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International Conference on Modeling & Simulation in Civil Engineering (ICMSC)-2017

Date of Conference: December 13-15, 2017 | Organised by: TKM College of Engineering, Kollam (Kerala), India.

S. No

Volume-7, Issue- ICMSC17, December 2017, ISSN: 2249-8958 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Sabu N.J., Job Thomas

Paper Title:

High Strength OPC Included Geopolymer Mortar Cured at Ambient Temperature

Abstract: In order to eliminate the heat curing of the geopolymer mortar, a small amount of 6 to 12 percentage OPC by weight of total binder is included with fly ash which acts as main source of Si and Al for the geopolymerisation. The geopolymer mortar having strength up to 105.5 MPa was prepared in this study. A total of 81 mix proportions of geopolymer mortar is selected. The variables of the study are cement content, molarity of NaOH, ratio of sodium silicate (Na2 SiO3) to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and alkali-binder ratio. The mortar specimens are tested for 7days and 28 days cube compressive strength. In this study, the prediction models are developed for compressive strength of geopolymer mortar cured at ambient temperature on 7days and 28 days. The prediction is found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Compressive Strength; Geopolymer; Ambient Curing; Fly Ash; OPC

References: 

  1. Davidovits, , Properties of geopolymer cements in First International Conference on Alkaline Cements and Concretes, Scientific Research, Kiev, Ukraine, 1994.
  2. W.Ken, M. Raml. and C.C .Ban, An overview on the influence of various factors on the properties of geopolymer concrete derived from industrial by-products, Const.Build. Mater. 77 (2015) 370-395.
  3. Nath, P.K. Sarker, Effect of GGBFS on setting, workability and early strength properties of fly ash geopolymer concrete cured in ambient condition, Const.Build. Mater. 66 (2014) 163–171
  4. Somna, C. Jaturapitakkul, P. Kajitvichyanukul, P. Chindaprasirt, NaOH activated ground fly ash geopolymer cured at ambient temperature, Fuel 90(2011) 2118–2124.
  5. M. Rashad, A comprehensive overview about the influence of different admixtures and additives on the properties of alkali-activated fly ash, Mater. Des. 53 (2014) 1005–1025.
  6. Granizo ML, Alonso S, Blanco-Varela MT, Palomo A. Alkaline activation of metakaolin: effect of calcium hydroxide in the products of reaction. J Am Ceram Soc 2002;85:225–31.
  7. Dombrowski, A. Buchwald, M. Weil, The influence of calcium content on the structure and thermal performance of fly ash based geopolymers, J. Mater. Sci. 42 (2007) 3033–3043.
  8. K. Yip, G.C. Lukey, J.L. Provis, J.S.J. van Deventer, Effect of calcium silicate sources on geopolymerization, Cem. Concr. Res. 38 (2008) 554–564.
  9. Nath, P.K. Sarker, Use of OPC to improve setting and early strengthproperties of low calcium fly ash geopolymer concrete cured at room temperature, Cem. Concr. Compos. 55 (2015) 205–214.
  10. Nath, P.K. Sarker, Flexural strength and elastic modulus of ambient-cured blended low calcium fly ash geopolymer concrete, Construction and Building Materials 130 (2017) 22–31.
  11. IS Standards, Specification for fly ash for use as pozzolana and admixture (IS 3812-1981), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  12. IS Standards, Specification for 53 grade ordinary port land cement Specification (IS 12269-1987), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  13. IS Standards, Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete, (IS 383-1970), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  14. V. Rangan, Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete, Research report GC 4, Curtin University of technology, Perth, Australia, 2008.
  15. K.W. Lee, J.S.J. Van Deventer, The effect of ionic contaminants on the early age properties of alkali-activated fly ash based cements, Cem. Concr. Res. 32 (2002) 577–584.
  16. Somna and W .Bumrongjaroen, Effect of external and internal calcium in fly ash on geopolymer formation. In: Proc. of 35th international conference on advanced ceramics and composites, Daytona Beach (FL); January 23–28, 2011
  17. Pangdaeng, T. Phoo-ngernkham, V. Sata, P. Chindaprasirt, Influence of curing conditions on properties of high calcium fly ash geopolymer containing Portland cement as additive, Mater. Des. 53 (2014) 269–274.

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2.

Authors:

Nassif Nazeer Thaickavil, Job Thomas

Paper Title:

Strength Correction Factor for H/T Ratio of Pressed Earth Brickwork Prisms

Abstract: This paper presents the experimental study on the compressive strength of masonry prisms made using Pressed Earth Bricks and proposes strength correction factors to account for the slenderness of prisms. The compressive strength of masonry was determined by performing laboratory tests on masonry prism specimens. The variable considered in the experimental study is the height-to-thickness (h/t) ratio of prism specimen. A total of twelve brick masonry prism specimens were prepared and tested in four different configurations. Strength correction factors to account for the effects of h/t have been proposed based on a regression analysis.

Keywords: Compressive Strength, h/t, Masonry Prism, Pressed Earth Bricks, Strength Correction Factors.

References:

  1. IS: 1725 (2013) “Indian standard specification for soil based blocks used in general building construction,” Bureau of Indian Standards.
  2. Morel, A. Pkla and P. Walker, “Compressive strength testing of compressed earth blocks,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 21, Feb. 2007, pp. 303-309.
  3. Vimala and K. Kumarasamy, “Studies on the strength of stabilized mud block masonry using different mortar proportions,” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, vol. 4, Apr. 2014, pp. 720-724.
  4. Nagarajan, S. Viswanathan, S. Ravi, V. Srinivas and P. Narayanan, “Experimental approach to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry for different mortar ratios,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology, Singapore, 2014, p. 586.
  5. Wu, G. Li, H. Li, and J. Jia, “Strength and stress–strain characteristics of traditional adobe block and masonry,” Materials and Structures, vol. 46, Sep. 2013, pp. 1449–1457.
  6. V. V. Reddy, R. Lal, K. S. N. Rao, “Influence of joint thickness and mortar-block elastic properties on the strength and stresses developed in soil–cement block masonry,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 21, Oct. 2009, pp. 535–542.
  7. Bei and I. Papayianni, “Strength of compressed earth block masonry,” WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, vol. 66, 2003, pp. 367-375.
  8. Walker, “Characteristics of pressed earth blocks in compression,” Proceedings of the 11th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference, Shanghai, 1997, p.1.
  9. IS: 1905 (1987) “Indian standard code of practice for structural use of unreinforced masonry,” Bureau of Indian Standards.
  10. P. Ganesan and K. Ramamurthy, “Behavior of concrete hollow-block masonry prisms under axial compression,” Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 118, Jul. 1992, pp. 1751-1769.
  11. IS: 383 (1970) “Indian standard specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete,” Bureau of Indian Standards.
  12. IS: 2250 (1981) “Indian standard code of practice for preparation and use of masonry mortars,” Bureau of Indian Standards.
  13. E447 (1997) “Test methods for compressive strength of laboratory constructed masonry prisms,” American Society for Testing and Materials.
  14. A. Hamid, B. E. Abboud and H. G. Harris, “Direct Modeling of Concrete Block Masonry Under Axial Compression,” in Masonry: Research, Application, and Problems, ASTM STP 87, J. C. Grogan and J. T. Conway, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1985, pp. 151-166.
  15. MSJC (2002) “Building code requirements for masonry structures- ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02,” Masonry Standards Joint Committee.
  16. ASTM C 1314 (2003), “Standard test method for compressive strength of masonry prisms,” American Society for Testing and Materials.

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3.

Authors:

Krishna Priya B.K., Jithin J.S.

Paper Title:

Experimental Investigation on Strength and Durability Properties of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete

Abstract: The development of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) marks a consequential milestone in amending the product quality and efficiency of the building industry. SCC is the concrete for the present generation which is highly fluid in nature where no additional inner or outer vibration is necessary for the compaction of concrete. Several studies were conducted and revealed that fibers improve the structural properties of concrete like ductility, post crack resistance, energy absorption capacity etc. The addition of more than one type of fiber in self compacting concrete is known as Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete (HFSCC). In this experimental work two different types of fibers are used, which are crimped steel fiber and alkali resistant glass fiber form HFSCC. Durability properties are enhanced by the use of alkali resistant glass fibers and the strength parameters are enhanced by the use of steel fibers. In the present work M50 grade of SCC was designed according to Nan Su method of mix design. The mechanical properties of SCC are tested at four different volume fractions of steel fiber content i.e., 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% and glass fiber content 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%. The parameters such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity was studied to determine strength characteristics. The parameters such as sorptivity, water absorption, acid attack, sulphate attack and sea water attack tests were studied to determine durability characteristics. From the present work, results show that the HFSCC with 0.5% steel and 0.1% glass fiber provide better strength characteristics as well as better durability characteristics compared to normal SCC.

Keywords: Self Compacting Concrete, Fibers, Hybrid, Steel-Glass, Durability, Mechanical properties.

References:

  1. Okamura, H., and Ouchi, M. (2003) “Self-Compacting Concrete”, Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 1(1), pp 5-15.
  2. Banthia,N., and Sappakittipakorn, M. (2007) “Toughness enhancement in steel fiber reinforced concrete through fiber hybridization”, Cement and Concrete Research, 37 1366–1372.
  3. Swamy, R.N. (1974) “Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics, Properties and Applications”, Indian Concrete Journal, 48(1): 7–16.
  4. “Glass-Fiber-reinforced-concrete”, http://www.brighthubengineering.com/concretetechnology/52308-glass-fiberreinforced- concrete-gfrc/, accessed on May 26, 2017.
  5. IS 1489 (Part 1) - 1991 (Reaffirmed 2005), “Specification for portland pozzolana Cement”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India
  6. IS 383 - 1970 (Reaffirmed 1997), “Specifications for coarse and fine aggregate from natural sources for concrete”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India
  7. IS 2386-(Part III) (1963) "Methods of test for aggregates for concrete- Specific gravity, density, voids, absorption and bulking," Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
  8. ASTM C-642, "Standard test method for density, absorption, and voids in hardened concrete", American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Practice,Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2006.
  9. ASTM C-1585, "Standard test method for measurement of rate of absorption of water by hydraulic cement concretes", American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Practice, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2004.
  10. Mohamed, H.A. (2011) “Effect of fly ash and silica fume on compressive strength of self-compacting concrete under different curing conditions", Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 2, pp. 79-86.
  11. Olafusi, O.S., Adewuyi, A.P., Otunla, A.P., and Babalola, A.O. (2015) "Evaluation of Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete," Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 5, pp. 1-7.
  12. Ramadoss, P., and Nagamani, O. (2008) "Tensile strength and durability characteristics of high performance fiber reinforced concrete," The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 33, pp. 307-319.
  13. Wongkeo, W., Thongsanitgarn, P., Ngamjarurojana, A., and Chaipanich, A. (2014) "Compressive Strength and Chloride Resistance of Self-Compacting Concrete Containing High Level Fly Ash and Silica Fume," Materials and Design, 64, pp. 261-269.
  14. Srinivasa Rao, B Chandra Mouli K. and C Dr. T. Seshadri Sekhar (2012)., “Durability studies on Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete”, International Journal of civil engineering science, vol.1, no-1-2.
  15. Chandramouli, K, Srinivasa Rao, P, Pannirselvam, N, Seshadri Sekhar,T, and Sravana, Priyadrashini, T .P, (2010), “ Strength and durability characteristic of glass fibre concrete”, International Journal of Mechanics of Solids,Vol. 5, No.1, pp. 15-26.
  16. A Avinash Gornale, B S. Ibrahim Quadri and C Syed Hussaini (2012), Strength aspect of Glass fiber reinforced concrete, International journal of Scientific and Engineering research, vol,3, issue 7.
  17. Rajarajeshwari B Vibhuti, Radhakrishna, Aravind N.,(2013)” Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete for Pavement” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-73008
  18. Priyanka Dilip. P., K.Remadevi.,(2014) “A Study on Properties of Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete”, International journal of software & Hardware Research in Engineering, ISSN No:2347.4890, Volume 2 Issue3.

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4.

Authors:

Dhanya M.S., S. Jayasree

Paper Title:

Strength and Behaviour of RC Beams with Corroded Reinforcement Retrofitted using High Strength Fiber Reinforced Cement Mortar

Abstract: Corrosion on reinforcements in RC structures reduces the load carrying capacity of the structure. The present work investigates the degradation in the ultimate load carrying capacity of RC beams with corroded reinforcements and effect of high strength fiber reinforced cement mortar retrofitting in these beams. Twenty seven RC beams were prepared, out of which, three beams were kept as control specimens, and the remaining were subjected to varying levels of corrosion (5, 10 15 and 20%, 6 numbers in each group) by means of accelerated corrosion by the impressed current method using Faraday’s law. Preliminary studies were conducted in single bars and bars embedded in concrete (ie, in 6, 8, 10 mm diameter bars) to find the modification factor required in the time calculated for accelerated corrosion to include the concrete resistivity. Three beams from each group were distressed by applying 67% of the ultimate load carrying capacity of the respective corroded specimens. These beams were then retrofitted by means of high strength fiber reinforced cement mortar applied throughout the entire span. All the beams were tested for flexural strength under two point loading. The load-deflection characteristics, energy absorption capacity, stiffness, toughness, moment curvature relationship, ductility index, crack width, crack pattern, and ultimate load were then compared between corroded and control specimens, retrofitted and corroded specimens and retrofitted and control specimens from each group. Considerable enhancement in performance was observed in deteriorated beams due to retrofitting for beams up to 15% corrosion level. But the performances of beams with 20% corroded bars were not up to that of control specimens.

Keywords: Accelerated corrosion method, Corrosion, Flexural behaviour, RC beams

References: 

  1. Val, D. V., “Deterioration of Strength of RC Beams due to Corrosion and Its Influence on Beam Reliability.” Journal of Structural Engineering © ASCE, 133,2007, pp. 1297-1306.
  2. Kumar, V., Singh, R. and Quraishi, M. A., “A Study on Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete and Effect of Inhibitor on Service Life of RCC”. Journal of. Materials and  Environmental Science, 4(5), 2013, pp. 726-731.
  3. Ayop, S. S., “Influence Of Deterioration Parameters on Residual Strength of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures.” Proceedings of 8th fib PhD Symposium in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, 2010, pp.1-6.
  4. Hariche, L., Ballim, Y., Bouhicha, M. and Kenai, S., “Effect of Reinforcement Configuration and Sustained Load on the Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete beam affected by Reinforcing Steel Corrosion”. Cement and Concrete Composites, 34(10),2012, pp. 1202-1209.
  5. Abosrra, L., Ashour, A. and Youseffi, M., “Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement in Concrete of Different Compressive Strength”. Construction and Building Materials, 25, 2011, pp. 3915-3925.
  6. Ahmad, M., “Techniques for Inducing Accelerated Corrosion of Steel in Concrete.” Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 34(2C), 2009, pp. 95-104.
  7. El Maaddawy, T. A. and Soudki, K. A. ,“Effectiveness of Impressed Current Technique to Simulate Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement in Concrete.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 15, 2003, pp. 41-47.
  8. Okhude, N., Kunieda, M., Shiotani, T. and Nakamura, H., “Flexural Failure Behavior of RC Beams with Rebar Corrosion and Damage Evaluation by Acoustic Emmission.” Journal of Acoustic Emission, 27, 2009, pp. 263-271.
  9. Jayasree, S., Ganesan, N. and Abraham, R.,“ Effect of ferrocement jacketing on the flexural behaviour of beams with corroded reinforcements.” Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 121,2016, pp. 92-99.
  10. Dhanoa, G. S., Singh, J. and Singh, R., “Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Beam by Ferrocement Technique.” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(15), 2016, pp. 1-9.
  11. Tahsiri, H., Sedehi, O., Khaloo, A. and Raisi, E. M., “Experimental study of RC jacketed and CFRP strengthened RC beams”. Construction and Building Materials, 95, 2015, pp. 476-485.
  12. Rania, A. H., Khaled, S. and Timothy, H. T., “Fatigue Flexural Behaviour of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams Repaired with CFRP Sheets”. Journal of Composites for Construction, 15, 2011, pp. 42-51.
  13. Obaidat, Y., T., Heyden, S., Dahlblom, O., Abu-Farsakh, G. and Abdel-Jawad, Y., “Retrofitting of reinforced concrete beams using composite laminates”. Construction and Building Materials, 25, 2011, pp. 591-597.
  14. IS 1489 (Part 1) (Reaffirmed 2005), “Specification for Portland pozzolana cement, Part 1: Flyash based”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1991.
  15. IS 383- 1970 (Reaffirmed 2002), “Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates From Natural Sources For Concrete”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1970.
  16. IS 10262-2009, “Concrete mix proportioning- Guidelines”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 2009.
  17. ASTM G1 – 03, “Standard practice for preparing, cleaning, and evaluating corrosion test specimens”, American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Practice, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2004.

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5.

Authors:

Imran H., Bindu Biju 

Paper Title:

Flexural Behaviour of High Performance Concrete Beams with Admixed Light Weight Aggregate using Metakaolin

Abstract: According to ACI “High Performance Concrete is defined as concrete which meets special performance and uniformity requirements that cannot always be achieved routinely by using conventional materials and normal mixing, placing and curing practices”. Characteristics of high performance concrete include low permeability, stronger and denser transition zone between aggregate and cement paste in the concrete, as a result increases the abrasion resistance of concrete. Cement production induces around 5% of the total CO2 in the earth’s atmosphere. Metakaolin is not a by-product of an industrial process; it is manufactured for a specific purpose under carefully controlled conditions. It is a highly reactive, amorphous material with pozzolanic and latent hydraulic reactivity, suitable for use in cementing applications. About 80% of the weight of concrete is imparted by the coarse aggregate, by finding a light weight alternative for coarse aggregate helps attain reduced Seismic Forces, improved Structural Efficiency, reduces the dead load of a structure, smaller sections as well as smaller sized foundations can be used, formwork will have to withstand only low pressures, improved Constructability, ease of Transport, pumping to large distances, quick production, improved hydration due to internal curing, ease of Renovation and repair and better thermal insulation. One such material is sintagg or fly ash based light weight aggregate which is obtained from industrial by product. This study is intended to prepare a HPC mix for M70 grade with normal coarse aggregate and to replace the normal coarse aggregate with light weight aggregate (LWA) and to find the optimum partial replacement of cement with metakaolin from selected dosages. Then to compare the Hardened properties and durability properties of the optimum mixes and to study the flexural behavior of RC beams cast using the same. The study showed satisfactory results. 

Keywords: Lightweight aggregate, Metakaolin, RC beams, Flexural behavior  

References: 

  1. Xiaoqian, Q. and Zongji, L., ―The relationships between stress and strain for high-performance concrete with metakaolin,‖ Cement and Concrete Research, 2001, vol.31, pp. 1607 – 1611.
  2. Eva, V., Milena, P., Martin, K.,Zbynek, K., Pavla, R.O., Michal, S., Martin, and Robert, C., ―High performance concrete with Czech metakaolin: Experimental analysis of strength, toughness and durability characteristics,‖ Construction andBuilding Materials, 2010, vol.24, pp. 1404–1411.
  3. Abdul, R. H. and Wong, H. S., ―Strength estimation model for high-strength concrete incorporating metakaolin and silica fume,‖ Cement and Concrete Research, 2005, vol.35, pp. 688–695.
  4. Muthupriya, P., Subramanian, K. and Vishnuram, B.G., ―Investigation on Behaviour of High Performance Reinforced Concrete Columns with Metakaolin and Fly Ash as Admixture,‖ International Journal of Advanced EngineeringTechnology, 2011, vol. 2(1), pp. 190-202.
  5. Dinakar, P., Pradosh, K.S. and Sriram, G., ―Effect of Metakaolin Content on the Properties of High Strength Concrete,‖ International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, 2013, vol. 7(3), pp. 215-223.
  6. Michael, I.K. and Catherine, G. P., ―Bond Behaviour of Reinforcement in Lightweight Aggregate Self- Compacting Concrete,‖ Construction and Building Materials, 2016, vol.113, pp. 641- 652.
  7. Kwang- Soo, Y., Jiho, M. and Jung, J. K., ―Experimental Study on Strength and Durability of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Containing Silica Fume,‖ Construction and Building Materials, 2016 vol.114, pp. 517- 527.
  8. Kim, H. M., Fatin, A. M. A., Johnson, U. A., Mohd, Z. J. and Jagannadha, K. R., Properties of Metakaolin- Blended Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete,‖ European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 2016, pp. 1- 18.
  9. Nada, M. F., Kalil, I. A. and Sheelan, M.H., ―Effect of Metakaolin on Properties of Lightweight Porcelinate Aggregate Concrete,‖ Journal of Engineering, 2013, vol. 4(19), pp. 439- 452.
  10. P.C.: Modern Concrete Technology-High Performance Concrete, Edition 2, 2011.
  11. IS 1489 (Part 1) (Reaffirmed 2005), ―Specification for Portland pozzolana cement, Part 1: Flyash based‖, ureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1991.
  12. IS 383- 1970 (Reaffirmed 2002), ―Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates From Natural Sources For Concrete‖, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1970.
  13. IS 516 – 1959 (Reaffirmed 2004), ―Methods of test for strength of concrete‖, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1959.
  14. IS 5816 – 1999 (Reaffirmed 2004), ―Splitting tensile strength of concrete - Method of test‖, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1999.
  15. ASTM C 1202, ―Standard test method for electrical indication of concrete’s ability to resist chloride ion penetration‖, American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Practice, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1997.
  16. ASTM C 642, ―Standard test method for density, absorption, and voids in hardened concrete‖, American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Practice, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2006.
  17. ASTM C 1585, ―Standard test method for measurement of rate of absorption of water by hydraulic cement concretes‖, American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Practice, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2004.
  18. ASTM C 1202, ―Standard test method for electrical indication of concrete’s ability to resist chloride ion penetration‖, American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Practice, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1997.
  19. IS 456- 2000 (Reaffirmed 2005), ―Plain and reinforced concrete- code of practices‖, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 2000
  20. Santhakumar, A.R., ―Studies on Strength and Diffusion Characteristics of Blended Cement Concrete,‖ ICI Journal, vol.13, January- March 2013.

