Challenges and Resolutions for Sustainable Domestic Wastewater Management in Kabul City, Afghanistan
Hizbullah Rahmani1, Aznah Nor Anuar2
1Hizbullah Rahmani *, Biology Department, Higher Education Institute of Paktika, Afghanistan.
2Aznah Nor Anuar, Malaysia- Japan International Institute of Technology, University Technology Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Manuscript received on October 01, 2019. | Revised Manuscript received on October 15, 2019. | Manuscript published on October 30, 2019. | PP: 1394-1401 | Volume-9 Issue-1, October 2019. | Retrieval Number: A1222109119/2019©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.A1222.109119
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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: There is an extreme lack of statistics about Kabul city wastewater management. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate and address the current circumstances and key challenges of domestic wastewater management in residential areas. In addition, to recommend sustainable solutions. The methodology adopted includes the use of questionnaires, field observation and review relevant documents from related stakeholders. The result indicated that more than 50% of households do not have improved toilets. There are no proper wastewater treatment plants except Macroyans’ wastewater treatment facilities that are not worked properly. Furthermore, there is no proper drainage system. Approximately 100 % of domestic wastewater is discharged to the environment without appropriate treatment that creates severe health and environmental problems such as groundwater pollution, bad odors, and effects on biodiversity. The major diseases are diarrhea, malaria, cholera, and typhoid. The key challenges of domestic wastewater management include; absence of improved sanitation facilities, lack of proper wastewater treatment plants and drainages system, poor government responsibilities, deficiency of public participation and unsolid of sustainable wastewater management framework. According to the current circumstances and challenges of domestic wastewater management: decentralized wastewater treatment technologies, enforcement of legislation, decentralization of planning and budgeting to local institutions, involving public, planners and policy-makers at all level and forming of a sustainable wastewater management framework are the main elements which can contribute with wastewater management sustainability in Kabul city.
Keywords: Domestic wastewater, Sustainable wastewater management, decentralized system, Circular economy.