Impacts of Clay Mining Activities on Aquatic Ecosystems: A Critical Review
Anju P S1, Jaya D S2

1Dr. Anju P S*, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) India. 
2Dr. Jaya D S, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala), India. 
Manuscript received on 31 March 2022. | Revised Manuscript received on 14 April 2022. | Manuscript published on 30 April 2022. | PP: 128-134 | Volume-11 Issue-4, April 2022. | Retrieval Number: 100.1/ijeat.D34950411422 | DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.D3495.0411422
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Abstract: The unconsolidated earth surface is a rich source of minerals, of which clay is one of the richest natural minerals, having various natural and anthropogenic properties. Natural clay is widely available as a cheaper resource, which is non toxic to ecosystems and has the property of preserving ground water and aquifers. At the same time, the ubiquitous and widespread occurrence of clay will have the property to control toxic materials. The uncontrolled exploitation or mining of clay minerals will affect the aquatic ecosystem’s sustainability in many ways. Water quality is very essential for the healthy environment and human life, whereas unpredictable conditions like flooding, drought, groundwater loss, loss of biodiversity, and health impacts on the surrounding inhabitants are some of the signs of ecosystem loss. The unwanted mined clay is deposited into the surrounding area of the mining environment, resulting in top soil, ground water, and surface water pollution. The review paper describes the pollution aspects of the aquatic ecosystem with special emphasis on ground water, aquifers, fresh water (lotic and lentic), sediment, and marine ecology and hydrology. 
Keywords: Clay Mining, Aquatic Ecosystem, Fresh Water, Groundwater, Marine, Sediment, Pollution
Scope of the Article: Data Mining