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6.

Authors:

Ansa Varghese, Arya Hari, Kavya Somanath, Surya Bhaskaran, Dhanya B.S

Paper Title:

Influence of Super Plasticizers on M30 Grade Concrete

Abstract: Chemical admixtures are used in concrete to improve many of the properties of concrete both in fresh and hardened state. Super plasticizers are high range water reducing admixtures used to enhance the workability of concrete. Many types of super plasticizers are available in the market. There is lack of clarity in the end customers on the type and the optimum dosage of the chemical admixtures and the property enhancement obtained from different types of super plasticizers. The objective of the present paper is to assess the influence of two types of super plasticizers (SNF and PCE based) on the properties of typical M30 grade concrete. The optimum dosages of the super plasticizers were determined using Marsh cone test and mini slump test. Study on the fresh, mechanical and durability properties of concretes were done along with cost estimation. The tests conducted include slump test, compaction factor test, cube compressive strength test, split tensile strength test and water permeability test (based on DIN 1048 Part 5). The test results show that the addition of super plasticizers can produce concrete with more durability and economy without compromising on the fresh and mechanical properties.

Keywords: Super plasticizers, Optimum dosage, Durability, Cost estimation.

References: 

  1. ACI 116 R, Cement and concrete terminology. ACI Publicaton, USA, 2000
  2. Rixom R and Mailvaganam, N., Chemical admixtures for concrete. E&FNSpon, London, UK, 1999.
  3. Jayasree, C. Study of cement-superplasticizer interaction and its implications for concrete performance, Ph. D. thesis, IIT Madras, July 2009.
  4. Mailvaganam, N. P., How chemical admixtures produce their effects in concrete? Indian Concrete Journal, 75, 331-334.,2001
  5. Jolicoeur, C. and Simard, M.A., Chemical admixture–cement interactions: Phenomenology and physico-chemical concepts. Cement and Concrete Composites, 20, 87-101., 1998.
  6. Maheshwarappa S.M and Chetan Kumar, Effect of super plasticizers compatibility on the durability, early age strength& stiffening characteristics of OPC,PPC,PSC pastes and mortar “, IJRET, Vol 3,Issue 3,2014
  7. Santhanam, M. Evaluation of super plasticizer performance in concrete, ICSCMT, 2016
  8. IS 4031 (2005) Indian standard specification for method of physical tests for hydraulic cement. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  9. IS 2386 (2007) Indian standard specification for methods of test for aggregates of concrete. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  10. Dipak, G., Gand, S., and  Dhiren K. P, A compatibility study in different types of cement and  super plasticizer, IJSRD ,Vol 1, Issue 9,2013
  11. Agullo, L., Carbonari, B.T., Gettu, R and Aguado, A , Fluidity of cement pastes with mineral admixtures and superplasticizer - a study based on the Marsh cone test. Materials and Structures, 32, 479-485, 1999.
  12. Aïtcin, P.C. High performance concrete. E& FN Spon, London, 1998.
  13. IS 10262 (2009) Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  14. IS 1199 (1959) Methods of sampling and analysis of concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi
  15. IS 516 (1959), Method of Tests for Strength of Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi
  16. IS 5816 (1999), Method of Test Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi DIN 1048-Part 5, Testing concrete water permeability, German Standard (1991)
  17. DIN 1048-Part 5 (1991), Testing concrete water permeability, German Standard.

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7.

Authors:

Shefeena N, Amal Sheik, Aswathy Mariam Kurien, Farzana D, Fathima Mohammed, J John D’Cruz

Paper Title:

Strength Studies on Copper slag and GGBS Modified Concrete

Abstract: Over exploration of natural resources as the raw material for the construction industry is in an alarming state, especially in the case of cement and sand. Around the globe efforts are going on to reduce the usage of these natural resources in manufacturing of cement, by introducing new material or by partially replacing the existing material and in case of sand, by using alternate materials. One of the most sustainable ways to approach this issue is by the effective utilization of the waste material available in the region, especially from the industry. Copper slag and Ground granulated blast furnace sag (GGBS) are industrial by products produced from the process of manufacturing of copper and iron, which the Indian industry are looking for the effective disposal. In this study, copper slag and Ground granulated blast furnace sag (GGBS) are used to partial replacement of Sand and Cement respectively in a concrete mix of proportion 1:1.54:2.88 conforming to M30 grade concrete. Various percentages of replacement was adopted for the cement (0 to 20%) and Sand (0 to 40%). The test conducted in the specimens includes compressive, flexure and tensile strength. The test results proposes the optimum replacement level as 10% GGBS and 20% Copper slag.

Keywords: Copper Slag, CGBS, Concrete

References: 

  1. Sudha, C., Kottuppillil, A. K., Ravichandran, P. T., & Krishnan, K. D. (2016). Study on Mechanical Properties of Concrete with Manufactured Sand and Bagasse Ash. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(34).
  2. Saxena, P., Simalti, A. (2015). Scope of replacing fine aggregate with copper slag in concrete–A review. Int. J. Tech. Res. Appl, 3(4), 44-48.
  3. N, Nazeer M, Muhammed Siddik A.(2013). Studies on Suitability of Fly Ash Based Cement Mortar Dry-Mix with Quarry-Dust as Fine Aggregate,  International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 8(4).
  4. Pabzhani, K., Jeyaraj, R. (2010). Study on durability of high performance concrete with industrial wastes. Applied Technologies and Innovations, 2(2), 19-29.
  5. Ghrici, S. KenaiandM. Said Mansour(2007).Mechanical prop-erties and durability of mortar and concrete containing natu-ral pozzolana and lime stone blended cements, Cement and Concrete Composites, 29(7), 542-549.
  6. Chindaprasirt, , N. BuapaandH. T. (2005a).CaoMixed cement containing fly ash for masonry and plastering work, Construc-tion and Building Materials, 19, 612-618.
  7. Chindaprasirt, C. JaturapitakkulandT. Sinsiri (2005b). Effect of fly ash fineness on compressive strength and pore size of blended cement paste, Cement & Concrete Composites, 27, 425–428.
  8. Curcio and B.A. DeAngelis Dilatant (1998). Behavior Of Super-plasticized Cement Pastes Containing Metakaolin, Cement and Concrete Research, 28,(5),629–634.

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8.

Authors:

S. Krishna Priya Rao, A. Suchith Reddy, P. Rathish Kumar

Paper Title:

Strength and Durability Studies of RCA based Binary Blended Concrete

Abstract: Construction waste has been dramatically increased in the last view decades causing environmental, social, and economical impacts directly or indirectly. To trade off these issues there is need for recycle, reuse and renew the construction/demolished waste materials to utilize and achieve sustainable construction. This study investigates the characteristic performance of Recycled Coarse Aggregates (RCA) with varying replacements (50%, 100%) of Natural Coarse Aggregates (NCA), and also to find the behavior of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM’s) like Fly ash (F) and Metakaolin (K) on RCA for M20, M30, M40 grades of concretes. The scope of the study is limited to partial replacements of cement by its weight with fly ash and metakaolin up to 20%, and the combination of both. The research determines the compressive and flexural strength aspects along with the durability of considered mixes by varying percentages of RCA and SCM’s. The present investigation mainly focused on durability of RCA and SCM’s incorporated concrete by conducting Rapid Chloride Permeability test. It is observed that performance characteristics of the mixes with partial replacement of the RCA blended with SCM’s has given better results for achieving sustainability.

Keywords: Fly ash (F), Metakaolin (K), Partial replacement, Recycled Coarse Aggregates (RCA), Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM's), Sustainable concrete. 

References: 

  1. V.S. Sai. Kumar, Krishna Rao B "A Study on Strength of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Cement With Quarry Dust And Metakaolin" Vol. 3, Issue 3, March 2014.
  2. Murali, C.M. Vivek Vardhan, Gabriela Rajan, G.J. Janani, N. Shifu Jajan and R. Ramya sri "Experimental Study on Recycled Aggregate Concrete", pp.407-410, Vol. 2, Issue 2, Mar-Apr 2012.
  3. Dhir, R.K., Henderson, N.A. AND Limbachiya, M.C (edit), Proceedings of the International Conference on the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates, Thomas Telford, UK. 1998.
  4. Neeraj Jain, Mridul Garg, and A.K. Minocha., "Green Concrete from Sustainable Recycled Coarse Aggregates: Mechanical and Durability Properties", Article ID 281043, Volume 2015.
  5. Gangaram, V. Bhikshma, M. Janardhana "Strength And Durability Aspects Of Recycled Aggregate Concrete", eISSN:2319-1163, ISSN:2321-7308, Volume:04, Special Issue:13, ICISE-2015, Dec-2015.
  6. Manjunath M, Prakash K B. "Effect of replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates derived from field demolished concrete on the workability and strength characteristics of concrete", ISSN:0976-4399, Volume 6, No.2, 2015.
  7. Manjushree G. Shinde, M. R. Vyawahare, P. O. Modani "Effect Of Physical Properties Of Recycled Aggregate On The Strength Of Concrete", ISSN:2278-0181, Vol.2 Issue 4, April-2013.
  8. Shantanu G Pande., "A Study on Behaviour of Metakaolin Base Recycled Aggregate Concrete", ISSN:2319–6009, Vol.4, No.1, February 2015.
  9. D. Padhye, N.S. Deo., "Cement Replacement by Fly Ash in Concrete", pp:60-62, ISSN:2319-6890, Volume No.5, Issue Special 1, 8 & 9 Jan 2016.
  10. Aiswarya S, Prince Arulraj G, Dilip C "A Review on Use of Metakaolin In Concrete", ISSN:2250-3498, Vol.3, No.3, June 2013.
  11. Beulah M., Prahallada M. C., "Effect Of Replacement Of Cement By Metakalion On The Properties Of High Performance Concrete Subjected To Hydrochloric Acid Attack", 033-038, Vol.2, Issue 6, November- December 2012.
  12. Kaur and V.P.S. Sran "Use of Metakaolin as Pozzolanic Material and Partial Replacement with Cement in Concrete (M30)", ISSN:2249 - 6289, pp.9-13, Vol.5 No.1, 2016.
  13. Ajay A. Hamane., Nikhil K. Kulkarni., "Evaluation of Strength of Plain Cement Concrete with Partial Replacement of Cement by Metakaolin and Fly ash", ISSN:2278-0181, Vol.4, Issue 05, May-2015.
  14. Saravanan, K.Suguna, P.N.Raghunath "Mechanical Properties for Cement Replacement by Metakaolin Based Concrete", ISSN:2321-0869, Vol.2, Issue 8, August 2014.
  15. N. Swaminathen, Mohammed Abith. I, Liya Jolly, Mathiyalagan. R, Abhijith K.S "Effect Of Partial Replacement Of Cement With Metakaolin And Rice Husk Ash On The Strength And Durability Properties Of High Strength Concrete", Vol.3, Special Issue 8, March 2016.

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9.

Authors:

Shameena M, Mohamed Asim M.

Paper Title:

Analysing Factors Affecting Schedule Performance of Bridge Construction Projects 

Abstract: Infrastructure bridge projects involve complex processes, which require close cooperation and coordination among the stakeholders. This paper presents the results of a survey undertaken to determine and evaluate the relative importance of the significant factors causing delays in Bridge construction projects in Kerala in view of key stake holders namely clients, consultants and contractors. A questionnaire and personal interviews have formed the basis of this study. 73 attributes which are identified through survey were grouped into seven major categories by factor analysis using SPSS software. Factors identified are1) Insufficient site management and planning of contractor2) Delays in Govt. procedures and solving problems arises 3) Improper planning of the project 4) Lack of communication 5) Public interferences 6) Financial constraints of clients 7) Variations in Weather conditions. It is hoped that the significant delay factors identified in this survey will provide a basis for strategies to minimize delays and will also be incorporated into a ‘construction time’ forecasting model for future research programme.

Keywords: Attributes, Factors, Infrastructure construction, Stake holders. 

References: 

  1. Aibinu, A. A. and H. A. Odeyinka (2006) Construction delays and their causative factors in Nigeria, Journal of Construction Engineering Management, 132, 667-677.
  2. Assaf, S. A. and S. Al-Hejji (2006) Causes of delay in large construction projects, International Journal of Project Management, 24, 349-357.
  3. Aswathi, R. and Ciby Thomas (2013) Development of a delay analysis system for a railway construction project, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2, 531-541.
  4. Chan, A. P. C., D. C. K. Ho and C. M. Tam (2001) Design and build project success factors: multivariate analysis, Journal of Construction Engineering Management, 15(1), 5563.
  5. Chan, D. W. M and M. M. Kumaraswamy (1997) A comparative study of time overruns in Hong Kong construction projects, International Journal of Project Management, 1, 5563.
  6. Child, D. (1990) The Essentials of Factor Analysis, London: Cassell Educational Ltd.
  7. Chitkara, K. K. (1998) Construction Project Management: Planning, Scheduling and Controlling, McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.
  8. Field, A. (2005) Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, Sage, London.
  9. Frank, D. K. Fugar and Adwoa B. Agyakwah-Baah (2010) Delays in building construction projects in Ghana, Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, 10, 103‐
  10. Hamza, N., M. A. Khoiry, I. Arshad, N. M. Tawil and A. I. Che Ani (2011) Cause of construction delay – Theoretical Framework, Procedia Engineering, 20, 490 – 495.
  11. Hemanta Doloi (2008) Analysing the novated design and construct contract from the client’s, design team’s and contractor’s perspectives, Construction Management and Economics, 26, 1181-1196.
  12. Hemanta Doloi (2012) Cost overruns and failure in project management – understanding the roles of key stakeholders in construction projects, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management (ASCE) CO, 1943-7862.
  13. Hemanta Doloi, Anil Sawhney, K. C. Iyer and Sameer Rentala (2012) Analysing factors affecting delays in Indian construction projects, International Journal of Project Management, 30, 479- 489.
  14. Iyer, K. C. and K. N. Jha (2005) Factors affecting cost performance: evidence from Indian construction projects, International Journal of Project Management, 23, 283- 295.
  15. Iyer, K. C. and K. N. Jha (2006) Critical factors affecting schedule performance: Evidence from Indian construction projects, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 871-881.
  16. Jing Yang (2009) Exploring critical success factors for stake holders management in construction project, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 15, 337–348.
  17. Jomah Mohammed Al-Najjar (2008) Factors influencing time and cost overruns on construction projects in the Gaza strip, The Islamic University of Gaza.
  18. Kaiser, H. F. (1974) An index of factorial simplicity, Psychometrika, 39, 31-36.
  19. Mansfield, N., O. Ugwu and T. Doran (1994) Causes of delay and cost overruns in Nigerian construction projects, International Journal of Project Management, 12, 254-260.
  20. Marija Norusis, SPSS 16.0 Statistical Procedures Companion, Prentice Hall Press, USA.
  21. Martin G. Evans (1985) A Monte Carlo study of the effects of correlated method variance in moderated multiple regression analysis, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 36 (3), 305-323.
  22. Melba Alias, R. Dhanya and Ganapathy Ramasamy (2015) Study and analysis of factors affecting the performance of the construction projects, International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), 4, 1086-1091.
  23. Mulenga Mukuka, Clinton Aigbavboa and Wellington Thwala (2015) Effects of construction projects schedule overruns: a case of the Gauteng Province, South Africa, Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 1690 – 1695.
  24. Remon Fayek Aziz (2013) Ranking of delay factors in construction projects after Egyptian revolution, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 52, 387-406.
  25. Sambasivan, M. and Y. W. Soon (2007) Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry, International Journal of Project Management, 25, 517-526.
  26. Sathyanarayana, K. N. and K. C. Iyer (1996) Evaluation of delays in Indian construction contracts, Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India), 77, 14-22.
  27. Vaus, D. A. (2001) Research Design in Social Science, Sage Publications Ltd., London.

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10.

Authors:

Hajara K. M., Anu V. Thomas

Paper Title:

Factors Affecting Success of a Construction Project

Abstract: The success of a construction project is in completing the project on time with sufficient quality and within the assigned budget. But often, a project may fail with respect to any of the above goals and cannot be considered as a successful one. A number of variables influence the success of a project. The aim of this study is to analyze these factors and rank them according to their level of influence on the project success. The different factors are rated based on the results obtained by conducting a questionnaire survey among a panel of experts. Since the factors affecting the success of a project are subjective in nature, the most suitable method to analyze and rank them is Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). AHP provides a proven, mathematical technique to deal with complex decision making and aids in quantifying various opinions, analyzing the data collected and accelerating the decision-making process. The consistency of the judgments made can be verified in this method. Forty two factors identified from the literature survey were condensed to 10 factors based on frequency of occurrence. A questionnaire survey based on these factors was done and the results were analyzed by using AHP. Accurate schedule and plan (19.913%), timely assessment and allocation of resources other than materials (16.463%), cash flow of project (15.215%) and availability of materials (11.985%) were found to be the most significant factors influencing project success.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Comparison Matrix, Consistency Index, Success Factors.

References: 

  1. Chan, A. P. C., Scott, D. and Chan, A. P. L. (2004), “Factors affecting the success of construction project through a conceptual framework”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 130, 150-155.
  2. Jain, M. and Pathak, K. K. (2014), “Critical Factors Affecting the Success of a Construction Project: A Review”, Asian Journal of Educational Research and Technology, 4 (2), 420-426.
  3. Babu, N. J. (2015), “Factors Affecting Success of Construction Project”, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 12(2),  17-26.
  4. Beleiu, I. and Crisan, E. (2015), “Main Factors Influencing Project Success”, Interdisciplinary Management Research, 11, 59-72.
  5. Chua, D. K. H., Kog, Y. C., and Loh, P. K. (1999), “Critical success factors for different project objectives” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management , 125(3), 142–150.
  6. Enshassi, A., Mohamed, S. and Abushaban, S. (2009), “Factors Affecting the Performance of Construction Projects in the Gaza Strip”, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 15(3), 269–280.
  7. Gunathilaka, S., Tuuli, M. M. and Dainty, A. R. J. (2013), “Critical analysis of research on project success in construction management journals” Proceedings 29th Annual ARCOM Conference, Reading, UK, September, 979-98.
  8. Helen, B. I., Emmanuel, O. O., Lawal, A. and Elkanah, A. (2015), “Factors Influencing the Performance of Construction Projects in Akure, Nigeria “International Journal of Civil Engineering, Construction and Estate Management , 3(4), 57-67.
  9. Nilashi, M., Zakaria, R., Ibrahim, O., Majid, M. Z. A., Zin, R. M. and Farahmand, M. (2015), “MCPCM: A DEMATEL-ANP-Based Multi-criteria Decision Making Approach to Evaluate the Critical Success Factors in Construction Projects” Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 40, 343–361.
  10. Omran, A., Abdulbagei, M. A. and Gebril, A. O. (2012), “An Evaluation of the Critical Success Factors for Construction Projects in Libya”, Journal of Economic Behavior, 2, 17-25.
  11. Pakseresht, A. and Asgari, G. (2012), “Determining the critical success factors in construction projects by AHP approach”, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research Business, 4 (8), 383-393.
  12. Saquib, M. (2008), “Assessment of critical success factors for construction projects in Pakistan”, First International Conference on Construction in Developing Countries (ICCIDC–I), Karachi, Pakistan, August, 392-404.

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11.

Authors:

Sanya Sathyan Chakkalakal, Mohamed Asim  

Paper Title:

Influence of External Stakeholders on Project Time Overrun- A Case Study at Kochi Metro Rail Limited

Abstract: Projects experience extensive delays which consecutively results in an increase in estimated cost. Current constructions are implemented in highly demanding and complex built environments where projects are executed by coalitions of multiple stakeholders that have divergent interests, objectives, and socio-cultural back-grounds. Construction projects face challenges in not only identifying and managing stakeholders but also satisfying their requirements. Interest in stakeholders has grown considerably since Freeman‟s (1984) seminal work “Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach “was published. The interactions and interrelationships between stakeholders largely determine the overall performance of a construction project. An important component of stakeholder management is stakeholder analysis. Considering the profuse impact of external stakeholders on Kochi Metro Project a case study has been conducted at Kochi, under the company “Kochi Metro Rail Limited”, undertaking the work of Kochi Metro. There are essentially two categories of stakeholders: internal, who are those actively involved in project execution; and external, who are those affected by the project. The main objective was to carry out External Stakeholder Analysis, and to identify the key stakeholders who will be responsible for the successful outcome of the project and also to identify the stakeholders who can be threats to the company on the basis of their power and influence level and Pareto Analysis has been used to identify the various factors that cause delay. The proposed analysis was able to indicate the factors that causes 80 percentage of the delay and also to find out the stakeholder groups that influence the project schedule. 

Keywords: Stakeholders Prioritizations, Power Influence Method, Key Stakeholders, Pareto Analysis.

