Closure of Lake Nasser Khores by Different Types of Dams, using Satellite Images
Marwa M. Aly1, H. A. Haggag2, A. M. Abdel Fadil3

1Marwa Mohamed Aly*, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Mataria, Helwan University, 11718, Cairo, Egypt, and High Institute of Engineering and Technology- Al-Obour, Egypt.
2Hesham Ahmed Haggag, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Mataria, Helwan University, 11718, Cairo, Egypt.
3Ahmed Mohamed Abdel Fadil, Department of Civil Engineer (M. Sc.) at Civil Engineering, Mataria, Helwan University Cairo, Egypt.
Manuscript received on February 01, 2020. | Revised Manuscript received on February 05, 2020. | Manuscript published on February 30, 2020. | PP: 2095-2103 | Volume-9 Issue-3, February 2020. | Retrieval Number: C5221029320 /2020©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.C5221.029320
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Abstract: According to the agreement between Egypt and Sudan in 1959 for the full utilization of Nile water arriving Aswan, both countries agreed to build the High Aswan Dam (HAD) in 1964 to get benefits from the water which was flowing to the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, Lake Nasser, the greatest artificial lake in the world, was created with large areas of shallow depths adjacent to the edges of the lake on both sides according to the topography of the surrounding area namely (khores). These khores increased the surface area; consequently, the estimated evaporation losses reach about 10 BCM/year in average. Reducing evaporation losses from HAD Lake is an option to increase the Egyptian available water resources. Many studies were done in order to partially or completely closure of the Khores, where the surface area of the khores of Lake Nasser is about one third of the total area of the lake, which indicates the effectiveness of its closure in decreasing the evaporation. The objectives of the research are studying the Lake Nasser’s large area khores, evaluating the idea of closing these khores using different types of dams such as earthfill, rockfill and rubber dams, and the consequent saved water. Meanwhile, a preliminary cost study for the different types of dams was done to determine the most suitable dam type. This research used the land sat 4 & 5 at years 1988 and 1999 in order to identify the surface area of the lake for the lowest and highest levels respectively. Also it gets benefit from the data available at Ministry of water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI), such as the Khores bathymetric maps and the evaporation rates of Lake Nasser. The results of the study show that Kalabsha khore is the most optimum for dam closure as its entrance is suitable for dam construction, and at high water levels it has the greatest area thus, reducing the evaporation. It is highly appreciated to use rubber dam either economically or environmentally. The amount of saved water reach about 1.0 Milliard m3 representing 11.11% of the annual total evaporation losses from Lake Nasser, the water saved may reach 1.53 Milliard m3 if the water level reaches 181.52 m for considerable time span.
Keywords: Evaporation Losses, Closure Dams, Khores, Lake Nasser, Satellite Images.