Field Assessment to Determine The KIBLAH Direction of Mosques in MAKKAH
A. M. Abdel-Wahab

A. M. Abdel-Wahab *, Civil Engineering Department, National Research Centre, Egypt (NRC).
Manuscript received on November 25, 2019. | Revised Manuscript received on December 08, 2019. | Manuscript published on December 30, 2019. | PP: 388-394 | Volume-9 Issue-2, December, 2019. | Retrieval Number: B3219129219/2019©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.B3219.129219
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Abstract: Every Muslim must pray to ALLAH five times every day and they must direct their faces toward the KABAH (KIBLAH direction) in each prayer. Muslims Scientifics and Astronomers since the eighth century (A.D) have been concerned with the determination of the KIBLAH direction. The KIBLAH direction at any point on the earth’s surface; assuming the earth to be a perfect sphere; is given by the great circle passing through that point and holy city MAKKAH. Furthermore, the KIBLAH direction from the geographic north at this point is the angle between the tangent of the meridian passing through this point and the KABAH (Azimuth). In this context, the KIBLAH direction can be determined by using the spherical triangle between this point, KABAH, and North Pole. Moreover, in MAKKAH itself the KIBLAH direction is the direction of the line connect the point to KABAH. The KIBLAH direction can be determined by many methods as mathematical (by determining the geographic coordinates by GPS, graphical, observe the sun when it’s above or below the KABAH, etc. This direction refers to the true north direction which can be located by the magnetic compass when the magnetic declination is known at that point. This study investigates the accuracy of compass in determining the KIBLAH direction in MAKKAH. The methodology includes drawing the azimuth line map which is used in determining the KIBLAH direction at any point in MAKKAH. The KIBLAH direction in a few mosques in MAKKAH has been tested using the azimuth line map and compass during this study. The prismatic compass with a telescope can be used to determine the direction of the KIBLAH in MAKKAH provided that it is not affected by local gravity and that the place of its use is far from the field of local gravity and succession. The KIBLAH direction can be obtained from the map at any location inside MAKKAH. One can be used this technique either to determine KIBLAH direction during the construction of a new mosque or to check the KIBLAH direction in an existing mosque. It should always check the value of the declination angle (δ), in the case used the compass for determining the KABLAH direction because it changes annually within 3 minutes per year. The compass should not be used if the angle of difference is not known and in this case Theodolite or any other device can be used for setting out the KIBLAH direction after knowing the true north direction.
Keywords: Declination angle, Magnetic Azimuth, True Azimuth, GPS, latitude, longitude, spherical triangle.