References: 

  1. Aapaoja and Harri Haapasalo (2014) A Framework for Stakeholder Identification and Classification in Construction Projects, Open Journal of Business and Management, 02, 43-55.
  2. Andrea Caputo (2013) Systemic Stakeholders’ Management for Real Estate Development Projects, Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 05, 66-82.
  3. Ashwini Arun Salunkhe and Rahul S. Patil (2014) Effect of construction delays on project time overrun: Indian scenario, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 03, 543-547.
  4. Chan, D.W. and M.M. Kumaraswamy (1997) A comparative study of causes of time overruns in Hong Kong construction projects, International Journal of Project Management, 15, 55–63.
  5. Doloi, H. (2008) Analysing the novated design and construct contract from the client's, design teams and contractors perspectives, Construction Management and Economics, 26, 1181–1196.
  6. Doloi, H. (2009) Analysis of pre-qualification criteria in contractor selection and their impacts on project success, Construction Management and Economics, 27, 1245–1263.
  7. Hemanta Doloi (2012) Cost overruns and failure in project management – understanding the roles of key stakeholders in construction projects, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 28, 1-44.
  8. Hemanta Doloi, Anil Sawhney, K.C. Iyer and Sameer Rentala (2012) Analysing factors affecting delays in Indian construction projects, International Journal of Project Management, 30, 481-489.
  9. Iyer, K.C. and K.N. Jha (2005) Factors affecting cost performance: evidence from Indian construction projects, International Journal of Project Management, 23, 283-295.
  10. Iyer, K.C. and K.N. Jha (2006) Critical Factors Affecting Schedule Performance: Evidence from Indian Construction Projects, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 08, 871-881.
  11. Jing Yang (2009) Exploring critical success factors for stake holders management in construction project, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 04, 337-348.
  12. Menoka Bal, David Bryde, Damian Fearon and Edward Ochieng (2013) Stakeholder Engagement: Achieving Sustainability in the Construction Sector, Sustainability, 06, 695-710.
  13. Naikwadi Sumaiyya, R., and R. Khare Pranay (2016) Causes of Delays in any Construction Project, International Journal of Science and Research, 05, 59-61.
  14. Ravisankar, K. L., S. AnandaKumar and V. Krishnamoorthy (2014) Study on the Quantification of Delay Factors in Construction Industry, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 04, 105-113.
  15. Roshana Takim (2009) The Management of Stakeholders’ Needs and Expectations in the Development of Construction Project, Modern Applied Science, 03, 167-175.
  16. Seyed Mahmod Zanjirchi and Mehrdad Moradi (2011) Construction project success analysis from stakeholders' theory perspective, African Journal of Business Management, 06, 5218 -5225.
  17. Shiv Kumar, S., (2015) Modelling and Managing Stakeholder’s Power and Influence for Quality Improvement in Construction Projects - A Case Study at “Jaipur Metro”, SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE), 02, 18-22.
  18. Zhang, X., (2005) Concessionaire's financial capability in developing build– operate–transfer type infrastructure projects, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 131, 1054–1064.
  19. Wahab Rabbani (2011) Problems of Projects and Effects of Delays in the Construction Industry of Pakistan, Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 05, 41-50.
  20. Megha Desai and Rajiv Bhatt (2013) Critical Causes of Delay in Residential Construction Projects: Case Study Of Central Gujarat Region Of India, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), 04, 762-768.

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12.

Authors:

 Amina A, Preeja Prameelan 

Paper Title:

 Quality Assessment of Different Soft Drinks

Abstract: Many youngsters today are addicted to the cool refreshing beverages, the soft drinks. Recently Soft drink brands have been put into various questions regarding their purity. News flashed that they contain harmful pesticides and heavy metals which increased the interest in knowing more about soft drinks. Soft Drinks Impact on Health is getting adverse day by day. To determine the characteristics of soft drinks, nine popular brands of soft drinks were collected from local market in Kollam & qualitative analysis was carried. The analysis included different tests carried in environmental lab viz. pH, Acidity, Dissolved Oxygen, Chlorides, hardness, Electrical conductivity, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) & Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). Analysis of heavy metal (Pb) and pesticide (DDT) were also done. Anti-microbial test on different soft drinks are also carried out, which had no negative impact. It has been noticed that most of the soft drinks exceeds drinking water standards given by BIS. pH in the soft drinks ranged from 2.75-5. Maximum acidity is observed in Cococola (295mg/L). Among 9 soft drinks, 5 of them are of having chloride beyond permissible limit as per BIS (250mg/L). 2 out of 9 samples collected exceeded acceptable limits of hardness. Hence soft drinks are not beneficial for health. Drinking soft drinks regularly really is slow poisoning. The over-consumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks is associated with obesity, diabetes, dental caries, kidney stones and low nutrient levels. The aim of this study was to make others to be aware about bad effects of soft drinks on human health to people especially to youths. 

Keywords: Soft drink, qualitative analysis, drinking water standards 

References: 

  1. M Magomya, G.G Yebpella and U.C Okpaegbe, ―An Assessment of metal contaminant levels in selected soft drinks sold in Nigeria,” International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology , Volume 2, 2015.
  2. Bienvenida Gilbert-Lopez,Lucia Jaen-Martos, Juan F. Garcia-Reyes, Marin Villar-Pulido, Laszlo Polgar, Natividad Ramos-Marto, Antonio Molina-Diaz,―Study on the occurrence of pesticide residues in fruit-based soft drinks from the EU market and morocco using liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry,‖ Food Control , 2012, pp. 341-346.
  3. Hudson L.D, Hankins W.J and M. Battaglia, ―Coliforms in water distribution systems; a remedial approach,‖ American Water Works, Vol. 75, 1983, pp. 564-568.
  4. Malik, V.S, Schulze, M.B, Hu, F.B. (2006),"Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 (2), 2006, pp. 274–328. PMC 3210834. PMID 16895873.
  5. Suaad S, Alwakeel and Eman Abdullah Hamad Al-Humaidi, ―Microbial Growth and Chemical Analysis of Mineral Contents in Bottled Fruit Juices and Drinks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,‖Research Journal of Microbiology, 2008, pp. 319-325.

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13.

Authors:

Erfana.N, Anu.N 

Paper Title:

Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles using Ixora Cultivars for the Removal of Nitrate from Wastewater

Abstract: One of the most challenging ecological problems the world facing is waste management. Serious discussions are going around in the world to find out and to establish proper and efficient methods of waste disposal. Interest in developing environmentally benign procedures for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been increased. The exploitation of different biomaterials for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered a valuable approach in green nanotechnology. Biological resources such as bacteria, algae fungi and plants have been used for the production of low-cost, energy-efficient, and nontoxic environmental friendly metallic nanoparticles. The present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Fe-NPs synthesized from the leaf extracts in removing nitrate from wastewater. Leaf extracts were chosen based on the presence of polyphenols and the extracts used in the present study was Ixora Cultivaras (Common Name: Thetti) which are abundantly available in India. Characterization study was done by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Ixora Cultivars showed 61% nitrate removal. Overall performance showed satisfactory results. 

Keywords: Green synthesis, Fe-NPs, Ixora Cultivars leaf, Characterization. 

References: 

  1. Kassaee M.Z., Motamedi E., Mikhak A., and Rahnemaie R., (2016) Nitrate removal from water using iron nanoparticles produced by arc discharge vs. reduction, journal of engineering management 197, 265-274.
  2. Bartucca M L., Mimmo T., Cesco S., Buono D D.,(2016) nitrate removal from polluted water by using a vegetated floating system, science of the total environment 542,803-808.
  3. Ayyasamy P M., Shanthi K., Lee S., Choi N C., Kim D J.,(2016) Two-Stage removal of nitrate from groundwater using biological and chemical treatments, journal of bioscience and bioengineering 104, 129-134.
  4. Makarov V., Makarova S S., Love A J., Sinitsyna O V., Dudnik A O., Yaminsky I V., Taliansky M E., and Kalinina N O, (2016) Biosynthesis of Stable Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Aqueous Extracts of Hordeum vulgare and Rumex acetosa Plants Langmuir Article.
  5. Devatha C P., Thalla A K., and Katte S Y, (2016) Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles using different leaf extracts for treatment of domestic waste water, Journal of Cleaner Production 139 1425-1435.
  6. Kaviya S., Santhanalakshmi I J., and Viswanathan B, (2011) Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Polyalthia longifolia Leaf Extract Study of Antibacterial Activity, Journal of Nanotechnology 152970.
  7. Saif S., Tahir A., and Chen Y, (2016) Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Environmental Applications and Implications journal of nanomaterials 2016.
  8. Groiss S., Selvaraj R., Varadavenkatesan T., Vinayagam R,(2016) Structural characterization, antibacterial and catalytic effect of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesised using the leaf extract of Cynometra ramiflora 1128 572-578.
  9. Wei Y., Fang Z., Zheng L., Tan L., Tsang E P, (2016) Green synthesis of Fe nanoparticles using Citrus maxima peels aqueous extracts 577 31497-5.
  10. Al-Ruqeishi M S., Mohiuddin T., Al-Saadi L K, (2015) Green synthesis of iron oxide nanorods from deciduous Omani mango tree leaves for heavy oil viscosity treatment, Arabian Journal of Chemistry 2016.
  11. Cao D., Jin X., Gan L., Wang T., and Chen Z, (2015) Removal of phosphate using iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by eucalyptus leaf extract in the presence of CTAB surfactant Chemosphere 159 23-31.
  12. Harshiny M., Iswarya C N., Manickam M, (2014) Biogenic synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles using Amaranthus dubius leaves extract as reducing agents Powder Technology 5910 30068-1.
  13. Wang T., Lin J., Chen Z., Megharaj M ., Naidu R, (2013) Green synthesized iron nanoparticles by green tea and eucalyptus leaves extracts used for removal of nitrate in aqueous solution, Journal of Cleaner Production 1-7.
  14. Wang T., Jin X., Zuliang Chen Z., Megharaj M., Naidu R, (2013) Green synthesis of Fe nanoparticles using eucalyptus leaf extracts for treatment of eutrophic wastewater, Science of the Total Environment 210–213.
  15. Huang L., Wenga X., Chen Z., Megharaj M., and Naidu R, (2013)Synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles using oolong tea extract for the degradation of malachite green, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 117 801–804.
  16. Pattanayak M., and Nayak P L, (2012) ecofriendly green synthesis of iron nanoparticles from various plants and spices extract, Internation journal of plant animal and environmental sciences 2231-4490.

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14.

Authors:

Leena Jose, Sruthy S A, Ahasan Mohammed M A, Athul M S, Meera S Nair, Mini S Nair

Paper Title:

Water Quality Modeling of Vellayani Lake

Abstract: The surface waters are highly polluted by industrial, agricultural and other anthropogenic activities. To protect and maintain the physical, chemical and biological integrity of water, water quality assessment is very important. In this study, water quality index (WQI) by improved aggregate method was used to study the water quality of Vellayani Lake, largest freshwater lake in Thiruvananthapuram. A multilinear regression model was prepared for predicting WQI from different water quality parameters. The improved aggregate WQI shows that water is of poor quality and objectionable for drinking purposes. The multilinear regression model for WQI has obtained high coefficient of determination (R2) which shows that the model has high prediction capacity.

Keywords: Water quality index, improved aggregate method, multilinear regression, coefficient of determination.  

References: 

  1. Hossain M A, Sujaul I M and Nasly M A “Water Quality Index: An indicator of surface water pollution in Eastern part of Penninsular Malaysia”, National University Of Sciences And Technology, 2012, vol 6, pg 111-117
  2. APHA, “Standard Method For Examination Of Water And Waste Water,” American Public Health Association, Washington D C
  3. Prabhata K Swamee, and Aditya Tyagi“Improved Method Of Aggregation For Water Quality Indices”, Journal Of Environmental Engineering, 2007
  4. Mohammad Mehdi Heydari, Ali Abasi, Seyed Mohammad Rohani and Seyed Mohammad Ali Hosseini, “Correlation Study And Regression Analysis Of Drinking Water Quality In Kashan City, Iran”Middle East Journal Of Science And Research, vol9, pg 1238-1244
  5. Nabeel M Gazzaz, Mohd KamilYusoff, Ahamed Zaharin Aris, Hafizan Juahir and Mohammad firuz Ramli, “Artificial Neural Network Modeling Of The Water Quality Index For Kinta River (Malaysia) Using Water Quality Variables As Predictors” Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2012, pg 2409-2420
  6. Cort J Willmott, Scot M Robeson and Kenji Marsuura, “Short Communication A Refined Index Of Model Performance” International Journal Of Climatology,2011
  7. Prabhata K Swamee and Aditya Tyagi, “Describing Water Quality With Aggregate Index” Journal Of Environmental Engineering, 2000,vol 126(5), Pg 451-455
  8. Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Alobaidy, Haider S Abid, and Bahram K Maulood “Application Of Water Quality Index For Assessment Of Dokan Lake System, Kurdistan Region, Iraq” Research Journal Of Recent Sciences, 2013, vol2(10), pg 10-17
  9. M P Sharma, “Water Quality Analysis Of Yamuna River,” Journal Of Scientific Research, 2008,vol 3

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15.

Authors:

Shabina AR, Sruthi M, Dhanyalekshmi CS

Paper Title:

Microbial Conversion of Organic Fraction of Hotel Waste into Biofertilizer using Modern Technology

Abstract: Food waste generation and management is a serious burden in the environment. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total solid waste dumped at landfill. Globally food waste accounts for 6-10% of greenhouse gas emission. Due to insufficient space and improper treatment technologies, food waste were dumping on open areas thereby it creates many environmental problems. Ground water, contamination, emission of carbon-dioxide, methane, leachate problems are the main factors causing due to its disposal in landfills. This study is conducted for the microbial conversion of organic fraction of hotel waste into fertilizer using modern technology. For that, raw vegetable and food waste were collected from nearby hotel which was subjected to physical and chemical characteristic study. Then different sets of optimization study was conducted using crushed vegetable and food waste in (1:4) proportion to identify better fertiliser in colour, odour and texture. From the optimization study, best proportion of fertilizer was identified (vw:fw+coirpith+sawdust) which was operated at 60°C and used for the scale up study in reactor. Reactor is a new technology which was made of stainless steel provided with heat gun and grinding blades operate at 230V power supply. Experiment was conducted in reactor and fertilizer was produced within 1hr. This fertilizer was mixed with a carrier based bioculum for the production of an effective biofertiliser. Carrier based bioculum was produced by the isolation of Nitrogen fixing, Phosphorous Solubilising and Potassium Solubilizing bacterias from three different sources. Then there strains were produced in respective media and finally mixed with a carrier material like soil. Using the obtained fertilisr and bioculum, seed germination and field level studies were conducted to identify the efficiency. From the NPK analysis, it was confirmed that it was a good biofertiliser of high nutrity value. 

Keywords: Biofertilzer, bioculum, food waste, vegetable waste

References: 

  1. Management in Hotel Industry in India”: A Review, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 6, Issue 9.
  2. Amar Nath (2014), “Profitability and Sustainability from Waste Management Practices in Hotels and Its Impact on Environment”,Jaypee Institute of Information Technology
  3. Brett Ward (2013), “Aerobic Digestion”, Municipal Technical Advisory Service,The University of Tennessee.
  4. Faranak Moshabaki Isfahani, Hossein Besharati (2012),“Effect of bio-fertilizers on yield and yield components of cucumber,”Journal of Biology and Earth Sciences, Vol 2, 245-273.
  5. S. Gomare, M. Mese and Y. Shetkar (2014), “Isolation of Rhizobium and Cost Effective Production of Bio-fertilizer,”Indian J.L.Sci.2 (2): 49-53.
  6. R, Karunakaran, Dhanasekaran.S, Hemaletha .K, Monica.R, (2014), “Isolation of mass production ofbiofertiliser(Azotobacterandphosphobacter)”International Journal of LatestResearch in Science and Technology,Vol 3,pg;79-81.
  7. Siti Zulaiha Hanapi, Hassan M. Awad, Sheikh Imranudin Sheikh Ali, SitiHajar Mat Sarip, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi, Ramlan Aziz (2013), “Agriculture wastes conversion for bio-fertilizer production using beneficial microorganisms for sustainable agriculture applications, Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, Vol 9(1),pp.60-67.
  8. Mohammed Mazid and Taqi Ahmed Khan (2014), “Future of Bio-fertilizers in Indian Agriculture: An Overview,International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, ISSN 1929-0969,Vol. 3 No. 3, pp. 10-23.
  9. Khosro Mohammadi and Yousef Sohrabi (2012), “Bacterial Bio-fertilizers For Sustainable Crop Production: A Review,”ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science,Vol. 7, No. 5
  10. Pallabi Mishra (2014), Rejuvenation of Bio-fertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture and Economic Development,The Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 11, Pp. 41–61.
  11. KamilSabierSaeed, Sarkawt Abdulla Ahmed, Ismael AhmaedHassan and Pshtiwan Hamed Ahmed (2015) “Effect of Bio-Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer on Growth andYield in Cucumber,American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., Vol.15 (3): 353-358.
  12. Rohweder L (2010).Climate Change – “A Business Challenge” Haaga-Helia Discussion, Vol. 9.
  13. Syeda Azeem Unnisa (2015), “Liquid Fertilizer from Food Waste - A Sustainable Approach”. International Research Journal of Environment Sciences Vol. 4(8), 22-25.
  14. Pramod Pandey, Mark Lejeune, Sagor Biswas, Daniel Morash, Bart Weimer, Glenn Young (2015)“A new method for converting food waste into pathogen free soil amendment for enhancing agricultural sustainability”Journal of Cleaner Production1-9.
  15. Stabnikova O, Ding HB, Tay JH, Wang JY (2015), “Biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer.”Waste management and research –ISWA.
  16. Sopiah Ambong, Wan Nazriah Wan Nawawi, Noorazlin Ramli (2016), “Producing Fertilizer from Food Waste Recycling using Berkeley and BokashiMethod”International Scientific Researches Journal,Vol. 72,No. 4.
  17. Oladapo T. Okareh, Samuel A. Oyewole, L.B.Taiwo (2014),“Conversion of food wastes to organic fertilizer: A strategy for promoting food security and institutional waste management in Nigeria”,Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Toxicology, Vol. 3(4) pp.066-072.
  18. B.Londhe, S.M.Bhosale (2015), “Recycling of Solid Wastes into Organic Fertilizers using Low Cost Treatment: Vermicomposting,”International Journal of Innovations in Engineering Research and Technology [Ijiert],Volume 2, Issue 6.
  19. Philomina K. Igbokwe, Christian O. Asadu, Emmanuel C. Okpe, Sylvanus E. Okoro(2015), “Manufacture of Bio Fertilizer by Composting Sawdust and Other Organic Waste,” International Journal of Novel Research in Physics Chemistry &Mathematics,Vol. 2, Issue 3, pp: (6-15).
  20. PremSudha and R. Malathi(2016), “A Study on Composting of Hostel Food waste Into Organic Manure by using Effective Micro Organism and Vermins, 3(11), 319-322.

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16.

Authors:

Duithy George, Divya Raj S.

Paper Title:

Correlation Study and Regression Analysis of Water Quality in Kallada River, Kollam

Abstract: Kallada is a westward flowing river in Kollam district with 130 Kms of length. It is necessary that the quality of river water should be checked at regular time interval as it is used as drinking water. Correlation and regression study is a statistical process for estimating the relationship among variables. It includes many techniques for modelling and analyzing several variables. An important tool used for correlation and regression study is R software. Here in this study R software is used with Karl–Pearson’s correlation equation. It is widely used for assessing the physico–chemical characteristics of river water and provides an excellent tool for the prediction of parameter values within reasonable degree of accuracy. Thirteen water quality parameters of river water from three sites were estimated for consecutive seven weeks following standard methods and procedure of sampling and estimation. As the river flows downstream the pollutant concentration increases. It may be due to the high density of population and location of ancillary industrial units in this area. Comparison of estimated values with WHO, USPH, and BIS standards revealed that the study area is less polluted. In this study area positive correlation is obtained between 82 unions that are 90% of total number. Rest of the 9 union demonstrates negative correlation, which is 10% of the total number.

Keywords: Correlation, Kallada River, Physico-chemical Parameters, Regression.

References:

  1. Sivalingam P, Swami M and Revider reddy T (2016), Studies on the physico-chemical parameters and correlation coefficient of Bangal lake, Adilabad district, Telangana state,India,world journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences,Volume 5 , Issue 5,1461-1468
  2. L. Meena, P. K. Jain and K. S. Meena (2016), Assessment of Ground Water Quality and its Suitability for Drinking and Domestic Uses by Using WQI and Statistical Analysis in river basin Area in Jahzpur Tehsil Bhilwara District Rajasthan, India, International Journal of Current Microbiology and applied sciences, Volume5, Issue 3,415-427.
  3. Beenu Tripathi1, Ruby Pandey1, Divya Raghuvanshi1, Harendra Singh1 , Vikash Pandey1 and D.N.Shukla (2014),Studies on the physic chemical parameters and correlation coefficient of the River Ganga at holy place Shringaverpur, Allahabad, IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology,volume 8, Issue 10,29-36
  4. Ravi Kumar, S. M. Mazhar Nazeeb Khan and R. Sivanesan (2012), A Correlation and Regression Study on the Ground Water of Vaiyampatti Village, Tiruchirappalli District, Environmental Engineering And Management Journal,Volume 4, Issue 5:1847-1852
  5. Stefano Marsili-Libelli, Elisabetta Giusti, (2008), Water quality modelling for small river basins, Environmental Modelling & Software, Volume 2, Issue 3 ,451-463.
  6. Navneet Kumar , D.K. Sinha (2010) Drinking water quality management through correlation studies among various physicochemical parameters: A case study ,International Journal Of Environmental Sciences ,Volume 1,Issue 2, 0976 – 4402
  7. Jothivenkatachalam*, A. Nithya and S. Chandra Mohan (2010), Correlation analysis of drinking water quality in and around perur block of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India, Volume 3, Issue 4 , 649-654.
  8. Animesh Agarwal and Manish Saxena (2010),Assessment Of Pollution By Physico Chemical Waterparameters Using Regression Analysis Of Gagan River At Moradabad ,India, Advances In Applied Science Research, Volume 2, Issue2,185-189
  9. Sravya P.V.R and Sreejani .T.P (2016), Water Quality Modelling – Statistical Approach, International Advanced Research Journal In Science,Engineering And Technology,Volume3,Issue2,6-10
  10. Hefni Effendi (2016), River Water Quality Preliminary Rapid Assessment Using Pollution Index ,Procedia Environmental Sciences, Volume 33 ,Issue 5, 562 – 567
  11. Ajith Kumar Sharma , Nidhi Parashar And Ravi Sharma(2013), Monitoring Of Water Quality Of Yamuna River At Madhurai, Up- Physico Chemical Characteristics. International Journal Of Research In Environmental Science And Technology.
  12. Environmental Monitoring And Assessment,2006, 113, 411-429. DOI;10.1007/S10661-005-9092-6.
  13. APHA (American Public Health Association). Standard Methods For The Examination Of Water And Waste Water. American Public Health Association Publication Sales,Waldorf,Maryland,264pp.2005
  14. BIS (1991) Drinking Water Specification Is No 10500.Bureau Of Indian Standards.
  15. WHO (1993) Guidelines For Drinking Water Quality Recommendations,2nd Edn. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  16. Chemistry for environmental engineering ,4th edition Clair N. Sawyer, perrg Z Mc. Carty , Gener F .Parkin.

