Volume-4 Issue-3

  • Version
  • Download 57
  • File Size 4.00 KB
  • Create Date August 27, 2017
  • Download

 Download Abstract Book

S. No

Volume-4 Issue-3, February 2015, ISSN:  2249-8958 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Abhilash Patil

Paper Title:

Heat of Hydration in the Placement of Mass Concrete

Abstract:   The factor distinguishing between normal concrete and mass concrete is the thermal characteristics. Mass concrete is defined as “any volume of concrete with dimensions large enough to require that measures be taken to cope with generation of heat from hydration of the cement and attendant volume change to minimize cracking.” Use of mass concrete has been in existence over the last two centuries, and it has lately been reaching its full potential in the construction industry. The proper design and construction of mass concrete placements is essential to ensure the durability and serviceability of the structure. Mass concrete is required in massive structures containing beams, columns, piers, dams where its volume is of such a magnitude as to require special means for coping with the generation of heat and which is followed by volume change. This paper explains the factors influencing generation of heat of hydration (cracking) along with the different ways to lower the heat of hydration and then the methods to be implemented for its reduction.

 Air entrainment; cracking; heat of hydration; restraint.


1.        A case study of mass concrete construction for ‘‘Midwest Boarder Bridges’’ by ‘Jacob Joseph Shaw’ of ‘Iowa State University’ (2012)
2.        ‘P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro’,” Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials”.

3.        “Historic Concrete in Scotland-Part I” by ‘Denis Urquhart’. Published by Historic Scotland, March 2013. Historic Scotland, Longmore House, Salisbury Place, Edinburgh, EH9 1SH.

4.        “Mass Concrete” by ‘Robert Moser’ CEE8813A – Material Science of Concrete.

5.        “Mass Concrete – How do you handle the heat” by ‘John Gajda’, PE, CTL Group.

6.        “Mass and Thermally Controlled Concrete” by ‘ACI Committee 207’.          

7.        “Mass Concrete” reported by ‘ACI committee 207’.

8.        “Massive Concrete Placements” presented by  Abdulkader Kairouz(20 December 2011)






Yogita L. Kumbhare, Pankaj H. Rangaree

Paper Title:

Patient Health Monitoring Using Wireless Body Area Sensor Network

Abstract:   Wireless Body Area Sensor Network is one of the main application areas for ubiquitous computing. The potential for ubiquitous computing is evident in almost every aspect of our lives including the hospital, mergency and critical situations. The Wireless Body Area Sensor networks (WBASNs) is a wireless networks have enabled the design of low-cost, intelligent, tiny, and lightweight medical sensor nodes that can be placed on human body to monitor various physiological vital signs of patient for a long period of time and providing real-time feedback to the user and medical staff. In this paper, Developing a hardware which will sense heart rate, blood pressure, temperature of a person, and respiration of the person using gsm modem all information lively transmitted to gsm mobile. The attached sensors on patient’s body and they are able to sense the various heath parameters of patient such as heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and respiration contains. These health parameters are then communicated to physician’s server. The physician holds various threshold values of the health parameters for each and every patient. This system can detect the abnormal conditions, issue an alarm to the patient and send a SMS to the physician.

 Wireless body area sensor network, GSM modem, Microcontroller, heartbeat sensor, pressure,  temperature, respiration sensors.


1.        Christos C. Bellos, Athanasios Papadopoulos, Roberto Rosso” Identification of COPD Patients’ Health Status Using an Intelligent System in the CHRONIOUS Wearable Platform” IEEE JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS, VOL. 18, NO. 3, MAY 2014
2.        Lei Clifton, David A. Clifton, Marco A. F. Pimentel “Predictive Monitoring of Mobile Patients by Combining Clinical Observations With Data From Wearable Sensors” IEEE JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS, VOL. 18, NO. 3, MAY 2014

3.        Ambika R, Kiran Jose, Priyadharshini. K, Priyanga S Kumar “  Wireless Remote Healthcare System” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 2, ISSUE 10, OCTOBER 2013

4.        Diogo Gomes, Carlos Gonçalves, José A. Afonso “Performance Evaluation of ZigBee Protocol for High Data Rate Body Sensor Networks” World Congress on Engineering 2013 Vol II, WCE 2013, July 3 - 5, 2013, London, U.K.

5.        Karandeep Malhi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay” A Zigbee-Based Wearable Physiological Parameters Monitoring System” IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 12, NO. 3, MARCH 2012

6.        Honggang Wang, Hua Fang, Liudong Xing, Min Chen,( 2011) ” An Integrated Biometric-based Security Framework Using Wavelet-Domain HMM in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN)” IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC proceedings.

