Environmental Performances and Biological Toxicity of Snowpack Water
Andrey Vladimirovich Kozlov1, Irina Valeryevna Vershinina2, Aleksandra Viktorovna Volkova3, Irina Pavlovna Uromova4, Irina Rafailovna Novik5, Artyom Yurievich Zhadaev6, Yuri Mikhailovich Avdeev7
1Andrey Vladimirovich Kozlov*, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
2Irina Valeryevna Vershinina, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
3Aleksandra Viktorovna Volkova, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
4Irina Pavlovna Uromova, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
5Irina Rafailovna Novik, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
6Artyom Yurievich Zhadaev, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Engineering and Economics, Knyaginino, Nizhny Novgorod region, Russia.
7Yuri Mikhailovich Avdeev, Vologda State University, Vologda, Russia
Manuscript received on September 23, 2019. | Revised Manuscript received on October 15, 2019. | Manuscript published on October 30, 2019. | PP: 4967-4971 | Volume-9 Issue-1, October 2019 | Retrieval Number: A2111109119/2019©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.A2111.109119
Open Access | Ethics and Policies | Cite | Mendeley
© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: This work analyzes the state of snowpack in Nizhny Novgorod on the basis of certain chemical performances and integral biological toxicity. Snow samples were obtained in February 2018 along major highways of Nizhny Novgorod. A snow-covered area in Dubrava forestry was selected as reference. The studies demonstrated that the snowpack was characterized by very high concentrations of chlorides and sulfides: in sampling points of the Lower City, the content of chlorides and sulfates varied in the ranges of 24.67–62.36 mg/l and 30.16–62.09 mg/l, respectively, and in sampling points of the Upper City, this variability was 416.82–988.45 mg/l and 280.11–879.22 mg/l, respectively. The content of lead in snowpack in both the Lower City and the Upper City was approximately the same (0.0053 and 0.0048 mg/l). The minimum content of pollutants in snow samples from reference site was characterized by toxicity (10%, V = 6.0%) which was estimated as allowable (toxicity class 1). Snowpack water from the Lower City was characterized generally by medium toxicity (class 2), and sampled in the Upper City – by acute toxicity (59%, V = 26.5%), with regard to the reference (class 3).
Keywords: Biological toxicity of snow, criteria of Environmental state, snowpack.