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17.

Authors:

Fathima A, Sukanya S Nair

Paper Title:

River Water Quality Assessment using Pollution Index 

Abstract: A rapid interpretation of river water quality is a compulsory since river is a dynamic ecosystem, influenced by various activities in the river bank. Rivers are the main mode to carry or disposal municipal wastewater, industrial waste water, solid waste and runoff water from agricultural field, road that is the major reason of river water pollution. River water gets polluted at some points due to anthropogenic activities, confluence of sewage, domestic waste, and disposal of solid waste. So it is necessary to monitor the water quality of river water by pollution index. For the determination of pollution index, the river water sample which was collected from two river namely river Pallickal in kollam district and Parvathy Puthanar in Trivandrum district.From the river pallickal, sample was collected from five points such as champakadav, malumeal, karurkadav and thodiyoor. From the river Parvathy Puthanar ,water sample is collected from four points such as Karali junction , air india nagar, chaka manalveedu and pallithoppu. The physico-chemical analysis and bacteriological analysis were done, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, total hardness, sulphate, nitrate, chloride, turbidity, phosphate , dissolved oxygen , BOD, MPN, COD are done. The pollution index of river Pallickal ranges from 1.02-1.6 and determined the river is lightly polluted. Then the pollution index of Parvathy Puthanar ranges from 5.22-5.45 and determined that river is moderately polluted.

Keywords: Pollution index, physico-chemical analysis, bacteriological analysis

References: 

  1. Avinash Chaudan,Suman Singh,Vineeta kumar, “ Study of water quality status of Ganga River in Uttarakand to water quality index assessment,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,Engineering and Technology, Vol.4, Jan 2015.
  2. Ajith kumar Sharma, Nidhi Parashar(Sharma) and Ravi Sharma, “Monitoring of water quality of Yamuna river at Madura PhysicoChemicalcharecteristics,”International journal of Research in Environmental Science and Technolgy,Sep2016.
  3. Deepiraj Kevat,Manish Dubey,A-K Saxena,Anjula Gaur,“Assessment of water quality index of Saank River,Morena,Madhya Pradesh,”IJSETR,vol.5(8), Aug2016.
  4. Effendi H,Romanto, Wadiato Y, “ Water quality status of CiambulawngRiver,BantenProvince,based on pollution index and NSF-WQI,” ,procedia environmental science, vol 24, 2015, pp. 228-237.
  5. Hefni Effendi, “River water quality preliminary rapid assessment using Pollution Index,” Procedia environmental Sciences, vol 3, 2016, pp. 562-567.
  6. Kumar S.K, Logeshkumaran A, Magesh NS,Godson PS,Chandrasekar N, Hydro,“Geochemistry and application of water quality index(WQI) for ground water quality assessment,’’procedia environmental science, 2014.
  7. Poonam T, Tanusree B, Sukalyan C,“ Water Quality Indices-Important tools for Water quality assessment” International journal of advances in Chemistry, 2013.
  8. Tyagi S, Sarma B, Singh P “Water quality assessment in terms of water quality Index,”,American Journal of Water Resources ,vol1(3),2016,pp. 34-38.

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18.

Authors:

Lekshmi S, K. Mophin Kani

Paper Title:

Assessment of Seawater Intrusion using Chemical Indicators 

Abstract: Groundwater is an essential and vital component for any life supporting system. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all developmental activities. Groundwater chemistry is of great interest in coastal regions due to the varying degree of mixing of groundwater with seawater. Present study focuses mainly on the seawater intrusion vulnerability, confined to the coastal belt of Kollam district, which lies in the coastal belt area of Kerala. The physicochemical parameters of about 20 well samples, within 5 km radius were analysed. Based on the results, all the sites within the radius are at the midst of intrusion. Assessment of chemical indicators namely Ca enrichment ratio (within the limits 1.39-28.61), Cl- / (HCO3+CO3) ratio (about 3 sites have values less than 5, for other sites value range between 0.519-1.499), BEX indices (salinization ranges from -1.191 to -0.49, freshening ranges from 0.28 to 1.35), Na+ / Cl- ratio (within limits 0.09-0.79) helped to identify the wells which are indicating with seawater intrusion. SAR ratio (within limits 3.094-7.208) within the region also confirms that the area had a chance of totally getting intruded in the near future. Alkaline earth metals with increased portion of alkali with prevailing Cl- ions were the dominant water type in the study area. Plotting using piper diagram also indicates that the study area presently at the level of mixing zone.

Keywords: Chemical indicators, Physicochemical parameters, Seawater intrusion, Statistical tools.

References: 

  1. Small, C. and Nicholls, R.J.‟A global analysis of human settlement in coastal zones”. Journal of Coastal Research. 19(3): 2003 pp 584-599
  2. Baskaran, M. Mangalam, V. Murugaiyan, ‟Study of seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer by hydrochemical method- review” International Journal of Advanced Research (2016), Volume 4, Issue 2, 120-126
  3. Green, T.R., Taniguchi, M., Kooi, H., Gurdak, J.J., Allen, D.M., Hiscock, K.M. Treidel, H. and Aureli, A. (2011) ‟Beneath the surface of global change: impacts of climate change on groundwater”. Journal of Hydrology 405(3): 2011, pp 532-560.
  4. Michael, H.A., Russoniello, C.J. and Byron, L.A. ‟ Global assessment of vulnerability to sea-level rise in topography-limited and recharge-limited coastal groundwater systems”. Water Resources Research 49(4): 2013, pp 2228-2240.
  5. Lyles, J.R. (2000). ‟Is seawater intrusion affecting ground water on Lopez Island, Washington?” USGS Numbered Series, U.S. Geological Survey. Fact Sheet FS-057-00.
  6. ] K.S. Anil Kumar, C.P. Priju, N.B. Narasimha Prasad, ―‟Study on Saline Water intrusion into the Shallow Coastal Aquifers of Periyar River Basin‖, Kerala using Hydrochemical and Electrical Resistivity Methods.” Aquatic Procedia 4 2015, pp32 – 40
  7. Panno, S.V., Hackley, K.C., Hwang, H.H., Greenberg, S.E., Krapac, I.G., Landsberger, S. and O’Kelly, D.J.O. ‟Characterization and identification of Na-Cl sources in ground water”. Ground Water 44(2): 2006, pp 176-187.
  8. http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/saltwater/salt.html Accessed: April 4, 2017
  9. Bear, J. (1999) ‟Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers:” concepts, methods and practices. Boston. Mass: Kluwer Academic, review article
  10. Todd, D.K. (1959) Ground water hydrology. United States. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. pp. 277294
  11. Stuyfzand, P.J, ‟A new hydrochemical classification of water types: principles and application to the coastal dunes aquifer system of the Netherlands.” In Proceedings 9th Salt Water Intrusion Meeting, Delft Univ. Techn, Delft, May 12-16, 1986. pp. 641-655
  12. D Seawater intrusion topic paper (final), Island County: WRIA 6 Watershed Planning Process ,20151-30
  13. http:// en.wikipidia.org. /wiki. histogram/html Accessed: April 12,2017.
  14. Kennedy, G.A. (2012) Development of a GIS-based approach for the assessment of relative seawater intrusion vulnerability in Nova Scotia, Canada. Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources. IAH 2012 Congress, Niagara Falls.
  15. Satyanarayana, Ratnakarand and Muralidhar, Major Ion Chemistry of Groundwater and Surface Water in Parts of Mulugu-Venkatapur Mandal, Warangal District, Telangana State, India, Hydrology Current Research
  16. Klassen, D.M. Allen and D. Kirste, ‟Chemical Indicators of Saltwater Intrusion for the Gulf Islands”, British Columbia, Department of Earth sciences, Simon Fraser University June (2014)
  17. Baskaran, M. Mangalam, Murugaiyan, ‟ Study of seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer by hydrochemical method”, International Journal of Advanced Research 2016, Volume 4, Issue 2, 120-126
  18. http:// en.wikipidia.org. /wiki. Piper plot/html Accessed: April 12,2017
  19. http:// en.wikipidia.org. /wiki. Kollam+district. /html Accessed: April 13,2017
  20. http:// en.wikipidia.org. /wiki. Seawater intrusion+losses/html Accessed: April 12,2017
  21. http:// en.wikipidia.org. /wiki. Flame photometry/html Accessed: April 12,2017

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19.

Authors:

Vibhoosha M. P., Anjana Bhasi

Paper Title:

Settlement Behaviour of Embankments Supported By Columnar Structures 

Abstract: Use of columns is an ideal technique for flexible structures such as embankments and storage tanks due to their higher strength and stiffness compared to the surrounding soft soil by means of which columns sustain larger proportion of the applied load. Being highly permeable, stone columns provide good drainage for pore water dissipation which accelerates the consolidation settlement in clayey soils and they are therefore commonly used in India. Another technique that is popular in European countries is the use of plain concrete piles as columnar materials with geosynthetic as basal reinforcement. In this paper, finite element based numerical analyses has been carried out to study the settlement behavior of embankments supported by different type of columnar structures such as stone columns, encased stone columns and geosynthetic reinforced piles with consolidation. 

Keywords: Embankment, Settlement, Stone column, Geosynthetic, Pile

References: 

  1. J, and Gabr, M. A. 2002. Numerical analysis of geosynthetic reinforced and pile-supported earth platforms over soft soil. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 128(1), 44–53.W.-K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems (Book style). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123–135.
  2. Collin, J.G., Han, J., Huang, J., 2005. Geosynthetic-reinforced column-support embankment design guidelines. In: Proceedings of the the North America Geosynthetics Society Conference.
  3. Huang, J.,Han,J.,Collin,J.G.,2005.Geogrid-reinforcedpile-supported railway embankments – three dimensional numerical analysis. J.Transp. Res. Board,221–229.
  4. Huang, J.,Han, J.,Oztoprak,S., 2009.Coupled mechanical and hydraulic modeling of geosynthetic-reinforced column-supported embankments. J. Geotech.Geoenviron.Eng.,ASCE135(8),1011–1021
  5. Chen, R.P., Chen,Y.M., Han,J.,Xu,Z.Z.,2008.Atheoretical solutionfor pile-supported embankments on soft soil. Can.Geotech.J. 45(5), 611–623.
  6. Zheng,G.,Jiang,Y.,Han,J., 2011.Performanceofcement-flyash-gravel pile-supported high-speed railway embankments over soft marine clay.J.Georesour.Geotechnol.29(2),145–161.
  7. Filz, G.,Sloan,J.,McGuire,M.P.,Collin,J.,Smith,M.,2012.Column- supported embankments settlement and load transfer, Geotechnical Engineering State of the Art and Practice.54–77 (ASCEGSPno.226).
  8. Deb, K., Mohapatra, S.R., 2013. Analysis of stone column-supported geosyntheticreinforced embankments. Appl. Math. Model. 37 (5), 2943-2960.
  9. Gniel, J., Bouazza, A., 2009. Improvement of soft soils using geogrid encased granular columns. Geotext. Geomembr. 27 (3), 167e175.
  10. Murugesan, S., Rajagopal, K., 2010. Studies on the behavior of single and group of geosynthetic encased granular columns. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 136 (1), 129e139.
  11. Raithel, M., Kempfert, H. G., Kirchner, A., 2002. Geotextile-encased columns (GEC) for foundation of a dike on very soft soils. In: Proceedings 7th ICG International Conference on Geosynthetics, Nice, France, pp. 1025-1028.
  12. Barron, R.A., 1948. Consolidation of soil using vertical drain wells. Geotechnique 31, 718–742.
  13. Priebe, H. J.1995. The design of vibro replacement. Ground Eng., 28-10, 31–37.
  14. Bergado D.T, Panichayatum, Sampaco C.L, 1988. Reinforcement of soft bangkok clay using granular piles. In: Proceedings, international symposium on theory and practice of earth reinforcement, Kyushu, Japan, pp 179–184
  15. Cheung, K.C, 1998. Geogrid Reinforced Light Weight Embankment on Stone Columns. Roading Geotechnics 98, New Zealand Geotechnical Society, Auckland, 273–278.
  16. McCabe, B., McNeill J.A., Black J.A, 2007. Ground improvement using the vibro-stone column technique. Joint meeting of Engineers Ireland West Region and the Geotechnical Society of Ireland, NUI Galway, 15 March.
  17. Raithel, M., Kirchner, A., Schade, C., Liesink, E., 2005. Foundation of constructions on very soft soils with geotextile encased columns – State of the art. Geo-Frontiers 2005, pp 1867-1877.
  18. Murugesan, S.,Rajagopal, K.,2006. Geosynthetic-encased stone columns: Numerical evaluation, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 24(6), pp 349-358.
  19. Zhang, R., Lo, S.R. (2008), Analysis of geosynthetic reinforced stone columns in soft clay, of the 4th Asian Regional Conference on Geosynthetics, Shanghai, China, pp 735-740.
  20. Lo, S.R., Mak, J., Zhang, R., 2007. Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns in Soft Clay. Proc of International Symposium on Earth Reinforcement, Kyushu. Taylor and Francis, pp. 751–756.
  21. Chen, R. P., Chen Y.M., Han J., XuZ.Z.2008. A theoretical solution for pile-supported embankments on soft soils under one dimensional compression. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 45, 611–623.
  22. Terzaghi, K .1943. Theoretical Soil Mechanics, Wiley, New York.
  23. Hassan,G., Dias, D., de Buhan, P.,2009. Multiphase constitutive model for the design of piled embankments: Comparison with three dimensional numerical simulations. International journal of Geomechanics, ASCE,9 (6), 258-266.
  24. Yoo C, 2010. Performance of geosynthetic-encased stone columns in embankment construction: numerical investigation. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 136(8):1148–1160
  25. Hewlett, W.J. and M.F. Randolph, 1988. Analysis of piled embankments. Ground Engineering, 21(3), 12-18.
  26. S. Ng, S. A. Tan (2015).Settlement Prediction of Stone Column Group Int. J. of Geosynth.and Ground Eng. 1:33

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20.

Authors:

S. Anaswara, Amrita, R. Shivashankar

Paper Title:

Numerical Analysis on Interference of Strip Footings on Soils

Abstract: The primary function of foundation of a structure, is to safely transfer the loads from the superstructure to the soil beneath without occurrence of shear failure and without excessive settlements. Due to rapid urbanization, very often structures and their foundations are built close to each other. This numerical study looks into the interference effects between two adjacent strip footings that are rigid and perfectly rough at their bottom. Two types of foundation soils, namely clays and sands, are being considered. A finite element based software-PLAXIS 2D is being used. The parameters varied in this study are the width of footing and clear distance between the two adjacent rigid strip footings. The soil is assumed to behave as linear elastic material under a range of static foundation loads. From the numerical analysis, it is observed that the interference effects in terms of settlements and bearing stresses beneath the footings are more when the footings are at closer spacing, both in case of clay and sand, and vice versa. When the spacing to foundation width (S/B) ratio is 0.5, the settlements beneath the footings are more than doubled, and vertical stresses beneath footing are increased by 17 to 50%, compared to that of an isolated footing. Interference effects are found to be negligible when the spacing between the footings is five times the width of the footing when the foundation settlements become almost equal to that of a single strip footing on soil.

Keywords: bearing capacity, interference effect, numerical analysis, settlements. 

References: 

  1. Abbas, J. K. and Hussain, I. S. (2013). Bearing capacity of two closely spaced strip footings on geogrid reinforced sand. Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/, 20(5), 8-18
  2. Daud, K. A. (2012). Interference of shallow multiple strip footings on sand. Iraqi Journal for Mechanical and Material Engineering, Vol.12, No.3.
  3. Ghazavi, M. and Lavasan, A. (2008). Interference effect of shallow foundations constructed on sandreinforced with geosynthetics. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 404–415.
  4. Ghosh, P. and Sharma, A. (2010). Interference effect of two nearby strip footings on layered soil: theory of elasticity approach. Acta Geotechnica, 189–198.
  5. Naderi, E. and Hataf, N. (2014). Model testing and numerical investigation of interference effect of closely spaced ring and circular
  6. footings on reinforced sand. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 191-200.
  7. Nainegali, L. S. and Basudhar, P. K. (2011). Interference of two closely spaced footings: A finite element modeling. Geo-Frontiers 2011 (pp. 3726-3735). Dallas,Texas, United States: ASCE.
  8. Noorzad, R. and Manavirad, E. (2014). Bearing capacity of two close strip footings on soft clay reinforced with geotextile. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 623–639.
  9. Plaxis (2015), Plaxis manuals. www.plaxis.nl.
  10. Stuart, J. G. (1962). Interference between foundations, with special reference to surface footings in sand. Géotechnique, 12(1), 15–22.
  11. Sunil, S., Pusadkar, S. S. and Kolhe, P. (2015). Interference of two closely spaced circular footings subjected to eccentric loads. 50th Indian Geotechnical Conference. Pune

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21.

Authors:

Tiju Susan Thomas, Sindhu A.R.

Paper Title:

Regression Modelling for Prediction of Pore Size Distribution of Clayey Soil from Permeability and Compaction Characteristics 

Abstract: The arrangement of primary soil particles and its aggregation forms the soil structure. Based on pore size, the porous structure of soil can be classified into small pores located within aggregates and large pores located between aggregates. Micro-pore structure is highly influential for very fine soil in its engineering properties. Permeability and compaction characteristics of soil are greatly influenced by the pore structure or pore size distribution. With chemical modification of soil and other ground improvement techniques at microscopic level gaining importance, there is relevance in studying the effect of micro pore structure on soil properties particularly in problematic soil like Kuttanad clay. Also, correlation equations could eliminate the need for highly sophisticated instrument and save time. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of micro pore structure properties on permeability and compaction characteristics of clayey soil. It involves determination of permeability, Standard Proctor characteristics, determination of pore size distribution and pore volume of soil samples collected from Kuttanad region by adopting BJH analysis. The relationship between the parameters is investigated and an attempt is done to obtain the equation involving the parameters by linear regression. The results from the study show that relation exists between the parameters. 

Keywords: Compaction, Micro Pore, Permeability, Porosity, Regression Analysis. 

References: 

  1. Ahangar-Asr, A., A. Faramarzi, N. Mottaghifard, and A. A. Javadi (2011). “Modeling of permeability and compaction characteristics of soils using evolutionary polynomial regression”. Computers & geosciences, 37(11), 1860–1869.
  2. Ayoub, M. A. and A. Esmaeili. “Application of artificial neural networks technique for estimating permeability from well log data.
  3. Brunauer, S., P. H. Emmett, and E. Teller (1938). “Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers”. Journal of the American chemical society, 60(2), 309–319.
  4. Saranya and D.N.Arnepalli (2016).”Effect of pore size distribution on unconfined compressive shear strength”. Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical conference.
  5. Dolinar, B. (2012). “A simplified method for determining the external specific surface area of non-swelling fine-grained soils”. Applied clay science, 64, 34–37.
  6. Greenland, D. and J. Quirk, “Surface areas of soil colloids”. In Transactions of the International Soil Conference, New Zealand. 1962.
  7. Nimmo, J.R., 2004,” Porosity and Pore Size Distribution”., in Hillel, D., ed. Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, London, Elsevier, v. 3, p. 295-303.
  8. Guyonnet, D., E. Gaucher, H. Gaboriau, C.-H. Pons, C. Clinard, V. Norotte, and G. Didier (2005). “Geosynthetic clay liner interaction with leachate: correlation between permeability, microstructure, and surface chemistry”. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 131(6), 740–749.
  9. Kurup, P. U. and E. P. Griffin (2006). “Prediction of soil composition from cpt data using general regression neural network”. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 20(4), 281–289.
  10. Li, W., W. Xing, and N. Xu (2006). “Modeling of relationship between water permeability and microstructure parameters of ceramic membranes”. Desalination, 192(1-3), 340–345.
  11. Mahdi, F. M., B. Di Giovanni, and R. Holdich. “Permeability prediction using artificial neural networks from particle characterisation data”.
  12. Neenu, M. (2016). “A study on the compaction characteristics and stress-strain behavior of kuttanad clay stabilized with rice husk ash and lime”. International Journal of Engineering Technology Management and Applied Sciences, 4.
  13. Neithalath, N., M. S. Sumanasooriya, and O. Deo (2010). “Characterizing pore volume, sizes, and connectivity in pervious concretes for permeability prediction”. Materials characterization, 61(8), 802–813.
  14. Ranaivomanana, H., A. Razakamanantsoa, and O. Amiri (2016). “Permeability prediction of soils including degree of compaction and microstructure”. International Journal of Geomechanics, 04016107.
  15. Romero, E. (2013). “A microstructural insight into compacted clayey soils and their hydraulic properties”. Engineering Geology, 165, 3–19.
  16. Standard-IS, I. (a). 2720 (part 15)–(1986); methods of one dimensional consolidation test for soils. New Delhi, India.
  17. Standard-IS, I. (b). 2720 (part 3)–(1980); methods of test for soils, determination of specific gravity of soils. New Delhi, India.
  18. Standard-IS, I. (c). 2720 (part 4)–(1985); methods of test for soils, determination of grain size analysis of soil. New Delhi.
  19. Standard-IS, I. (d). 2720 (part 5)–(1985); methods of test for soils, determination of liquid and plastic limit of soils. New Delhi, India.
  20. Standard-IS, I. (e). 2720 (part 7)–(1980); methods of standard proctor test for soils, determination of maximum dry density and optimum moisture content of soils. New Delhi, India.

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22.

Authors:

Rekha Ambi, Jayasree P.K., Unnikrishnan N.

Paper Title:

Experimental Investigations on Combined Loaded Finned Piles in Sand

Abstract: Piles are supposed to withstand large lateral loads such as wind – earthquake loads, beyond the imposed vertical loads in all types of structures like multistoreyed buildings, bridge abutments, retaining walls . Finned pile is a developing form of pile foundation that is capable of withstanding large lateral translations. In this study an effort is made to quantify the improvement in lateral load carrying capacity of a piles with fins attached close to the pile head, when subjected to combined loading. Small-scale laboratory model tests were performed on normal piles (without fins) and also with finned piles. These piles were embedded in sand. The studies were carried out by varying the geometric factors such as length and width of the fins and also the type of pile. Reviews show that if the fins are provided close to the pile head then there is a significant increase in lateral resistance capacity of the piles. The increase in lateral resistance capacity gained by attaching fins on a pile varies with dimension of the fins as well as the type of pile. Short open ended and closed ended piles are used for the experimental work. On the basis of the laboratory model test results, optimum dimension of the fin for maximum improvement are recommended. The trend showed in the results were similar with those stated in the literature as on studies with lateral load alone.

