Performance of Biodiesel in Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine with Catalytic Converter
N. Janardhan1, P.Ushasri2, M.V.S. Murali Krishna3, P.V.K.Murthy4
1N. Janardhan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of  Technology, Hyderabad, (Andhra Pradesh), India.
2P.Ushasri, College of Engineering, Osmania University, Hyderabad, (Andhra Pradesh), India.
3M. V. S. Murali Krishna, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of  Technology, Hyderabad,(Andhra Pradesh), India.
4P. V. K. Murthy, Department of  Mechanical Engineering, Vivekananda Institute of Science and Information Technology, Hyderabad,(Andhra Pradesh), India.
Manuscript received on November 24, 2012. | Revised Manuscript received on December 10, 2012. | Manuscript published on December 30, 2012. | PP: 97-109 | Volume-2, Issue-2, December 2012.  | Retrieval Number: B0852112212 /2012©BEIESP

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Abstract: Investigations were carried out to evaluate the performance of a low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine consisting of air gap insulated piston with 3-mm air gap, with superni (an alloy of nickel) crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert with different operating conditions of jatropha oil based bio-diesel with varied injection timing and injection pressure. Performance parameters were determined at various values of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of the engine. The effect of void ratio, temperature of catalyst, space velocity on the reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the exhaust of the engines was studied. Exhaust emissions of smoke and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were determined at various values of BMEP. The emission levels of NOx in LHR engine were controlled by means of the selective catalytic reduction technique using lanthanum ion exchanged zeolite (catalyst-A) and urea infused lanthanum ion exchanged zeolite (catalyst-B) with different versions of the engine at peak load operation of the engine. Conventional engine (CE) showed deteriorated performance, while LHR engine showed improved performance with bio-diesel at recommended injection timing of 27o bTDC (before top dead centre) and pressure of 190 bar. The performance of both version of the engine improved with advanced injection timing and higher injection pressure when compared with CE with pure diesel operation. Peak brake thermal efficiency increased by 10%, smoke levels decreased by 15% and NOx levels increased by 41% with vegetable oil operation on LHR engine at its optimum injection timing, when compared with pure diesel operation on CE at 27o bTDC and 190 bar. NOx emissions reduced by 40-50% by this technique with catalyst-A and catalyst-B. 
Keywords: Alternate fuels, Brake thermal efficiency, Catalytic reduction, Exhaust gas temperature.