7.        Raju Singh(March 2011) “Confidentiality & Authentication Mechanism for Biometric Information Transmitted over Low Bandwidth & Unreliable channel” School of Computer Engineering and IT, Shobhit University, Meerut, India Vol.3, No.2,

8.        Mikael Soini, Jussi Nummela, Petri Oksa, Leena Ukkonen and Lauri Sydänheimo (2009).” Wireless Body Area Network for Hip rehabilitation” Tampere University of Technology, Department of Electronics, Rauma Research Unit pp. 202-206 .

9.        Cory Cornelius(August 2010) “On Usable Authentication for Wireless Body Area Networks” Department of Computer Science Dartmouth College, Presented at HealthSec, .

10.     Jamil Y. Khan, Mehmet R. Yuce, and Farbood Karami “Performance Evaluation of a Wireless Body Area Sensor Network for Remote Patient Monitoring”

11.     A. Soomro, D. Cavalcanti, IEEE (Feb 2007)“Opportunities & Challenges using WPAN  and WLAN Technologies in Medical Environments”, Communications Magazine, vol:45, no:2, page 114-122.

12.     Adnan Saeed, Miad Faezipour IEEE 2009,”Plug and Play Sensor Node for Body Area Network”.

13.     Jamil Y. Khan,school of computer science,Australia,IEEE (09,07, 2009,) ”Wireless Body Area Network for Medical Applications”.

14.     Emil Jovanov, Dejan Raskovic, John Price,John Chapman, Anthony Moore, Abhishek Krishnamurthy,IEEE (2008) ,.” Patient Monitoring Using Personal Area
Networks of Wireless Intelligent Sensors”.


16.     Chao Chen and Carlos Pomalaza-Ráez,”Implimenting and EvaluatingA wireless body Sensor System for Automated Physiological Data Acquisition At Home”, , International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, Volume 2, Number 3, 16June 2010.,

17.     Frank Agyei-Ntim, Member IEEE, Kimberly Newman, “Lifetime Estimation of Wireless Body Area Sensor Network for Patient Health Monitoring” 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, Senior Member IEEE, September 2-6, 2009

18.     Adnan Saeed, Mehrdad Nourani, Gil Lee, Gopal Gupta and Lakshman Tamil ,” A Scalable Wireless Body Area Sensor Network for Health-Care Monitoring “, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas. IEEE 2007.

19.     Adnan Saeed*, Miad Faezipour*, Mehrdad Nourani*, Subhash Banerjee, June 2009 , ” A Scalable Wireless Body Area Network for Bio-Telemetry”, Journal of Information Processing Systems, Vol.5, No.2.

20.     Aleksandar Milenković, Chris Otto, Emil Jovanov, Accessed: July 2005, “Wireless Sensor Networks for Personal Health Monitoring:Issues and an Implementation” .

21.     Mehmet R. Yuce & Steven W. P. Ng & Naung L. Myo &Jamil Y. Khan &Wentai Liu , “Wireless Body Sensor Network Using Medical Implant Band”, Received: 10 July 2007 / Accepted: 25 July 2007





S. Ramana Babu,  V. Ramachandra Raju,  K. Ramji

Paper Title:

Design Optimization of a 3 DOF Translational Parallel Manipulator

Abstract:   This paper presents an optimal kinematic design of a 3PRC (prismatic-revolute-cylindrical) spatial translational parallel manipulator with inclined actuator arrangement by formulating a multi-objective optimization problem. Three performance criteria’s namely Global Conditioning Index (GCI), Global stiffness Index (GSI) and Workspace volume are considered as the objective functions.  A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on the control elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (CENSGA) is adopted to find the final approximation set.

 GCI, GSI, multi-objective genetic algorithm, Pareto front, GA, CENSGA


1.        H.Kim, L. Tsai, Design optimization of a Cartesian parallel manipulator, Journal of Mechanical Design, 125(1), (2003), pp.43-52.
2.        L. Tsai, S. Joshi, Kinematics and optimization of a spatial 3-UPU parallel manipulator, Journal of Mechanical Design, (122), (2000), pp.439-446.

3.        X. Kong, C. Gosselin, Type synthesis of 3-DOF translational parallel manipulators based on  screw Theory and virtual joint, in: Proceedings of 15 th CISM- IFTOMM Symposium on Robot Design, Dynamics and control (ROMANSY 2004), (126), pp.83-93.

4.        R. Di Gregorio, V. Parenti Castelli, A translational 3-DOF parallel manipulator, Advances in Robot kinematics: Analysis and Control, (3), (1998), pp.49-58.

5.        M. Callegari, M. Tarantini, Kinematic Analysis of a Novel Translational Platform, ASME J.Mech. Design, (125), (2),(2003), pp.308-315.