Keywords: Combined loading, fin piles, Lateral displacement, model tests, sand.

References: 

  1. Bienen, B., Duhrkop, J., Grabe, J., Randolph, M. F., and White, D. (2012).  “Response of piles with wings to Monotonic and Cyclic Lateral Loading in Sand.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering,  138(3),pp.364-375.
  2. Grabe, J. and Duhrkop, J. (2007). “Improving of lateral bearing capacity of mono-piles by welded wings.” In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Foundations. HIS BRE Press, Garston, UK. pp. 849-860.
  3. Karthigeyan, S., Ramakrishna, V.V.G.S.T. and Rajagopal, K. (2005). “Interaction between vertical and lateral loads on the response of piles in soft clays.” 16th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Osaka, Japan.
  4. Karthigeyan, S., Ramakrishna, V.V.G.S.T. and Rajagopal, K. (2006). “Influence of vertical load on lateral response of piles in sand.” Computers and Geotechnics, 33, pp. 121-131
  5. Karthigeyan, S., Ramakrishna, V.V.G.S.T. and Rajagopal, K. (2007). “Numerical investigation of the Effect of Vertical Load on the Lateral Response of Piles.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 133(5), pp. 512-521.
  6. Nasr, A. M. A. (2014). “ Experimental and theoretical studies of laterally loaded finned piles in sand.” , Canedian  Geotechnical Journal , Vol. 51, pp. 381-393
  7. Peng, J. R. (2006). “Behaviour of finned piles in laterally loaded piles.” Ph. D. Thesis, Newcastle University, Canada.
  8. Peng, J. R., Rouainia, M. and Clarke, B. G. (2011). “ Increasing the resistance of piles subjected to cyclic lateral loading.” ,  ASCE,  137(10),  977-982
  9. Peng, J. R., Rouainia, M., Clarke, B. G., Allan, P. and Irvine, J. (2004).“Lateral resistance of finned piles established from model tests.” In proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering, Beirut, CFMS, Lebanon, pp. 565-571.
  10. Peng, J. R., Rouainia, M. and Clarke, B. G. (2010). “Finite Element Analysis on laterally loaded fin piles in sand.”  Computers and Structures, 88(21-22) , pp. 1239-1247
  11. Rajagopal, K., and Karthigeyan, S. (2008). “Influence of Combined Vertical and Lateral Loading on the Lateral Response of Piles”. The 12th International Conference of IACMAG, Goa, India.

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23.

Authors:

Fathima S, Jisha S. V, Jayalekshmi B. R

Paper Title:

Seismic Analysis of Industrial Chimneys Considering the Flexibility of Soil

Abstract: Conventionally, the chimney structures are analysed with the fixed base condition, although in reality, the structural response of the chimney varies according to the rigidity of structure, nature of foundation and stiffness of supporting soil, especially under the seismic ground motions. Hence, it is important to account for soil-structure interaction (SSI) in the analysis of chimney structure, under seismic conditions. In this present study, the seismic response of the tall RCC chimneys of heights 75 m, 150 m and 300 m considering flexibility of soil were analysed. Equivalent static method as per IS 1893 (Part 4) 2005 was used to analyse the three dimensional finite element analysis of integrated chimney - foundation –soil systems. The responses are obtained for different supporting soil strata (loose sand to rock). Free vibration analysis was also done. Tip deflection of chimneys and tangential and radial moments of chimney shells are computed from SSI analysis and compared that with conventional analysis.

Keywords: equivalent static method, free vibration, seismic ground motion, soil-structure interaction.

References:

  1. R. Jayalekshmi, S. V. Jisha, R. Shivashankar, and S. Soorya Narayana, “Effect of Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction on Raft of Piled Raft Foundation of Chimneys,” ISRN Civil Engineering, 2014, 16, pp. 1-11.
  2. V. Jisha, B. R. Jayalekshmi, and R. Shivashankar, “Evaluation of The Effect of Soil-structure Interaction on the Raft of Tall Reinforced Concrete Chimneys under Across Wind Load,” The Eighth Asia-Pacific Conference on Wind Engineering, 2013, pp.58-67.
  3. Mehta, Doris, and K. A. Desai, “Effect of Soil - Structure Interaction on Seismic Response of Tall Chimneys,” Proc., 4th Int.Conf. on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, 1997,1681, pp. 25-28.
  4. Chmielewski, G. Górski, B. Beirow, and J. Kretzschmar, “Theoretical and Experimental Free Vibrations of Tall Industrial Chimney with Flexibility of Soil,” J. Engineering Structures, 2005, 27, pp. 25–34.
  5. Navarro, “Influence of Soil Flexibility on the Seismic Behaviour of Chimneys,” J. Soil. Dyn. and Earthquake Eng., 2003, 11, pp. 403-409.
  6. Chowdary, and S. P. Dasgupta, “Earthquake Response of Soil Structure Interaction,” Indian Geo-technical Journal, 2002, pp. 32-35.
  7. S. Arya, and D. K. Paul, “Earthquake response of tall chimney,” Proc.,6th World. Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Roorkee, India, 1976, 1, pp. 1247-1259.
  8. L. Wilson, “Earthquake Response of Tall Reinforced Concrete Chimney,” J. Engineering Structures, 2002, 25, pp. 11-24.
  9. Menon, and S. P. Rao, “Estimation of Along-Wind Moments in RC Chimneys,” J.Engineering Structures, 1997, 19, pp. 71-78.
  10. R. Tabatabaiefar, and A. Massumi, “A Simplified Method to Determine Seismic Responses of Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Building Frames under Influence of Soil-Structure Interaction,” J. Soil. Dyn. and Earthquake Eng., 2010, 30, pp. 1259-1267.
  11. S. N. Manohar, Tall Chimneys-Design and Consideration, Tata McGraw Hill. New Delhi, India, 1985.
  12. E. Bowles, Foundation analysis and design, McGraw-Hill International Editions, Singapore, 1997.
  13. P. Wolf, Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1985.
  14. IS 1893 (Part 1):2002 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2002.
  15. IS 1893 (Part 4):2005 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2005.
  16. ANSYS Engineering Analysis System, User and Theoretical Manual. ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, USA, Version 11.0, 2007.

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24.

Authors:

Radhika. M. Patel, B. R. Jayalekshmi, R. Shivashankar

Paper Title:

Finite Element Analysis of Geogrid Reinforced Pile Supported Embankment Considering the Effect of Pile Length 

Abstract: In places where there are soft and compressible soils for considerable depths, bridge approach embankments very often rest directly on the untreated soft ground, while the bridge structure itself rest on hard foundation or on deep foundations that transfer loads to the hard and unyielding strata. Also in such places, the water table could be high, because of which the soils will have low shear strength. Due to self weight and traffic loads on the embankment, the road embankment will sink considerably, causing huge differential settlements at the junction of the bridge deck and the approach embankments on either side of the bridges. This will cause an uneasy bump and discomfort for the passengers. To overcome this problem geogrid reinforced pile supported embankment is a suitable solution. A 3-Dimensional finite element analysis of geogrid reinforced pile supported embankment having crest width of 20 m, height above ground of 5 m, with side slopes of 1.5H:1V consisting of sandy silt backfill, overlying a soft clay deposit of 25 m thickness is carried out. Variable head diameter piles having 1 m head diameter and 400 mm shaft diameter and varying pile spacing and length are being considered. Settlement variations across the embankment and foundation soil, settlement at ground level, vertical stress distribution due to traffic load along with the weight of embankment are being studied. From the analysis it is seen that end bearing piles are very much effective in reducing total and differential settlements even at 4D spacing. Also very less negative skin friction values at the pile head were seen but at the pile toe higher values of positive skin friction were seen hence while designing the variable head piles for supporting the embankment, positive skin friction at the toe should be taken care.

Keywords: Bridge Approach Embankments, Finite Element Method, Geogrid Reinforcement, Variable Head Diameter Piles.

References: 

  1. Russell and N. Pierpoint, "An assessment of design methods for piled embankments." Ground Engineering, 1997,30(11), pp.39-44.
  2. Han and M. A. Gabr, “Numerical analysis of geosynthetic-reinforced and pile-supported earth platforms over soft soil.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng, 2002, ASCE.128:44-53.
  3. Yoo and S.B. Kim, “Numerical modeling of geosynthetic-encased stone column reinforced ground.” Geosynth. Int., 2009, 16 (3), pp.116-126
  4. L. Liu, Charles W. W. Ng and K. Fei, “Performance of a geogrid-reinforced and pile-supported highway embankment over soft clay: case study.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 2007, ASCE. 133(12): 1483-1493
  5. J. M. van Eekelen, A. Bezuijen and A. F. van Tol, “Analysis and modification of the British Standard BS8006 for the design of piled embankments.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes , 2011, 29, 345-359.
  6. Anjana Bhasi and K. Rajagopal, “Geosynthetic-reinforced piled embankments: comparison of numerical and analytical methods.” Int. J. Geomech, 2014, ASCE. 15(5): 04014074
  7. Anjana Bhasi and K. Rajagopal, “Numerical study of basal reinforced embankments supported on floating/end bearing piles considering pile-soil interaction.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 2015, 43, pp.524-536.
  8. Dias and J. Grippon, “Numerical modelling of a pile-supported embankment using variable inertia piles.” Structural engineering and mechanics, 2017, 61(2), pp.245-253.
  9. E. Bowles, “Foundation analysis and design”. McGraw-hill, 1996, pp.125.
  10. info, Angle of Friction, http://geotechdata.info/parameter/angle-of-friction.html (as of September 14.12.2013).
  11. info, Cohesion, http://geotechdata.info/parameter/cohesion (as of December 15, 2013).
  12. Syawal Satibi, “Numerical analysis and design criteria of embankments on floating piles.” 2009, (A PhD Thesis submitted to the University of Stuttgart, Germany).
  13. FHWA NHI-95-038 "Geosynthetic Design and Construction Guidelines" Participant Notebook for NHI Course No. 13213.pp.218
  14. Priyanath Ariyarathne and D. S. Liyanapathirana, “Review of existing design methods for geosynthetic-reinforced pile-supported embankments.” Soils and Foundations, 2015, 55 (1), pp.17-34.
  15. IRC:75-2015 "Guidelines for the Design of High Embankments".pp.30.
  16. Jenck, D. Dias and R. Kastner.” Soft ground improvement by vertical rigid piles two-dimensional physical modelling and comparison with current design methods.” Soils and Foundations, 2005, 45(6), pp.15-30.
  17. B. Doran and A. Seckin, “Soil-pile interaction effects in wharf structures under lateral loads.”  Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 2014, 51(2), pp.267-276.

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25.

Authors:

Paloma Pineda

Paper Title:

Technical Keynote Numerical Modelling and Analysis of Brittle Masonry Structures in Seismic Areas. Considerations on the Model and the Environmental Factor

Abstract: The dynamic assessment of brittle masonry structures located in seismic areas by means of numerical methods is a complex task, as it is necessary to overcome several uncertainties and difficulties (e.g. the selection of reliable constitutive models, the use of the most adequate numerical method, the role of stiffness degradation or the cracking and crushing evolution). In addition, the environmental impact of structural materials, types, and works, should be added to the assessment model to improve sustainability. In this paper are analysed the weaknesses and strengths of different nonlinear numerical approaches, evaluating the suitability, accuracy and limitations of each analysis (from static and modal to pushover and transient nonlinear). Considerations on the environmental issues that should be included in the numerical analyses are also provided. The challenge is twofold, to improve the structural safety and to reduce the negative environmental effects by means of numerical models.

Keywords: Numerical Model; Seismic Assessment; Eco-efficient Structures; Non-linear Analyses; Brittle Structures.

References: 

  1. Bayraktar, A., Sahin, A., Özcan, D. M., & Yildirim, F. (2010). Numerical damage assessment of Hagia Sophia bell tower by nonlinear FE modeling. Applied Mathematical Modelling , 34, 92-121.
  2. Bernardeschi, K., Padovani, C., & Pasquinelli, G. (2004). Numerical modelling of the structural behaviour of Buti´s bell tower. Journal of Cultural Heritage , 5, 371-378.
  3. Chopra, A. K. (1995). Dynamics of structures: Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering. Prentice-Hall.
  4. Chopra, A. K., & Goel, R. K. (2002). A modal pushover analysis procedure for estimating seismic demands for buildings. Earthuake Engineering and Structural Dynamics , 31 (3), 561-582.
  5. Danatzo, J. M., & Sezen, H. (2011). Sustainable Structural Design. Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction , 16 (4), 186-190.
  6. Delgado Rodrigues, J., & Grossi, A. (2007). Indicators and ratings for the compatibility assessment of conservation actions. Journal of Cultural Heritage , 8, 32-43.
  7. Galasco, A., Lagomarsino, S., & Penna, A. (2006). On the use of pushover analysis for existing masonry buildings. First European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology.
  8. Genna, F., Di Pasqua, M., Veroli, M., & Ronca, P. (1998). Numerical analysis of old masonry buildings: a comparison among constitutive models. Engineering Structures , 20 (1-2), 37-53.
  9. Krawinkler, H., & Seneviratna, G. D. (1997). Pros and cons of a pushover analysis of seismic perfomance evaluation. Engineering structures , 20 (4-6), 452-464.
  10. Luciano, R., & Sacco, E. (1998). A damage model for masonry structures. International Journal of Mechanics, A/Solids , 17 (2), 285-303.
  11. Milani, G., & Valente, M. (2015). Comparative pushover and limit analysees on seven masonry churches damaged by the 2012 Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seimic events: Possibilities of non-linear finite elements compared with pre-assigned failure mechanisms. Engineering Failure Analysis , 47, 129-161.
  12. Oh, B. K., Park, J. S., Choi, S. W., & Park, H. S. (2016). Design model for analysis of relationships among CO2 emissions, cost, and structural parameters in green building construction with composite columns . Energy and Buildings , 118, 301-315.
  13. Papanikolau, V. K., Elnashai, A. S., & Pareja, J. F. (2005). Limits of Applicability of Conventional and Adaptative Pushover Analysis for Seismic Response Assessment. University of Illinois, MID-America Earthquake Center Civil and Enviromental Engineering Department, Urbana-Champaign.
  14. Pineda, P. (2016). Ancient Materials and Singular Constructions. Nemerical, Experimental and Heritage Strategies to Preserve Masonry Structures in Seismic Areas. En Civil and Environmental Engineering: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications (Vol. 1, págs. 340-359). Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global.
  15. Pineda, P., García-Martínez, A., & Castizo-Morales, D. (2017). Environmental and structural analysis of cement-based vs. natural material-based grouting mortars. Results from the assessment of strengthening works . Construction and Building Materials , 138, 528-547.
  16. Reijinders, L., & van Roekel, A. (1999). Comprehensiveness and adequacy of tools for the environmental improvement of buildings. Journal of Cleaner Production , 7 (3), 221-225.
  17. Salonikios, T., Karakostas, C., Lekidis, V., & Anthoine, A. (2003). Comparative inelastic pushover analysis of masonry frames. Engineering Structures , 25, 1515-1523.
  18. Sinha, R., Lennartsson, M., & Frostell, B. (2016). Environmental footprint assessment of building structures: A comparative study. Building and Environment , 104, 162-171.
  19. Janssens-Maenhout, G., Crippa, M., Guizzardi, D., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., Olivier, J.G.J., Peters, J.A.H.W., Schure, K.M., Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions of all world countries, EUR 28766 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2017, ISBN 978-92-79-73207-2, doi:10.2760/709792, JRC107877.

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26.

Authors:

Chithu Babu, Chinsu Mereena Joy, Althaf M

Paper Title:

Analysis of Effect of Crack on Natural Frequencies of a Cantilever Beam Experimentally and Numerically using ANSYS 16.0

Abstract: Beams are of great importance in construction industries as well as in different engineering application. When a beam undergoes different types of loading, crack may develop in beam and may lead to the failure of the structure. Crack changes the physical and dynamic properties like stiffness and natural frequencies of beam which are function of crack depth and crack location. In this study vibration analysis of steel cantilever beam has been done under damaged and undamaged condition to obtain the effect of crack depth, crack location etc on natural frequency. Numerical analysis of beam is done through finite element analysis of beam using ANSYS software. Vibration analysis of beam has been also done through experimentation and results are compared with numerical analysis and it hold well. Different crack locations with single crack are considered in this paper.

Keywords: Natural Frequency, Beam, Crack, Vibration, Finite Element Method. 

References: 

  1. J S Wu (1990) "Free Vibration Analysis Of Uniform Cantilever Beam With Point Masses By An Analytical And Numerical Combined Method", Journal Of Sound And Vibration, volume(138) (201-213)
  2. Kumar Pramod, Bhaduri Sankha (2016) “An Experimental Study Of Cantilever Beam With Various Cracked Conditions”, IJRASET, volume(4) (328-333)
  3. P N Saavedra and L A Cutino (2001)"Detection And Vibration Behavior Of Cracked Beams", Journal Of Computers and Structures, volume (79) (1451-1469)
  4. T Nirmal, S Vimal (2016) “Free Vibration Analysis Of Cantilever Beam Of Different Materials”, ISSN, volume(11) (6521-6524)
  5. W M Ostachowicz and M Krawczuk (1991) "Analysis Of Effect Of Cracks On The Natural Frequencies Of a Cantilever Beam" Journal Of Sound And Vibration, volume(150) (191-201)
  6. Y D Shinde, S D Katekar (2014) "Vibration Analysis Of Cantilever Beam With Single Crack Using Experimental Method", IJERT, volume(3) (1644-1648)
  7. P Mario, Structural Dynamics Theory And Computation, McGraw-Hill, Inc, Singapore, 1991
  8. R W Clough and J Penzien, Dynamics Of Structures, McGraw-Hill, Inc, Singapore, 1991

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27.

Authors:

Sujeesh S., Shemin T. John

Paper Title:

Enhancement of Seismic Performance of Soft Storeyed Building

Abstract: High rise structures are becoming a trending fashion of construction field. In the last few decades the rate of growth in vertical structures has been increased drastically. Open ground storey structures is one of the development in high rise structures to avoid the dilemma of parking of vehicles. Response of these structures, during earthquake is one of the leading problem faced by the structural engineers. The soft story and weak storey effect causes catastrophic failure in these system during seismic ground motion. Since the rate of occurrences of earthquakes has been increased at a greater range, there is a wide call over the globe for an efficient lateral load resisting system and to enhance the seismic performance of the soft storey. In this work, a combination of conventional lateral load resisting system such as X-bracings and multiplication factor is implemented along with moment resisting frame to develop a hybrid system, to improve the seismic performance of soft storey structures. The performance of the structure is assessed by means of linear static analysis.

Keywords: Analysis, multiplication factor, soft storey, x-bracing. 

References: 

  1. Bhat, S. A., Setia, S. and Sehgal, V.K. (2015). “Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Frame with Open Ground Storey Designed as per Code Provisions”. Advances in Structural Engineering, 68, 869-883.
  2. Singh, A. (2015). “Effect of Shear Wall on Seismic Performance of RC Open Ground Storey Frame Building”, M-tech report, NIT Rourkela, 1-51.
  3. Hadad, H. S., Metwally, I. M. and Betar, S.(2014). “Cyclic behavior of braced concrete frames: Experimental investigation and numerical simulation”. Concrete Structures Research Inst., Housing & Building Research Centre, 1-9.
  4. Rhjoo, S., Mmaquani, B.H. (2014). “X-Bracing Configuration and Seismic Response”. International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, 8(6), 642-646.
  5. Ghomi, S.S. and Ebadi, P. (2008). “Concept improvement of behavior of X-Bracing systems by using Easy-Going Steel”. World Conference on Earthquake Engineering.
  6. Priestley, M. J. N (2000). “Performance Based Seismic Design”. World Conference on Earthquake Engineering.
  7. Jain, S. K. (2005) The Indian Earthquake problem, Current Science, 89, 1464 – 1466.
  8. Jain, S. K. (2003) Review of Indian Seismic Code, IS1893 (Part 1): 2002, The Indian Concrete Journal, 77, 1414-1422.
  9. Agrawal,P., Thakkar, S. K. and dubey R., N. (2002) Seismic performance of reinforced concrete building during Bhuj earthquake of January 26,2001, ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, 39, 195 -217.
  10. Maheri, M. R. and Sahebi, A. (1997) Use of Steel Bracing in Reinforced Concrete Frames, Engineering structures, 19, 1018-1024.
  11. FEMA 356, 2000, Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D. C.
  12. Indian Standard. Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures. Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi, IS 1893 (Part 1), 2002.
  13. IS BIS. 13920 ductile detailing of reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic forces-code of practice. New Delhi (India): Bureau of Indian Standards, 1993.
  14. Applied Technology Council (1996), Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings, ATC-40, Volume 1 and 2, Report No. SSC 96-01, Seismic Safety Commission, Redwood City, CA.
  15. IS 4923: 1997, Indian Standard Hollow Steel Sections for Structural Use– Specification, 2nd Ed., Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1997.
  16. Park, R. and Thomas Pauley, T. Reinforced Concrete Structures, Wiley India, Third Edition, 2009.

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28.

Authors:

Jomy Joseph Peedikayil, Tom George

Paper Title:

Torsional Behaviour of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam

Abstract: Structural components can fail due to severe torsional effects, particularly in vertical resisting components where torsion in the horizontal plane greatly amplifies seismic effects. Torsion of structural members and the behaviour of steel fiber reinforced concrete became the area of interest of many researchers in the past and it is still newsworthy. In this study torsional behaviour of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams was examined. Torque versus angle of twist response of each specimen was monitored during the experiments, and the effect of steel fiber was studied. It was seen that the addition of steel fiber had a significant effect on the torque and angle of twists. The first cracks are observed at the middle of the face along the depth of the beam. Next cracks are observed at the middle of the face along the breadth of the beam. After the cracks connect, they circulate along the periphery of the beam. The effect of the inclusion and variation of steel fiber is studied experimentally. 

