Contamination Characteristics of Ground and Lake Waters of Thoothukudi City
Udaiya Bhaskar Gajendran1, Christopher Samuel2, Lydia Ajith3, Sanghita Sen4
1Udaiya Bhaskar G, Department of Civil Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India.
2Christopher Samuel, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India.
3Lydia Ajith, Department of Civil Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India.
4Sanghita Sen, Department of Civil Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India.
Manuscript received on September 13, 2019. | Revised Manuscript received on October 20, 2019. | Manuscript published on October 30, 2019. | PP: 209-214 | Volume-9 Issue-1, October 2019 | Retrieval Number: A1121109119/2019©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.A1121.109119
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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: Thoothukudi city has many heavy industries and a very busy port. It has a resident population of 410, 760. The supply of water to meet the needs of this population is a huge challenge. People are dependent on groundwater and surface water resources present in the city. In view of the industrial activities within the city, the contamination characteristics of these water resources and their suitability for human consumption needs to be evaluated. 13 groundwater samples from various localities of the city and 5 lake water samples were analysed to understand the physical, chemical and microbiological properties. Heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Mo were analysed in the samples. None of the samples were found to be suitable for human consumption. The major contaminants were Cd, Hg, As, and coliform bacteria. The heavy metals were found to be from 1.2 to 211 times that of the acceptable limits.
Keywords: Contamination of groundwater, Lake water contamination, Heavy metals, Thoothukudi city.