The Basic Question of Philosophical Anthropology
Artur R. Karimov1, Alexei S. Guryanov2, Mikhail G. Khort3

1Artur R. Karimov, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia
2Alexei S. Guryanov, Kazan State Power-Engineering University, Kazan State Medical University, Russia
3Mikhail G. Khort, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia
Manuscript received on September 23, 2019. | Revised Manuscript received on October 15, 2019. | Manuscript published on October 30, 2019. | PP: 7460-7463 | Volume-9 Issue-1, October 2019 | Retrieval Number: A3116109119/2019©BEIESP| DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.A3116.109119
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Abstract: The article explores the question of the relation between the physical finite (existential) and spiritual infinite (essential) dimensions of the human being as the basic question of philosophical anthropology, which is analogous to the basic question of philosophy offered by F. Engels. The author claims that the question in terms of being – “which is prior?” – divides all philosophers into speculative (primacy of the infinite) and anti-speculative (primacy of the finite) thinkers. In terms of methodology the question divides them into the rationalists and irrationalists. The author comes to the conclusion that there have been four anthropological approaches – rationalistic anti-speculative, irrationalistic anti-speculative, rationalistic speculative, and irrationalistic speculative. Besides, each of them implies a particular view on the phenomenon of human spirit understood as fictitious, individual, collective, and universal, respectively. The article reviews all of them and states that they are limited due to the underlying particular methodological and worldview intentions. Hence, Kant’s question “what is the human being?” is left unanswered.
Keywords: Human being, Anthropology, Basic question, Spirit, Existence, Human essence.