Keywords: Angle of twist, Spiral cracks, Steel fiber, Torsion

References: 

  1. Unnikrishna Pillai, Devdas Menon, Reinforced Concrete Design, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2003, 1998.
  2. Nilson AH, Winter G., Design Of Concrete Structures, 11th ed. McGraw-Hill, 1991.
  3. Robert Park, Thomas Paulay, Reinforced Concrete Structure, Wiley India edition.
  4. Fuad Okay, Serkan Engin, “Torsional behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams,” ELSEVIER. Construction and Building Materials, October 2011, pp. 269-275.
  5. D. Gunneswara Rao, D. Rama Seshu, “Torsional response of fibrous reinforced concrete members: Effect of single type of  reinforcement,” Construction and Building Materials, 2006, pp.  187–192.
  6. Khaldoun N. Rahal., “Torsional strength of normal and high strength  reinforced concrete beams,” ELSEVIER, Engineering Structures, 2013, vol.56, pp. 2206–2216.
  7. Khaled S. Ragab, Ahmed S. Eisa, “Torsion Behavior of Steel Fibered  High Strength Self Compacting Concrete Beams Reinforced by GFRP Bars,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, 2013, vol.7(9).
  8. Pawlak, M.Kaminski, “Cracking of reinforced concrete beams under torsion—theory and experimental research,” ELSEVIER. Archives of civil and mechanical engineering, vol.12, pp. 368 – 375.
  9. Pant Avinash, R. Suresh Parekar, “Steel fiber reinforced concrete beams under combined torsion-bending-shear,” Journal of Civil Engineering  (IEB),2010, vol.38, pp. 31-38.
  10. S. Olivito, F.A. Zuccarello, “An experimental study on the tensile strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete,” ELSEVIER. Composites:Part B, 2009, vol.41, pp. 246–255.
  11. D.Gunneswara Rao, D.Rama Seshu, “Torsion of steel fiber reinforced concrete members,” Pergamon. Cement and  Concrete Research, 2003, pp. 1783–1788.
  12. Panchacharam S., Belarbi A., “Torsional Behaviour of Reinforced
    Concrete Beams Strengthened with FRP Composites,” First FIB Congress, Osaka, Japan, October, pp. 13-19.
  13. Koutchoukali N.E., Belarbi A., “Minimum Reinforcement Requirement,” ACI Structural Journal, 2001, vol.98(4), pp. 462
  14. Rasmussen L.J., Baker G., “Torsion in Reinforced Normal and High-Strength Concrete Beams (Part 1): Experimental Test Series,” ACI Structural Journal, 1995, vol. 92(1), pp. 56 – 62.
  15. Akhtaruzzaman A. A., Hasnat A., “Torsion in Concrete Deep Beams with an Opening,” ACI Structural Journal, 1989, vol.86 (S3), pp. 20- 25.
  16. Mansur M. A., Nagataki S., Lee S. H., Oosumimoto Y., “Torsional Response of Reinforced Fibrous Concrete Beams,” ACI Structural Journal, vol.86 (S5), pp. 36- 44.
  17. IS 1489 (Part 1) (Reaffirmed 2005), “Specification for Portland pozzolana cement, Part 1: Flyash based”, Bureau of Indian  Standards, New Delhi, India, 1991.
  18. IS 383- 1970 (Reaffirmed 2002), “Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates From Natural Sources For Concrete”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1970.
  19. IS 10262-2009, “Concrete mix proportioning- Guidelines”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 2009.

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29.

Authors:

Adarsh V. S., Akhil Raj S. R.

Paper Title:

Effect of Ferrocement Confinement on Behaviour of Exterior Beam-Column Joints

Abstract: Beam-Column Joint is the portion of column where a beam is used to join. These joints are the most critical portions of a Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Framed structures (MRF) because, the loads from adjacent beams and columns are transferred through the joint. Joints have no problem when it is subjected to dead load and live load only, but when it is subjected to seismic load the condition will be different and large forces and moments will be developed at the joint. If a joint is found to be stressed or deteriorated it should be retrofitted by suitable methods before failure. There are different retrofitting methods by using different materials such as CFRP, GFRP, steel cages and ferrocement. Among them Ferrocement wrapping have various advantages such as easy moulding property, easy availability, economy, requirement of less skilled labour, good tensile strength etc. So in this work effect of ferrocement on exterior beam-column joint as a technique of retrofitting by varying the type of mortar mixes was studied. The mortar mixes adopted for the study were normal and high performance mortar. In each mortar type two different volume fractions of wiremesh also considered (1.2 and 1.8%) for the study. All the control and retrofitted specimens tested under reverse cyclic loading condition using 1000 kN capacity loading frame. The performance of joints was compared based on the parameters such as Crack pattern, energy absorption, first crack load and ultimate load, Displacement ductility factor and stiffness degradation. The study indicates that all these parameters were improved significantly for retrofitted specimens with normal mortar and the properties can be improved further by using high performance mortar as compared to control specimens.

Keywords: Beam-column joints, Ferrocement, Retrofitting.

References: 

  1. Beydokhty, E. Z. and Shariatmadar, H., “Behavior of Damaged Exterior RC Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by CFRP Composites”, Latin American Journal of Solida and Structures, vol. 13(5), 2016, pp. 880-896.
  2. Mahmoud, M. H., Afefy, H. M., Kassem, N. M. and Fawzy, T. M., “Strengthening of Defected Beam-Column Joints Using CFRP”, Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 5, 2013, pp. 67-77.
  3. Zhoudao, L., Lei, S. and Jiangtao, Y., “Experimental Study on the Seismic Behaviour of Strengthened Concrete Column-Beam joints by Simulated Earthquake”, Procedia Engineering, vol. 14, 2011 pp. 1871-1878.
  4. Singh, V., Bansal, P. P. and Kumar, M., “Experimental Studies on Strength and Ductility of Ferrocement Jacketed RC Beam-Column Joints”, International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, vol. 5(3), 2015, pp.199-205.
  5. Bansal, P. P., Kumar, M. and Kaushik, S. K., “Effect of Wire Mesh Orientation on Strength of Beams Retrofitted Using Ferrocement Jackets”, International Journal of Engineering, vol. 2(1), 2015, pp. 8-19.
  6. Campione, G., Cavaleri, L. and Papia, M., “Flexural Response of External RC Beam-Column Joints Externally Strengthened with Steel Cages”, Engineering Structures, vol. 104, 2015, pp. 51-64.
  7. IS 1489 (Part 1): 1991 (Reaffirmed 2005), “Specification for Portland Pozzolana Cement”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1991.
  8. IS 4031 (Part 4): 1988 (Reaffirmed 2005), “Methods of Physical Tests for Hydraulic Cement- Determination of Consistency of Standard Cement Paste”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1988.
  9. IS 4031 (Part 5): 1988 (Reaffirmed 2005), “Methods of Physical Tests for Hydraulic Cement- Determination of Initial and Final Setting Time”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1988.
  10. IS 4031 (Part 11): 1988 (Reaffirmed 2005), “Methods of Physical Tests for Hydraulic Cement- Determination of Density”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1988.
  11. IS 383: 1970 (Reaffirmed 1997), “Specifications for Coarse and Fine Aggregate from Natural Sources for Concrete”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1970.
  12. IS 2386 (Part III): 1963 (Reaffirmed 2002), “Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1963.
  13. IS 1608: 2005, “Metallic Materials- Tensile Testing at Ambient Temperature”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 2005.
  14. ACI 549.1R-93 (Reapproved 1999), “Guide for The Design, Construction, and Repair of Ferrocement”, ACI committee, 549, 1999.
  15. IS 10262: 2009, “Concrete Mix Proportioning- Guidelines”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 2009.
  16. Bindhu, K., Mohana, N., and Sivakumar, S., “New Reinforcement Detailing for Concrete Jacketing of Nonductile Exterior Beam Column Joints”, Journal of performance of constructed facilities, vol. 9, 2014, pp.1-9.
  17. Ganesan, N., Indira P. V and Sabeena, M. V., “Behaviour of Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints Under reversed Cyclic Loads”, Materials and Design, vol. 54, 2014, pp.686-693.

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30.

Authors:

Yashvanth P, Premanand Shenoy, C.M. Ravi Kumar

Paper Title:

Torsional Effects in Multi Storey Buildings due to Earthquake Loads

Abstract: Most often significant damages are caused by torsional motions of buildings according to damage reports on earthquake. It is emphasized and proven with this current study that, it is highly essential to carry out the torsional effects for Lateral forces. Occupational outlining, compulsion of distinctive users and arrangement of concealed RCC skeletons make most of the buildings having centre of mass and centre of stiffness far apart. This leads to the demand of considerable torsional resistance of the multi-storey buildings during active ground dynamics. This paper presents the concise study carried out on the torsional effect in a multi-storeyed building and the resulting consequences on the design of beams and columns. The results obtained show that the corner columns and beams of buildings are severely affected due to the which , buildings that are not symmetric in geometry or and the effect of torsion is greater in the corner beams and columns as compared to the interior columns and beams. Therefore it is essential that buildings which are not symmetric in geometry should be analysed for torsional effect. The Indian Standard code of practice IS1893: (Part 1–2002) is used for guidelines and methodology.

Keywords: Asymmetrical building, Eccentricity, Lateral forces, Torsional effect. 

References: 

  1. Thaskeen and S. Shajee, “Torsional Irregularity of Multi-storey Structures”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology,Vol. 5, Issue 9, September 2016.
  2. R. Goeland K. A. Chopra, “Seismic Code Analysis of Buildings Without Locating Centers of Rigidity”, ASCE,J. Struct. Eng., 1993, 119(10): 3039-3055.
  3. Gokdemir, H. Ozbasaran, M. Dogan, E. Unluoglu and U. Albayrak, “Effects of torsional irregularity to structures during earthquakes”, Sci Verse Science Direct,Engineering Failure Analysis 35 (2013) 713–717.
  4. Crisafulli, A. Reboredo and G. Torrisi, “Consideration of Torsional Effects in the Displacement Control of Ductile Buildings”, 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada,August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 1111.
  5. Hejal and K. A. Chopra, “Lateral-Torsional Coupling in Earthquake Response of Frame Building”, ASCE, J. Struct. Eng., 1989, 115(4): 852-867.
  6. Shaik Mohammed Rizwan and Yogendra Singh “Effect of Strength Eccentricity on Torsional Behaviour of RC Frame Building”, Springer,J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A (February–April 2012) 93(1):15–26 DOI 10.1007/s40030-012-0004-9.
  7. D. Wolff, C. Ipek, M.C. Constantinou and L. Morillas, “Torsional response of seismically isolated structures revisited”, Sci Verse Science Direct, J.Engineering Structures 59 (2014) 462–468.
  8. P Fajfar ,Damjan M and Iztok P “TORSIONAL EFFECTS IN THE PUSHOVER-BASED SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF BUILDINGS”, Journal of Earthquake Engineering ,Taylor & Francis,21 November 2014.
  9. S. Patil, A. G. Mujawar, P. A. Mali and M. R. Katti, “A Study of Torsional Effect on Multi-Storied Building with Plan-Irrgularity”, Internatioinal Journal of Advanced Research, J.Engineering Structures 59 (2014) 462–468.
  10. G. Maske andDr. P. S. Pajgade,“Torsional Behaviour of Asymmetrical Buildings”, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER),Vol.3, Issue.2, March-April. 2013 pp-1146-1149.
  11. A. Anagnostopoulos, M.T. Kyrkos and K.G. Stathopoulos,“Earthquake induced torsion in buildings: critical review and state of the art”, Research Gate,Earthquakes and Structures, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2015) 305-377.
  12. S. R. Ghuse1, Mr. M. K.Ghumde,“Study of Torsional Effect under Seismic Condition on Building with Irregularities”, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET),e-ISSN: 2395 -0056,p-ISSN: 2395-0072,Dec -2016.
  13. Wakchaure M. R and Nagare Y U,“Effect of Torsion Consideration in Analysis of Multi Storey frame”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA)),Vol. 3, Issue 4, Jul-Aug 2013, pp.1828-1832.

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31.

Authors:

Divya B. Mathew, J Vijaya Vengadesh Kumar, M. Nazeer

Paper Title:

Review on Lateral Torsional Buckling of Monosymmetric Beams

Abstract: Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) is a stability failure criterion for beams subjected to transverse bending. The American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) defines Lateral Torsional Buckling as: the buckling mode of a flexural member involving deflection normal to the plane of bending occurring simultaneously with twist about the shear centre of the cross-section. The buckling of members with monosymmetric cross-sections is an underdeveloped topic and also the steel structure industries mostly use mono-symmetric sections (Channel, Tee and equal legged angle, I section with unequal flanges) rather than doubly symmetric sections (I and box sections). IS:800-2007 does not deal with torsion problems explicitly. The lateral torsional buckling equations in design codes are developed using the experimental evident of doubly symmetric I sections and it is used for mono-symmetric section with modifications. The resistance against warping can increase the buckling resistance but in the same time it also increases the stress values. The additional stresses developed along the axial direction due to warping effect have to be included in the combined stress check. For these reasons, detailed study on torsional effects in the view of design equations is important. In this paper, the literature available on IS 800, lateral torsional buckling of doubly symmetric and monosymmetric steel sections are reviewed.

Keywords: Lateral Torsional Buckling, Monosymmetric beams.

References: 

  1. Kitipornchai S., and Trahair N. S. (1980). "Buckling properties of monosymmetric I-beams”. Journal of Structural Division, ASCE, Vol.106, No.5, pp.941-958.
  2. Roberts, T. M, Azizian, Z. G. (1984). “Instability of monosymmetric I beams”. Journal of Structural Division., ASCE, Vol.110, No.6, pp.1415-1419.
  3. Kitipornchai S., Wang, C. M., and Trahair N. S. (1986). "Buckling of monosymmetric I-beams under moment gradient.”. Journal of Structural Division., ASCE, Vol.112, No.4, pp.781-799.
  4. Kitipornchai S. and Wang, C. M. (1986). “Lateral Buckling of Tee Beams under Moment Gradient”. Computers & Structures, Vol.23, No.1, pp.69-76
  5. Wang C.M. and Kitipornchai S. (1986) “Buckling capacities of monosymmetric I beams”. Journal of Structural Division., ASCE, Vol.112, No.11, pp.2373-2391.
  6. Helwig, T.A., Frank, K.H. and Yura, J.A. (1997). “Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Singly Symmetric I-beams.” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 123, No. 9, pp.1172-1179.
  7. Lindner (1997) “Design of steel beams and beam columns”, Engineering Structures, Vol.19, No.5, pp.378-384.
  8. P. Papangelis, N.S. Trahair, G.J. Hancock (1998) “Elastic flexural torsional buckling of structures by computers”. Computers & Structures, Vol.68, No.1-3, pp.125-137.
  9. Trahair N.S., (1998) “Multiple design curves for beam lateral buckling,” in: T. Usami and Y. Itoh (Eds.), Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures, Pergamon, pp. 13–26. 
  10. Bambang Suryoatmono, David Ho (2002) “The moment gradient factor in lateral torsional buckling on wide flange steel sections”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.58, No.9, pp 1247-1264.
  11. Mohri; A. Brouki; J.C. Roth (2003) “Theoretical and numerical stability analyses of unrestrained, mono-symmetric thin-walled beams”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.59, No.1, pp 63-90.
  12. Lim Nam-Hyoung, Par Nam-Hoi, Kang Young-Jong and Sung Ik-Hyun. (2003) “Elastic buckling of I-beams under linear moment gradient”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol.-40, pp-5635-5647
  13. Miguel A. Serna, Aitziber Lopez, Inigo Puente, Danny J. Yong. (2006) “Equivalent uniform moment factors for lateral torsional buckling of steel members”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.62, No.6, pp 566-580.
  14. Gerhard Sedlacek, Christian Muller (2006) “The European standard family and its basis” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 62, No.11, pp.1047–1059
  15. Djurić-Mijović D. and Trajković M. (2007). “Influence of the cross-section shape on the lateral torsional buckling capacity”, Computational Methods and Experimental Measurements XIII, Vol 46.
  16. Snijder H.H., Hoenderkamp J.C.D., Bakker M.C.M., Steenbergen H.M.G.M., de Louw C.H.M. (2008). “Design rules for lateral torsional buckling of channel sections subject to web loading”, Stahlbau, Vol.77, No.4, pp.247-256
  17. Andreas Taras, Richard Greiner (2008) “Development of consistent buckling curves for torsional and lateral-torsional buckling”, Steel Construction, Vol.1, No.1, pp.42-50.
  18. Szalai J, Papp R. (2010), “On the theoretical background of the generalization of Ayrton-Perry type resistance formulas”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.66, No.5, pp 670–679.
  19. Andreas Taras, Richard Greiner (2010) “New design curves for lateral torsional buckling-Proposal based on a consistent derivation”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.66, No.5, pp 648-663.
  20. Bijlaard F, Feldmann M, Naumes J, Sedlacek G, (2010)” The general method for assessing the out of plane stability of structural members and frames and the comparison with alternative rules in EN 1993 – Eurocode 3 – Part 1-1” Steel Construction, Vol.3, pp 19–33.
  21. Morkhade S G and Gupta L. M. (2013).” Effect of load height on buckling resistance of steel beams”, Procedia Engineering Vol.51, pp.151 – 158.
  22. Jain Amit, Rai Durgesh C. (2014)” Lateral-torsional buckling of laterally unsupported single angle sections loaded along geometric axis”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.102, pp 178-189.
  23. Dahmani L. and Drizi S. (2015)” Lateral Torsional Buckling of an Eccentrically Loaded Channel Section Beam.”, Strength of materials, Vol.47, No.6, pp.912-916.
  24. Badari Bettina, Papp Ferenc (2015)” On Design Method of Lateral-torsional Buckling of Beams: State of the Art and a New Proposal for a General Type Design Method”, Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, Vol.59, No.2, pp.179-192.
  25. Louw C. H. M (2007) “Design rule for lateral torsional buckling of channel sections” MSc Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
  26. Gulzaib Anwar (2015)” Assessment of Eurocode Methodologies for Verification of Flexural and Lateral Torsional Buckling of Prismatic Beam-Columns” PhD Thesis, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
  27. IS 800:2007 (2007), Indian standard code of practice for General Construction in Steel, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  28. EN 1993-1-1:2005. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings. European Committee for Standardisation.
  29. Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, 4th Ed. (1988). T. V. Galambos, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.
  30. Trahair N.S. (1993) Flexural Torsional Buckling of Structures, E and FN Spon, London.
  31. Trahair, N. S., Bradford, M. A., Nethercot, D., and Gardner, L. (2008). The Behaviour and Design of Steel Structures to EC3. CRC Press.
  32. Yoo, C. H., and Lee, S. (2011). Stability of Structures: Principles and Applications. Butterworth-Heinemann.
  33. Subramanian (2011) Design of Steel Structures. Oxford University Press
  34. Luís Simões da Silva, Rui Simões and Helena Gervásio (2016). Design of Steel Structures. ECCS

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32.

Authors:

Mohan Lal Chowdary

Paper Title:

Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Design of RCC Rectangular Short Columns Subjected to Biaxial Bending

Abstract: The objective of the present work is to apply backpropagation artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the design of the Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) rectangular short columns subjected to biaxial bending. The research carried out demonstrates the utility of the backpropagation neural networks in modeling the non-linear relationship between different input variables associated in the design of RCC short columns and the area of longitudinal reinforcement as the output. About 100 data sets for the simulation were obtained from a Civil Engineering design software package. Out of the 100 data sets, 70 sets are used for training, 15 sets for validation and the remaining 15 sets are used for testing. The training of neural networks has been carried out using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, Bayesian Regularization algorithm and Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithms available in ANN-tool box of MATLAB software. The results presented demonstrates that once the artificial neural networks are trained, they are useful in predicting the design of RCC rectangular columns subjected to biaxial bending. In addition, the routine design checks of the columns can also be performed using the well trained and tested neural networks. 

Keywords: Columns, Design, Neural Networks, Training Algorithms.

References: 

  1. Ian Flood and Nabil Kartim, “Neural Networks in Civil Engineering-I: Principles and Understanding”, vol. 8, No.2, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, April, 1994, ASCE, pp. 131-148.
  2. Ian Flood and Nabil Kartim, “Neural Networks in Civil Engineering-II: Systems and Application”, vol. 8, No.2, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, April, 1994, ASCE, pp. 149-162.
  3. I Teh, K.S.Wong, A.T.C. Goh and S. Jaritngam, “Prediction of Pile Capacity using Neural Networks”, vol.11, No.2, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, April 1997,ASCE, pp. 129-138.
  4. Jun Zhao, John N.Ivan, and John T. DeWolf, “Structural Damage Detection using Artificial Neural Networks”, vol.4, No.3, Journal of Infrastructural Systems, 1998, ASCE, pp. 93-101.
  5. Cheng Yeh, “Modeling Concrete Strength with Augment-Neuron Networks”, vol.10, No.4, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Nov.1998, ASCE, pp. 263-268.
  6. Osama Moselhi and Tariq Shehab-Eldeen, “Classification of Defects in Sewer Pipes using Neural Networks”, vol. 6, No. 3, Journal of Infrastructure Systems, Sept. 2000, ASCE, pp. 97-104.
  7. Birikundavyi, R. Labib, H.T. Trung and J. Rousselle, “Performance of Neural Networks in Daily Streamflow Forecasting”, vol. 7, No. 5, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, Sept. 2002, ASCE, pp. 392-398.
  8. Mohamed A. Shahin, Holger R. Maier and Mark B. Jaksa, “Predicting Settlement of Shallow Foundations using Neural Networks”, vol. 128, No. 9, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Sept. 2002, ASCE, pp. 785-793.
  9. Rajasekaran, “Functional Networks in Structural Engineering”, vol. 18, No. 2, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, April 2004, ASCE, pp. 172-181.
  10. Thong M. Pham and Muhammad N.S. Hadi, “Predicting Stress and Strain of FRP-Confined Square/Rectangular Columns using Artificial Neural Networks”, vol. 18, No. 6, Journal of Composites for Construction, March 2014, ASCE, pp. 1-8.

