The Effect of Tillage Methods on the Productivity of Tilled Crops and Soil Fertility
Nurbiy Iljasovich Mamsirov1, Yuri Alekseevich Chumachenko2, Asker Cherimovich Udzhuhu3, Kazbek Khalidovich Khatkov4

1Nurbiy Iljasovich Mamsirov, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Russia.
2Yuri Alekseevich Chumachenko, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Russia.
3Asker Cherimovich Udzhuhu, All-Russian Rice Research Institute, Krasnodar, Russia.
4Kazbek Khalidovich Khatkov, State Scientific Institution Adygeyskiy Research Institute of Agriculture, Maykop, Russia.
Manuscript received on September 23, 2019. | Revised Manuscript received on October 15, 2019. | Manuscript published on October 30, 2019. | PP: 6590-6599 | Volume-9 Issue-1, October 2019 | Retrieval Number: A1836109119/2019©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.A1922.109119
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Abstract: The article presents the results of a long-term research in establishing the share of the effect of various methods and systems of primary soil cultivation on the productivity of maize and sunflower, as well as soil fertility on the territory of the Raduga farm in the Giaginsk district of the Republic of Adygea. The studies were performed according to the following tillage systems: soil plowing to the depth of 25 – 27 cm (continuously (reference)); chisel soil plowing to the depth of 38 – 40 cm (continuously); surface soil tillage to the depth of 10 – 12 cm (continuously); and combined tillage system. The study has established the fact of troubled forming of the optimal maize and sunflower plant density due to the decreased germination with the loose structure of the seed layer. Improper choice of the primary tillage method, deficiency of the required density of seedlings in some years reached 20 % or more. However, after combined tillage, it reduced 1.5 – 2.0 times. During the study, by the methods of primary tillage, the lowest weed infestation of maize and sunflower was noted on the background of plowing to the depth of 25 – 27 cm, and was before harvesting lower by 30 – 80 % than in other tillage variants. The same regularity was observed in counting the number of pests on tilled crops. In the case of continuous surface tillage, an increase in the number of harmful larvae was noted in the variant of plowing to the depth of 25 – 27 cm — within 31 – 96 %. The highest average sunflower yield was achieved in the variant with combined (based on selection) system of soil tillage, where the growth was determined by increased fertilizer rates and ranged from 20 % (in the case of plowing) to 31 % (in the case of combined tillage). The decrease in the yield of grain maize after replacing plowing of compact chernozem with heavy disc harrowing did not exceed 8 %, and in the case of long-delayed sowin, it was at the level of 19 – 28 %.
Keywords: Soil, leached chernozem, sowing density, weed infestation, phytosanitary state, diseases, pests, tilled crops, maize, sunflower, tillage, yield.