluster type, i.e. Extended Aeration (EA), Moving bed Bio-film Reactor (MBBR), Sequencing Batch reactor (SBR), Membrane Bio reactor (MBR),Rotational Biological Contractor (RBC) were counted in this field review. As a component of the qualitative evaluation of these plants, land requirement, capital investments, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and treatment efficiencies (in terms of BOD, COD, TSS removal) were selected as determining broader indicator in the cull of the felicitous wastewater treatment system in developing countries like India. An intensive field campaign was run and data obtained by conventional field visits + preset questionnaire format for analyzing results to gain insight into available technologies as per capacity wise classification of small scale plants. The study analyzed approximate cost of treatment in the range of 4.4 to 6.8 Rs/m3 (±15%) for On-site Package treatment plant and Rs (₹ ) 3.0 to 10.1 (±15 -20%) for Cluster Type (< 5.0 MLD) as per design flow, Land usage for package type @ 4.0 to 40 m2 (±20%), 220.0 to 7630.3 m2 (±20%) for cluster type, Capital investment @ ₹ 82.5 to 833.3 (±20%) Lacs/MLD for Package type and for cluster type @ 80.4 to 528.6 (±20%) Lacs/MLD; Specific power consumption @ < 0.7 (±10%) KWh/m3 for design flow and 0.15 to 1.76 (±10%) KW-h/m3 for Actual Flow, technical performance was pragmatic with % BOD removal @ 65 to 98%, % COD removal 66 to 98 % and % TSS removal 65 to 97 % .These results give a test and an opportunity for the research community and market leader to choose a suitable option of similar regions. The results of this study allow users and engineer to choose the treatment system according to their resources available viz. –a- viz. requirement.
Keywords: Decentralized sewage treatment plants, Specific power consumption, Operation and maintenance, Economic analysis.