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33.

Authors:

Yamuna S R, Parvathy U.

Paper Title:

Linear Static Analysis of Outrigger Structural System Subjected to Lateral Loading

Abstract: High rise buildings have been rapidly increasing worldwide. The structural efficiency of high rise buildings mainly depends on the lateral stiffness and resistance capacity. The outrigger systems are used to increase the stiffness of buildings and to reduce their drift and deflection so that during lateral load, the risk of structural and non – structural damage gets minimized. In this paper the performance of outrigger structural system in high rise building subjected to seismic load has been studied and the optimum location of the outrigger system in a high rise steel building has been obtained by conducting a linear static analysis on different outrigger braced systems. The seismic performance was assessed in terms of storey displacement by considering different bracing systems such as 'x' brace, inverted 'v' brace and diagonal brace. It was observed that the position of outriggers, lateral load and height of structure significantly influences the seismic performance of the high rise building. 

Keywords: Bracings, Finite element modeling, Outrigger system, Storey displacement 

References: 

  1. Kurian, S., and  Gore,  (2016) “Study of Outrigger Systems for High Rise Buildings.” International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering, Vol 5 (8), pp .148 – 159.
  2. Alpana,L., and Bhusari, J. (2015) “Behaviour of Outrigger structure for High Rise Building.” International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research, Vol 4 pp .108 – 119.
  3. Badamia and Suresh, M. (2014) “A Study on Behavior of Structural Systems for Tall Buildings Subjected To Lateral Loads”. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) 3, Issue 7.
  4. Haghollahi, M., and Kasiri, L. (2013) “Optimization of outrigger locations in steel tall buildings subjected to earthquake loads”. 15th world conference of earthquake.
  5. Halkude, S., and Madgundi. (2012) “Effect of Seismicity on Irregular Shape Structure.” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 3 (6), pp.1-8.
  6. Katti, G., and Baapgol, B. (2011) “Seismic Analysis of Multistoried RCC Buildings Due to Mass Irregularity By Time History Analysis”. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 3 (6), pp.20-25.
  7. Cimellaro, G., and Reinhorn. (2011) “Multidimensional performance limit state for hazard fragility functions”. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 137(1) , pp. 47–60.
  8. Chen, Y., McFarland, and Wang, Z. (2010) “Analysis of tall buildings with damped outriggers”. Journal of Structural Engineering, 136(11), pp.1435–1443.
  9. Park, K., Kim, and Yang, D. (2010) “A comparison study of conventional construction methods and outrigger damper system for the compensation of differential column shortening in high-rise buildings”. International Journal of Steel Structures, Vol 10 (4), pp. 317–324.
  10. IS 1893 (Part1): 2002,”Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures.” General Provisions and Buildings (Fifth Revision), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  11. IS 456:2000, “Plain and Reinforced Concrete- Code of Practice (Fourth Revision)” Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  12. Gerasimidis, S., Eftymiou, E and Baniotopoulosm, C. (2009) “Optimum Outrigger Locations for High Rise Steel Buildings for wind loading”. 5th European and  African Conference for Wind Engineering, July 19-23.
  13. Ali, Mir, M and Moon, K, S. (2007) “Structural developments in tall building, current trends and future prospects”. Architectural review.
  14. Ho, W, M, G. (2008) “Outrigger topology and behaviour”. International Journal of Advanced Steel and Constructions, Vol  8 (2), pp. 410–424.
  15. Shankar Nair, B. (2005) “Belt trusses and basements as virtual outrigger for tall building”. Engineering Journal, Vol 6 (9), pp. 520-530.

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34.

Authors:

Babitha Benjamin, Mohamed Asim 

Paper Title:

A Comparative Study on Flexural Strength of Recycled Aggregate Bacterial Concrete Slabs

Abstract: At the beginning of 21st century one of the greatest problem in concrete, that is formation of micro cracks has been solved by introducing calcite precipitating bacteria in concrete, thus giving a new name and phase to concrete (self-healing bacterial concrete). Crack healing is not just the only benefit obtained from bacterial concrete it also increases both compressive strength (up to 40 %) as well as durability due to dense packing obtained from calcite precipitate between pours by bacteria (any calcite precipitating bacteria which is commonly found, grows in extreme conductions and non-pathogenic can be used). Each year tons of waste materials are produced and dumped into landfills due to demolishing of old structures for vertical extension and renovation, which is not sustainable. Many research workers as of now have successfully recycled this demolished waste effectively as fine and coarse aggregates, but there is always a reduction in compressive strength observed due to weak bonding because of the presence of old cement mortar paste, this cutback in strength can be wiped out using bacterial concrete. This paper is all about using recycled aggregate obtained from demolished waste as coarse aggregate in concrete and adding Bacillus Subtilis (a calcite precipitating bacteria) to this, so that it reduce or nullify the reduction in compressive strength and stiffness of concrete due to the use of recycled aggregate, thus improving the quality of recycled aggregate concrete and making the concrete more sustainable and environment friendly. The flexural tested slabs showed improved flexural strength for recycled aggregate bacterial concrete slabs (up to 20 %) than normal concrete slabs and recycled aggregate concrete slabs.

Keywords: Bacterial concrete, Flexural strength, Recycled aggregate

References: 

  1. Andalib R., M. Abdmajid, A. Keyvanfar, A. Talaiekhozan, M. W. Hussin, A. Shafaghat, R. M. Zin and C. T. Lee, ―Durability Improvement Assessment in Different High Strength Bacterial Structural Concrete Grades Against Different Types of Acids,‖ Indian Academy of Sciences, vol. 39, pp. 1509–1522, 2014.
  2. Thakur A., A. Phogat, and K. Singh, ―Bacterial Concrete and Effect of Different Bacteria on The Strength and Water Absorption Characteristics of Concrete: A Review,‖ International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, vol. 7, pp. 43-56, 2016.
  3. Amudhavalli N. K., K. Keerthana , and A. Ranjani, ―Experimental Study on Bacterial Concrete,‖ International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science, vol. 1, pp. 456-458, 2015.
  4. ASTM C1202–97, Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, United States.
  5. ASTM C1556–03, Standard Test Method for Determining the Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient of Cementitious Mixtures by Bulk Diffusion, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, United States.
  6. Bhathena Z. P., and N. Gadkar, ― Bacteria-based Concrete: A Novel Approach for Increasing its Durability,‖ International Journal of Applied Biosciences, vol. 2, pp. 67-77, 2014.
  7. M and K. Prakash, ―Durability Study on HVFA Based Bacterial Concrete—a Literature Study,‖ International Journal of Structural and Civil Engineering Research, vol. 4, pp. 131-139, 2014.
  8. Schlangena E. and S. Sangadji, "Addressing Infrastructure Durability and Sustainability by Self Healing Mechanisms - Recent Advances in Self-Healing Concrete and Asphalt,‖ Procedia Engineering, vol. 54, pp. 39 – 57, 2013.
  9. Madhavi E. and D. R. Naik, ―Strength Properties of a bacterial concrete when Cement partially replaced with flyash and GGBS,‖ International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, pp. 578-581, 2016.
  10. Jonkersa H. M., A. Thijssena, G. Muyzerb, O. Copuroglua, and E. Schlangena, ―Application of bacteria as self-healing agent for the development of sustainable concrete,‖ Ecological Engineering, vol. 36, pp. 230–235, 2010.
  11. Tittelboom K. V., N. D. Belie, W. D.Muynck and W. Verstraete, ―Use of bacteria to repair cracks in concrete, Cement and Concrete Research‖ , vol. 40, pp. 157–166, 2010.
  12. Kumutha R. and K. Vijai, ―Strength of Concrete incorporating Aggregates Recycled from Demolition Waste,‖ ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 217- 225, 2010.
  13. Krishnapriyaa S., D. L. V. Babub, and G. Arulraj, ―Isolation and identification of bacteria to improve the strength of concrete,‖ Microbiological Research, vol. 174, pp. 48–55, 2015.
  14. Luo M., C. Qian and R. Li, ―Factors affecting crack repairing capacity of bacteria-based self-healing concrete, Construction and Building Materials,‖ vol. 87,pp. 1–7, 2015.
  15. Reddy K., R. Bhavani and B. Ajitha, ―Local Construction and Demolition Waste Used as Coarse Aggregates in Concrete,‖ International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, vol. 2, pp. 1236-1238, 2015.
  16. Smitha M, M. Shanthi and Suji D, ―Performance Enhancement of Concrete Through Bacterial Addition a Novel Technic,‖ ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 11, pp. 3020-3024, 2016.
  17. Spaeth V. and A. D. Tegguer, ―Improvement of Recycled Concrete Aggregate Properties by Polymer Treatments,‖ International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 2, pp. 143–152, 2013.
  18. Wiktor V., and H. M. Jonkers, ―Quantification of crack-healing in novel bacteria-based self-healing concrete,‖ Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 33, pp. 763–770, 2011.
  19. Kashyap V. N., and Radhakrishna, ―A Study on Effect of Bacteria on Cement Composites,‖ International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, vol. 4, pp. 356-360, 2013.
  20. Muynck W. D., D. Debrouwer , N. D. Belie and W. Verstraete, ―Bacterial carbonate precipitation improves the durability of cementitious materials,‖ Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 38 ,pp. 1005–1014, 2008.

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35.

Authors:

Nissin Ann Mathew, Katta Venkataramana

Paper Title:

Earthquake Response of Structures with Sliding Base Isolation

Abstract: Base isolation of structures is different from conventional aseismic designs where importance is given to enhanced structural resistance (by means of shear walls, braced frames, moment resistant frames etc). Base isolation involves the introduction of an isolator between the structure and the foundation. The isolator is characterized by very low horizontal stiffness but high vertical stiffness. This feature ensures that the building remains stable under vertical load and yet is capable of motion when subjected to lateral loads. This decoupling of the structure from the foundation, results in the non-transmission of forces into the structure, thus rendering it seismic resistant. In this study sliding isolator is used to decouple the structure from the foundation. RC multistory buildings with and without isolators are analyzed and compared so as to figure out the effectiveness in reduction of relevant seismic properties. Time History analysis and response spectrum analysis is done. Bhuj earthquake acceleration data has been used for the Time History Analysis and response spectrum as per IS 1893-2002 Part-1 for zone III and medium soil is used In this study the base isolated buildings are compared with that of a fixed base building based on natural period, base shear, story acceleration, roof displacement and story drift. The analysis result indicates that natural period and roof displacements have increased for the base isolated building. And base shear, story acceleration and story drift have significantly reduced in buildings with base isolation. 

Keywords: Base isolation, Pushover analysis, Response spectrum analysis, Time history analysis

References: 

  1. Andrade L and Tuxworth L (2009),“Seismic Protection of  Structures with Modern Base Isolation Technologies”, Concrete Solutions, Paper 7a-3.
  2. Anoop Mokha, M.C Constantinou, A.M Reinhorn and Victor A Zayas(1991) ,“Experimental Study of friction pendulum isolation system”,Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 117, 4, Paper No. 25738
  3. IS 1893 (Part 1):2002, “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures”.
  4. Lin Su, Goodarz Ahmadi, Iradj G.Tadjbaksh(1988), “Performance of earthquake isolation system”,Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 115, No. 9, September, 1989, Paper No. 23857.
  5. Lin Su,Iradj G.Tadjbakhsh,Papageorgiou and Goodarz Ahmadi(1990), “Performance of Earthquake isolation system”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 116, No.2, Paper No. 24383.
  6. Lin Su, Goodarz Ahmadi, Iradj G.Tadjbaksh (1991), “Comparative study of Base Isolation System”Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 117, No. 1 Paper No. 25448.
  7. C.Constantinou,I.Kalpakidis,A.Filiatrault,R.A.Ecker Lay, “LRFD based analysis and design procedure for bridge bearing and seismic isolators”, Technical Report MCEER-11-0004.
  8. Scheller and Constantinou (1999), “Response History Analysis of Structures with Seismic Isolation and Energy Dissipation Systems: Verification Examples for Program SAP2000”, Technical Report MCEER-99-0002.
  9. Taywade P W and Savale M N (2015),“ Sustainability of Structure Using Base Isolation Techniques for Seismic Protection’’, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, vol.4,No.3 ,pp. 1215-1228.
  10. C.Liauw, Q.L.Tian and Y.K.Cheung(1988), “Structure on sliding base subject to horizontal and vertical motions”, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 114, No. 9 , p.2119-2129.
  11. Tessy Thomas and Alice Mathai (2016), “Seismic Protection of Structures with Modern Base Isolation Technologies”, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), e-ISSN: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X.
  12. Uniform Building Code (1997). “Structural Design Requirements”, volume 2.

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36.

Authors:

Sameeha Latheef, Katta Venkataramana

Paper Title:

Investigation on Reduction of Seismic Response of a Chimney Due to Tuned Mass Damper

Abstract: Reinforced concrete chimneys are tall and flexible structures which are widely used in industries. The critical loads for which these are designed are wind and earthquake loads. Single tuned mass damper (STMD) installed on the chimney reduces the structural response under dynamic loads. The reduction in base shear, base moment and acceleration responses are investigated. A comparison is drawn out between the responses of a chimney with STMD and a chimney with no damper (uncontrolled chimney).

Keywords: Chimney, STMD, Seismic Response.

References: 

  1. Brownjohn, J. M. W., Carden, E. P., Goddard, C. R., & Oudin, G. (2010). Real-time performance monitoring of tuned mass damper system for a 183 m reinforced concrete chimney. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 98 (3), 169–179.
  2. Chen, J., & Georgakis, C. T. (2013). Tuned rolling-ball dampers for vibration control in wind turbines. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 332 (21), 5271–5282.
  3. Elias, S., Matsagar, V., & Datta, T. K. (2016). Effectiveness of distributed tuned mass dampers for multi-mode control of chimney under earthquakes. Engineering Structures, 124, 1–16.
  4. Kwok, K. C. S., & Macdonald, P. A. (1990). Full-scale measurements of wind-induced acceleration response of Sydney tower. Engineering Structures, 12 (3), 153–162.
  5. Longarini, N., & Zucca, M. (2014). A chimney’s seismic assessment by a tuned mass damper. Engineering Structures, 79, 290–296.
  6. Marano, G. C., Greco, R., & Palombella, G. (2008). Stochastic optimum design of linear tuned mass dampers for seismic protection of high towers. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 29 (6), 603–622.
  7. Marano, G. C., Sgobba, S., Greco, R., & Mezzina, M. (2008). Robust optimum design of tuned mass dampers devices in random vibrations mitigation. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 313 (3-5), 472–492.
  8. Reddy K.R.C., Jaiswal O.R., Godbole P.N. (2011). Wind and earthquake analysis of tall RC chimneys. International journal of earth science and engineering,4(6),508-511.
  9. Ricciardelli, F. (1999). A linear model for structures with tuned mass dampers. Wind and Structure, 2 (3), 151–171.
  10. Ricciardelli, F. (2001). On the amount of tuned mass to be added for the reduction of the shedding-induced response of chimneys. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 89 (14-15), 1539–1551.
  11. Ricciardelli, F., & Vickery, B. J. (1999b). Tuned vibration absorbers with dry friction damping. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 28 (7), 707–723.
  12. Wilson J. L. (2002). Earthquake response of tall reinforced concrete chimneys. Engineering structures, 25, 11-24.

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37.

Authors:

Ramaswamy K. P, Alexandra Bertron, Manu Santhanam, Raisa Shabeer

Paper Title:

Acid-Related Factors Affecting the Degradation Kinetics of Cement-Based Materials

Abstract: Industrial and agricultural effluents contain lot of acids (organic and inorganic) and hence are aggressive to cement-based materials which are inherently alkaline. The concrete structures coming into contact with these effluents are susceptible to the degradation by acids. The attack by acids results in the decalcification of hydration products deteriorating the microstructure, thus affecting its durability. The integrity of the matrix is affected causing the corrosion of reinforcement when the entire cover concrete is attacked. The kinetics and mechanism of degradation is influenced by various factors related to acid, binding materials and the test method. The underlying factor affecting the degradation kinetics is acid related factor and hence, an in-depth analysis of acid related factors are necessary to understand the phenomenon in a better way. This paper outlines the basic mechanism of acid attack and gives an overview of acid related factors affecting the kinetics of degradation. The primary factor influencing the degradation kinetics is the ability of salt to precipitate or not, which is governed by the solubility of calcium and aluminium salts. The solubility in turn depends on the anion of the acid (i.e. the acid type). The other factors such as pKa value of the acid (when the salts are soluble), concentration of acid also govern the degradation kinetics. The kinetics also depends on the characteristics of the salts such as affinity of the salts with the matrix, mesoscopic shape of the salt and molar volume of the salts (if salts are less soluble). The chemical properties of the acids such as the pH rise of the acid solution, buffer action, polyacidity and complexation property exhibited by few organic acids also contribute to increased aggressiveness. As in most of the cases such as sewer pipes and waste water treatment plants, the acid is produced by the microbial organisms; the paper also highlights the action of biogenic acid when compared to the action of mineral acid. A clear understanding of the above acid factors could help in arriving at suitable concrete mixture formulations to combat with these aggressive acidic environments.

Keywords: Acid Attack, Aggressiveness, Degradation Kinetics, Durability, Inorganic acid, Organic acid.

References: 

  1. Allahverdi, A., Škvára, F., Acidic corrosion of hydrated cement-based materials: Part 1. Mechanisms of the phenomenon. Ceramics-Silikáty, 44 (2000), 114–120.
  2. Hudon, E., Mirza, S., Frigon, D., Biodeterioration of concrete sewer pipes: State of the art and research needs, ASCE Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice. (2011) 42–52.
  3. Bertron, A., and Duchesne, J., Attack of Cementitious Materials by Organic Acids in Agricultural and Agrofood Effluents. Performance of Cement-Based Materials in Aggressive Aqueous Environments RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports. 10 (2013) 131–173.
  4. Ramaswamy, K. P., Sivakumar, R., Santhanam, M., Gettu, R. Identification of deterioration of concrete due to acid attack in sewage treatment plant – A case study investigation. Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Construction Materials and Systems (2017), Vol. 2, 647 – 656.
  5. Alexander M. G., Fourie C., Performance of sewer pipe concrete mixtures with Portland and calcium aluminate cements subject to mineral and biogenic acid attack, Materials and Structures. 44 (2011) 313–330.
  6. IS (Indian Standard) (2013). 12269 - 2013: Specification for 53 grade Ordinary Portland cement. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
  7. IS (Indian Standard) (2005b). 4032 – 2005: Method of chemical analysis of hydraulic cement. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
  8. Ramaswamy, K. P., Santhanam, M. (2017). Durability of cementitious materials in acidic environments: Evaluation of degradation kinetics. 14th International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components, University of Ghent, Belgium, May 29-31, 2017.
  9. Ramaswamy, K. P., Bertron, A., Santhanam, M. Additional Insights on the Influencing Factors and Mechanism of Degradation Due to Acid Attack: Special Case of Acids Forming Soluble Salts, Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Construction Materials and Systems (2017), ISBN: 978-2-35158-194-0, Vol. 4, 279 – 290.
  10. Gutberlet, T., Hilbig, H., Beddoe, R. E., Acid attack on hydrated cement – Effect of mineral acids on the degradation process, Cement and Concrete Research. 74 (2015) 35-43.
  11. Pavlik, V., Corrosion of hardened cement paste by acetic and nitric acids; Part I: Calculation of corrosion depth, Cement and Concrete Research. 24 (1994) 551–562.
  12. Koenig, A., Dehn, F., Main considerations for the determination and evaluation of the acid resistance of cementitious materials, Materials and Structures. 49 (2016) 1693 – 1703.
  13. De Windt, L., Bertron, A., Larreur-Cayol, S., Escadeillas, G., Interactions between hydrated cement paste and organic acids: Thermodynamic data and speciation modeling, Cement and Concrete Research. 69 (2015) 25-36.
  14. Ramaswamy, K. P., Santhanam, M., “A Study of Deterioration of Cement Paste due to Acid Attack Using X-ray Computed Micro-tomography", Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/jadcr.17.00032.
  15. Larreur-Cayol, S., Bertron, A., Escadeillas, G., Degradation of cement-based materials by various organic acids in agro-industrial waste-waters, Cement and Concrete Research. 41 (2011) 882 - 892.
  16. Ramaswamy, K. P., Murugan, M., Santhanam, M. “Characterization of cement paste modified with nano-materials using X-ray computed microtomography.” Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Modeling and Simulation in Civil Engineering. (2015) 279-289.
  17. Zivica, V., Bajza, A., Acidic attack of cement based materials - A review (Part 1): Principle of acidic attack, Construction and Building Materials. 15 (2001) 331–340.
  18. Bertron, A., Duchesne, J., Escadeillas, G., Attack of cement pastes exposed to organic acids in manure, Cement and Concrete Composites. 27 (2005) 898-909.

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38.

Authors:

Pradeep Kumar Pandre, Katta Venkataramana

Paper Title:

Optimum Location of Shear Walls in Multi-Storey Building

Abstract: Shear walls are recommended for high rise buildings since they impart stiffness and strength to the structure. They resist gravity as well as horizontal loads. These horizontal loads may include wind and earthquake forces. Hence damage to the structure is reduced by reducing the lateral sway of the building. Therefore it is essential to find out the ideal location of shear wall in a building. The present work deals with the study on the optimum location of shear wall in a multi-storey building. Shear walls are symmetrically placed in the building. Seismic behavior is investigated. Important parameters like story displacement, stoery drift and stiffness are considered and analyzed using non-linear finite element analysis software ETABS 2015. By carrying out dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis, the building models are examined. The results of the analysis for storey drift and displacement are compared.

Keywords: ETABS 2015, Response Spectrum Analysis, Shear walls location and Storey Displacement.

References: 

  1. FEMA 356 (2000). Pre-standard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings, American society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia.
  2. IS 1893: 2002, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. Part 1: General Provisions and Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards, (Fifth Revision), New Delhi.
  3. IS 456: 2000, Indian Standard Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code of Practice, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  4. M. Fahjan, J. Kubin and M.T. Tan, “Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Shear walls”, 14th ECEE, 2010.
  5. Lovaraju and K. V. G. D. Balaji, “Effective location of shear wall on performance of building frame subjected to earthquake load”, International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 2, Issue 1, January 2015.
  6. Rahul Rana, Limin Jin And Atila Zekioglu“Pushover Analysis Of A 19 Story Concrete Shear Wall Building” 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 133.
  7. A. Kasliwal and R. S. Rajguru, “Effect of Numbers And Positions of Shear Walls on Seismic Behaviour of Multistoried Structure”, International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR) Volume 5, Issue 6, June 2016.

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39.

Authors:

Neeraja Mercy Joseph, Hazeena R.

Paper Title:

A Review on Progressive Collapse of Structure

Abstract: Progressive collapse is one of the most under-researched areas in structural engineering due to the limited number of the circumstances leading to progressive collapse. The current design standards and building codes provide a little prescriptive or performance-based guidance on analysis or design to guard against progressive collapse. The collapse of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, led to the amendment of current building codes and provides protection against collapse caused by extreme events. This paper aimed to discuss the phenomenon of progressive collapse; causes, vulnerability of structures and analysis methods. This also explores aspects of the current state of knowledge on progressive collapse.

Keywords: Progressive Collapse, Vulnerability.

References: 

  1. Hayes, J. R., Woodson, S. C., Pekelnicky, R. G., Poland, C. D., Corley, W. G. and Sozen, M. (2005), ‘Can Strengthening for Earthquake Improve Blast and Progressive Collapse Resistance?’, Journal of Structural Engineering,131 (8), 1157-1177.
  2. Marjanishvili, S. and Agnew, E. (2006), “Comparison of Various Procedures for Progressive Collapse Analysis”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 20 (6), 365-374.
  3. Kim, J. and Kim, T. (2009), “Assessment of progressive collapse-resisting capacity of steel moment frames”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 65, 169-179.
  4. Fu, F. (2010), “3-D nonlinear dynamic progressive collapse analysis of multi-storey steel composite frame buildings- Parametric study”, Engineering Structures, 32, 3974-3980.
  5. Starossek, U. and Haberland, M. (2010), “Disproportionate Collapse: Terminology and Procedures”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 24 (6), 519-528.
  6. Liu, J. L. (2010), “Preventing progressive collapse through strengthening beam-to-column connection, Part 2: Finite element analysis”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 66, 238-247.
  7. Alashker, Y., Li, H. and El-Tawil, S. (2011), “Approximations in Progressive Collapse Modelling”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 137 (9), 914-924.
  8. Iribarren, B. S., Berke, P., Bouillard P., Vantommea, J. and Massart, T. J. (2011), “Investigation of the influence of design and material parameters in the progressive collapse analysis of RC structures”, Engineering Structures, 33, 2805-2820.
  9. Hadi, M. N. S. and Alrudaini, T. M. S. (2012), ‘New Building Scheme to Resist Progressive Collapse’, Journal of Architectural Engineering, 18 (4), 324-331.
  10. Helmy, H., Salem, H. and Mourad, S. (2012), “Progressive collapse assessment of framed reinforced concrete structures according to UFC guidelines for alternative path method”, Engineering Structures, 42, 127–141.
  11. Parikh, R. D. and Patel, P. V. (2013), “Various Procedures for Progressive Collapse Analysis of Steel Framed Buildings”, The IUP Journal of Structural Engineering, 4 (1), 1-15.
  12. Kim, H. S., Ahn, J. G. and Ahn, H. S. (2013), “Numerical Simulation of Progressive Collapse for a Reinforced Concrete Building”, International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, 7 (4), 272-275.
  13. Patel, B. R. (2014), “Progressive collapse analysis of RC buildings using non- linear static and non-linear dynamic method”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 4 (9), 503-507.
  14. Sakr, T. A. (2015), “Progressive Collapse Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Including Soil- Structure Interaction”, International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering Research, 3 (1), 42-56.
  15. Alogle, K., Weekes, L. and Nelson, L. A. (2016), “A new mitigation scheme to resist progressive collapse of RC structures”, Construction and Building Materials, 125, 533–545.
  16. Mashhadiali, N., Kheyroddin, A. and Hashemi, R. Z. (2016), “Dynamic Increase Factor for Investigation of Progressive Collapse Potential in Tall Tube-Type Buildings”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 30 (6), 1-9.
  17. Jeyanthi, R. and Kumar, S. M. (2016), “Progressive Collapse Analysis of a Multistorey RCC building using Pushover Analysis”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 5 (3), 747-750.
  18. Weng, J., Tan, K. H. and Lee, C. K. (2017), “Modelling progressive collapse of 2D reinforced concrete frames subject to column removal scenario”, Engineering Structures, 141, 126–143.
  19. Mashhadi, J. and Saffari, H. (2017), “Modification of dynamic increase factor to assess progressive collapse potential of structures”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 138, 72–78.
  20. Salloum, Y. A. A., Abbas, H., Almusallam, T. H., Ngo, T. and Mendis, P. (2017), “Progressive collapse analysis of a typical RC high-rise tower”, Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences.
  21. Balasaraswathi, K. M. and Ramakrishnan, G. (2017), “Progressive Collapse Analysis of Asymmetric Reinforced Concrete Building”, International Journal for Trends in Engineering & Technology, 23 (1), 11-16.

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40.

Authors:

Rohith Kumar A S, Premanand Shenoy

Paper Title:

Finite Element Analysis of Gusset Plates

Abstract: Structural optimization is a process of making high performance structures by identification and removal of un-necessary material without affecting safety, serviceability and durability requirements. This paper consists of description of a methodology adopted and results obtained for the shape optimization of gusset plates used to connect steel members in a structure. The step by step procedure for the development of Finite Element Analysis of 2D plates subjected to in-plane bending, conceptualization, mathematical formulation adopted for structural optimization specific to gusset plates transferring loads in-plane, based on utility ratio are presented. Typical cases are presented as examples, results are discussed and conclusions are derived. 

Keywords: Gusset Plate, Finite Element Analysis (FEA), Structural Optimization, Utility Ratio.

References: 

  1. Akira Hasegawa, “Shape Optimization of Two Dimensional Bodies by Boundary Changing Method and Thickness Changing Method”, J for Numerical Methods in Eng., Vol 34, No. 3, 1992, pp 889-892.
  2. Dulyachot Cholaseuk, “A Stress-Based Material Distribution Method for Optimum Shape Design of Mechanical Parts”, Thammasat Int. J Sc. Tech., Vol 11, No. 3, July-Sept. 2006.
  3. E.M. Guilherme and J.S.O. Fonseca, “Deformation Analysis of a Triangular Mild Steel Plate Using CST as Finite Element”, Mechanics of Solids in Brazil 2007, Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, ISBN 978-85-85769-30-7.
  4. Chau Le. Julian Norato, Tyler Bruns, Christopher Ha and Daniel Tortorelli, “Stress-based topology optimization for continua”, Multidisc. Optimization, Feb. 2012, pp 605-620.
  5. Bhairav K Thakkar, “Analysis of Fatigue Crack propagation in Gusset Plates”, IJSCER, Vol 1, No. 1, 2012, pp 87-91.
  6. Alexander Verbart, Matthijs Langelaar, Fred van Keulen and Amit Karkamkar, “A new approach for stress-based topology optimization: Internal stress penalization”, World   Congress  on  Structural   and  Multidisciplinary  Optimization, May- 2013, pp 1-10.
  7. Amit Karkamkar, “Deformation Analysis of a Triangular Mild Steel Plate Using CST as Finite Element”, IJSCER, Vol. 3, Issue. 4,    Jul – Aug. 2013, pp 2464-2468.
  8. Premanand Shenoy, “Optimum material disposition of 2D in plane bending problems”, PhD Thesis, NITK, April-2015.
  9. Ashok K Jain, “Advanced Structural Analysis with Finite Element and Computer applications”, Nem Chand and Bros, India, 2nd Edition, 2006.
  10. Tirupathi R. Chandrapatla and Ashok D. Belegundu, “Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering” PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, 3rd Edition, 2009.
  11. Daryl L. Logan, “Finite Elements Method” Cenage Learning, India, 4th Edition, 2011.

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41.

Authors:

Vindhuja V S, Amrutha M A, Archana V P, Amina Sherrif, Reshma Dustan

Paper Title:

Derivation of an Empirical Relation between Volume and Peak of Direct Runoff for Karamana River basin

Abstract: The need for efficient water supply system is inevitable. River basins can be classified as linear basins and nonlinear basins. In basins where the hydrologic data is scarce, several empirical relations are adopted to carry out the design process. One of the most important is the relation between volume and peak of direct runoff. It has immediate application in design of hydraulic structures and water resources planning. The log volume and log peak relation can be used to explain linearity or nonlinearity of drainage basins, identify hydrologically similar or dissimilar basins. The prediction of runoff including its time distribution generated by individual storm bursts is essential for efficient flood forecasting and the operation of hydraulic projects. In hydrological analysis and design, it is often necessary to develop relations between precipitation and runoff. Through these relations the estimates of the runoff of ungauged catchments can be obtained

Keywords: Linearity, Nonlinearity, Flood forecasting, Hydrological analysis  

References: 

  1. Vijay P Singh and Hossein Aminian, (1986), “An Empirical Relation between Volume and Peak of Direct Runoff”, Water resources bulletin,American Water Resources Association, Volume 22, no.5.
  2. Water Atlas of Kerala, 1995”, Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Calicut.
  3. Sivapalan, C. Jothiyangkoon and M.Menabde, (2002), “Linearity and Non Linearity of Basin Response as a Function of Scale: Discussion of Alternative Definitions” Water Resource Resarch, vol.38, No. 2.
  4. W.F and H. A. Zia (1982), “Linear and Nonlinear Runoff Frim Large Drainage Basins”, journal of Hydrology 55:267-278.
  5. Dr B C Punmia, Dr. Pande B B Lal, “Irrigation and water power Engineering”

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42.

Authors:

Sumaiyah Tazyeen, B L Shivakumar, Shivakumar J Nyamathi

Paper Title:

An Integrated Approach to Urban and Peri-Urban Storm Water Management

Abstract: Storm water has been touted as an indisputable major concern in the urban and peri-urban areas of India ascribed to the impact of highly impervious areas, decreased potential for infiltration, and loss of natural depression storage. However, the fluctuations in precipitation and melt down of snow and ice have reported to cause variations in the hydrological systems in several regions. The high latitudes are the only region on Earth that are contemplated to intensify rainfall in coming years. This might lead to various risks owing to numerous factors such as rising temperatures, increased levels of sediments, nutrients, and pollutants triggered by heavy rainfall, and disruption of treatment facilities during floods. Simultaneously, climatic change causes frequent and extreme weather events that alter the quality, quantity and seasonality of water available to urban centers and their surroundings. Existing approaches have been deemed to be inefficient and channeled by well-established fallacies having prime emphasis on inept flood control strategies. Subsequently, water authorities must revisit the conventional practices to implement effective ways that ensure human wellbeing while safeguarding the integrity of the resource base. Practices such as urban water management administer rainwater, wastewater, storm water drainage, runoff pollution and floods. Besides, urban water management is of the notion that water storage, distribution, treatment, recycling, and disposal are a part of the same resource management cycle by categorizing the relationships among water resources, land use, and energy. Thereby, this study comprehensively reviews various approaches that have widely researched urban and peri-urban water management to surpass the traditional measures and have acknowledged the significant role that urban planning may perhaps take part in conserving urban water environments. The full-length paper discusses the storm water problem in urban and peri-urban areas and an attempt is made to understand the storm water management.

Keywords: Climate Change, Land-use and Land cover, Storm water, Urban and Peri-urban areas.

References: 

  1. S. Kale, Flood Studies in India - A Brief Review, Journal Geological Society of India, Vol. 49, 1997, pp. 359-370.
  2. J. Burns, T.D. Fletcher, C.J. Walsh, A.R. Ladson, B.E. Hatt, “Hydrologic Shortcomings of Conventional Urban Stormwater Management and Opportunities for Reform”, Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 105, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 230-240.
  3. O. Wilson, Q.H. Weng, “Simulating the Impacts of Future Land Use and Climate Changes on Surface Water Quality in the Des Plaines River Watershed”, Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area, Illinois. Sci Total Environ 409, 2011, pp. 4387–4405.
  4. Semadeni-Davies, C. Hernebring, G. Svensson, L.G. Gustafsson, “The Impacts of Climate Change and Urbanisation on Drainage in Helsingborg”, Sweden: suburban storm water. J Hydrol 350(1–2), 2008, pp.114–125.
  5. M. Hathaway, R.A. Brown, J.S. Fu, W.F. Hunt, “Bioretention Function Under Climate Change Scenarios in North Carolina”, USA. J Hydrol 519, 2014, pp. 503–511.
  6. Gadgil, A. Dhorde, “Temperature Trends in Twentieth Century at Pune, India”, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 2005, pp. 6550-6556.
  7. IPCC, “Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability”, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  8. K. Sharma, L. Vezzaro, H. Birch, K. Arnbjerg‑Nielsen and P.S. Mikkelsen, “Effect of Climate Change on Stormwater Runoff Characteristics and Treatment Efficiencies of Stormwater Retention Ponds: A Case Study from Denmark using TSS and Cu as Indicator Pollutants”, SpringerPlus, 5:1984, 2016.
  9. Arnbjerg-Nielsen, P. Willems, J. Olsson, S. Beecham, A. Pathirana, I.B. Gregersen, H. Madsen, V.T.V. Nguyen, “Impacts of Climate Change on Rainfall Extremes and Urban Drainage Systems: A Review”, Water Sci Technol 68(1), 2013, pp.16–28.
  10. Yu. Schreider, D. I. Smith, A. J. Jakeman, “Climate Change Impacts on Urban Flooding”, Climatic Change, Volume 47, Issue 1–2, 2000, pp. 91–115.
  11. IPCC, “Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change”, Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996, pp. 570.
  12. Grimmond, “Urbanization and Global Environmental Change: Local Effects of Urban Warming”, Geographical Journal, 173, 2007, pp. 83–88.
  13. Shastri, S. Paul, S. Ghosh, S. Karmakar, “Impacts of Urbanization on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Extremes”, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 2015, pp. 495–516.
  14. Emanuel, “Tropical Cyclones”, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 31, 2003, pp. 75–104.
  15. R. Knutson, R.E. Tuleya, “Impact of CO2-Induced Warming on Simulated Hurricane Intensity and Precipitation: Sensitivity to the Choice of Climate Model and Convective Parameterization”, Journal of Climate, Vol. 17, No. 18, 2014, pp. 3477-3495.
  16. A. Hudson, K. Gilman, “Long Term Variability in the Water Balance of the Plynlimon Catchments”, Journal of Hydrology 143 (3–4), 1993, pp. 355-380.
  17. J. Hall, Urban Hydrology, London and New York: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 1984.
  18. S. Wheater, “Flood Hazard and Management: A UK perspective”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A 364, 2006, pp. 2135–2145.
  19. Sheng, J., and Wilson, J.P., “The Green Visions Plan for 21st Century Southern California. 22. Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling of the Los Angeles River Watershed”, University of Southern California GIS Research Laboratory, Los Angeles, California, 2009.
  20. Niyogi, C. Kishtawal, S. Tripathi, R.S. Govindaraju, “Observational Evidence that Agricultural Intensification and Land Use Change Maybe Reducing the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall, Water Resour Res 46, 2010.
  21. Paul, S. Ghosh, R. Oglesby, A. Pathak, A. Chandrasekharan, R. Ramsankaran, “Weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall due to Changes in Land Use Land Cover”, Scientific Reports. 6:32177, 2016.
  22. Tingsanchali, “Urban Flood Disaster Management”, Procedia Engineering, 32, 2012, pp. 25 – 37.
  23. R. Galuzzi, J.M. Pflaum, “Integrating Drainage, Water Quality, Wetlands, and Habitat in a Planned Community Development”, Journal of Urban Planning and Developmen,t Vol.122, No. 3, 1996.
  24. Q. Zheng, B.W. Baetz, “GIS-based analysis of development options from a hydrology perspective”, Journal of Urban Planning and Development,125, 1999, pp. 164–180.
  25. Y. G. Andoh, C. Declerck, “Source Control and Distributed Storage – A Cost Effective Approach to Urban Drainage for the New Millennium?”, 8th International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage, Sydney, Australia, 1999, pp. 1997-2005.
  26. I. Mejia, G.E. Moglen, “Spatial Patterns of Urban Development from Optimization of Flood Peaks and Imperviousness-Based Measures”, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering,(4), 2009, pp. 416–424.
  27. Jumadar, A. Pathirana, B. Gersonius, C. Zevenbergen, “Incorporating infiltration modelling in urban flood management”, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 5, 2008, 1533–1566.
  28. G. Lee, A. Selvakumar, K. Alvi, J. Riverson, J.X. Zhen, L. Shoemaker, F. Lai, “A Watershed-Scale Design Optimization Model for Stormwater Best Management Practices”, Environmental Modelling & Software, 37, 2012, pp. 6-18.

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43.

Authors:

Challa Divya Sri, Brema 

Paper Title:

Assessment of Water Quality Index of Panipat District, Haryana

Abstract: The study has been carried out in the Panipat district of Haryana using GIS modelling. This study gives us a valuable information on the general properties of water quality parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, TDS, Bicarbonate, Sulphate, Nitrate, chloride etc. of the study area. Water samples were analyzed in the water quality lab of NIH, Roorkee. In the study area, the pH of water varied from 7.18 to 7.4, Electrical conductivity of the river sample falls from 130.8µmho/cm to 341µmho/cm. Electrical Conductivity of pond’s sample varied between 139.3µmho/cm and 888µmho/cm and in case of ground water it varied from 307µmho/cm to 1042µmho/cm. The overall total dissolved solids in the study area varied from 71mg/l to 1369mg/l. The overall range of Chloride in the study area tends to fall between 4.02mg/l to 265.94mg/l. The value of sulphate for the water samples, collected from the study area ranged from 3.16mg/l to 106.07mg/l .The value of the Bicarbonate varied from 42mg/l to 610mg/l. The water quality parameters in the study were estimated using two methods : 1) titration method 2) instrumental method. The study was carried out in the three blocks of Panipat district, Haryana namely Israna, Matlouda, Samalkha spreading over nine villages.

Keywords: Water quality; Index; rating scale; variations; 

References:

  1. M I Lvovich,Rivers of the USSR (Mysl. Moscow, 1972) 
  2. Groundwater, R.Allan Freeze and Cherry, 1979.
  3. Gayathri Purushothaman, R. Sunitha and S. Mahimairaja, Assessment of ground water contamination in Erode District, Tamilnadu, Vol. 7(6), pp. 563-566, June 2013,African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology,DOI: 10.5897/AJEST12.169,ISSN 1996-0786 © 2013.
  4. P. Gorde, M. V. Jadhav, Assessment of Water Quality Parameters: A Review, S. P. Gorde et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 3, Issue 6, Nov-Dec 2013, pp.2029-2035
  5. T.R., Mahanta.C, and Chandramouli.V (2007), Water Quality Assessment of an untreated effluent impacted urban stream: the Bharalu Tributary of the Brahmaputra River, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, pp.221 – 236
  6. Mohammed, L. N., Aboh, H. O. & Emenike, E., A Regional Geoelectric Investigation for Groundwater Exploration In Minna Area, North West Nigeria., Science World Journal Vol 2 (No3) 2007, Pp. 15-19.
  7. N. Palanisamy, A. Geetha, M. Sujatha, P. Sivakumar and K. Karunakaran, Assessment of Ground Water Quality in and around Gobichettipalayam Town Erode District, Tamilnadu, ISSN: 0973-4945; Coden Ecjhao,E-Journal of Chemistry,Vol. 4, No.3, pp. 434-439, July 2007
  8. R.N, (2011). Assessment of groundwater quality and pollution potential of Jawa Block Rewa District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences., v.1, No.3-4, pp.202-212.

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44.

Authors:

Janet Joseph, J. Brema

Paper Title:

Morphometric Analysis of Mandakini Basin using Geospatial Techniques

Abstract: Geospatial Technique i.e., remote sensing and geographic information system has been proved to be one of the most efficient tool for the delineation of the desired watershed. Geographic information system and various image processing techniques are used for the identification of morphometric features and basin characteristics. The morphometric parameters are linear, areal, relief and slope aspects. The Mandakini basin study is carried out for all the mentioned aspects. The study revealed that the basin has six order streams, first order having 333 no. of streams, second order with 136, third order with 18, fourth order with 7, fifth order with 2 and sixth order 1 no of streams. The length of the stream segment is maximum for the 1st order stream and decreases with the increase in stream order. Geometric aspects reveal that the basin elongation is less in shape with moderate to very high relief and longer duration of flow in the basin. The minimum relief is 625m and maximum rises upto 6741m. The study helps in management of water resources for the local and nearby places.

Keywords: Morphometry, Basin, Aspects

References: 

  1. Atul Kumar and Negi MS, physiographic study of Mandakini valley by morphometric analysis and geospatial techniques, international journal of geomatics and geosciences, 2016.
  2. Evagelin Ramani     Sujatha,     R Selvakumar, UAB Rajasimmam and Rajamanickam G Victor, Morphomteric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of western ghats, South India using ASTER DEM, 2012.
  3. Kuldeep Pareta  and  Upasana  Pareta, Quantitative Morphometric analysis of a watershed of yamuna basin, India using ASTR (DEM) data and GIS, international journal of geomatics and geosciences, 2010.
  4. Atrayee Biswas,    Dipanjan    Das  Majumdar, and Sayandeep Banerjee, Morphometry governs the dynamics of a drainage basin: analysis and implications, 2014.
  5. Kishan Singh Rawat, AK Mishra and Vinod Kumar Tripathi., Hydo-morphometrical analyses of sub himalayan region in relation to small hydro-electric power, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Springer, 2012
  6. Rafiq Ahmad Hajam, Aadil Hamid and SamiUllah Bhat, Application of morphometric analysis for geo-hydrological studies using geo-spatial technology, Hydrology current research,2013.

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