6.        Y.Li, Q.Xu, Kinematic Analysis and Design of a New 3-DOF Translational Parallel Manipulator, Journal of Mechanical Design, (128), (2006), pp.729-737.

7.        T.Huang, X. Zhao, D.J. Whitehouse, Stiffness estimation of a tripod –based parallel kinematic Machine, IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat. (18), (1), (2002), pp.50-58.

8.        M.Ceccarelli, G. Carbone, A stiffness analysis for CaPaMan (Cassino Parallel Manipulator) Mech. Mach. Theory, (37), (5),(2002),pp.427-439.

9.        Q.Xu, Y.Li, An investigation on mobility and stiffness of a 3-DOF translational parallel manipulator  Via screw theory, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, (24), (2008), pp.402-414.

10.     X.Liu, Z.Jin, F.Gao, Optimum design of 3-dof spherical parallel manipulators with respect   to the   conditioning and stiffnesindices , Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol.  35(9),(2000), pp 1257-1267.

11.     G.Alici.,B. Shirinzade, Optimum synthesis of planar parallel manipulators based on kinematic isotropy and force balancing , Robotica, Vol.22,(2004), pp. 97-108.

12.     N.M. Rao, K.M. Rao, Dimensional synthesis of a spatial 3-RPS parallel manipulator for    a prescribed range of motion of spherical joints. Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol.44,(2009), pp 477-486.

13.     F.A. Lara-Molina,J.M Rosario,D. Dumur, Multi-Objective Design of Parallel Manipulator Using Global Indices. The Open Mechanical Engineering journal, Vol.4, (2010), pp.37-47.

14.     A.M Lopes, E.J Solteiro Pires, Optimization of the Work piece Location in a Machining Robotic Cell. International journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, Vol.8 (6), (2011), pp.37-46.

15.     R. Kelaiaia, O.Company, A. Zaatric, Multiobjective optimization of a linear Delta parallel robot, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol.50,(2012), pp.159-178.

16.     Y.Li, Q.Xu, Stiffness analysis for a 3-PUU parallel kinematic machine, Mechanism and Machine Theory, (43), (2008), pp.186-200.    

17.     C.Gosselin, Determination of the workspace of 6-DOF parallel   manipulators. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol.112 (3), (1990), pp.331-337.    

18.     J.P. Merlet, Determination of the orientation workspace of parallel manipulators, Journal of intelligent and robotic systems, Vol.13,(1995),pp.143-160.





S. Sharmi, Ishtiaque Mahmood, Jehad Bani-Younis

Paper Title:

Evaluating Prediction Factor Prominence in Academic Domain Selection using Dominance Analysis – Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE), Ibri CAS, Sultanate of Oman

Abstract:   This paper, advocates on a broader use of relative prominence keys as an appendage to multiple regression analysis. The goal of such analysis is to screen the variance among multiple predictors to realize the role played by each predictor in a regression equation. Dominance Analysis is a method to evaluate the relative prominence of the prognosticators. Regrettably, when predictors are correlated, they totally trust on metrics which are flawed indicators of variable importance. Furthermore, the key benefits of two relative prominence analyses, dominance analysis and relative weight analysis, over estimates produced by multiple regression analysis. Here, this investigation helps us to evaluate the importance of the prediction factors involved in determining the criteria’s for   domain selection of the students. A mockup study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed actions and develop commendations.

 Predictor prominence, weight analysis, Dominance Analysis (DA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR).


1.       Azen, Razia, and David V. Budescu. "The dominance analysis approach for comparing predictors in multiple regression." Psychological methods 8.2 (2003): 129.
2.       Bennink, Margot, et al. "Measuring Student Ability, Classifying Schools, and Detecting Item Bias at School Level, Based on Student-Level Dichotomous Items." Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 39.3 (2014): 180-202.

3.       Bring, Johan. "How to standardize regression coefficients." The American Statistician 48.3 (1994): 209-213.

4.       Hoffman, Paul J. "The paramorphic representation of clinical judgment." Psychological bulletin 57.2 (1960): 116.

5.       Johnson, Jeff W., and James M. LeBreton. "History and use of relative importance indices in organizational research." Organizational Research Methods 7.3 (2004): 238-257.

6.       Lebreton, James M., Robert E. Ployhart, and Robert T. Ladd. "A Monte Carlo comparison of relative importance methodologies." Organizational Research Methods 7.3 (2004): 258-282.

7.       LeBreton, James M., et al. "A multidimensional approach for evaluating variables in organizational research and practice." Personnel Psychology 60.2 (2007): 475-498.

8.       LeBreton, James M., and Scott Tonidandel. "Multivariate relative importance: extending relative weight analysis to multivariate criterion spaces." Journal of Applied Psychology 93.2 (2008): 329.

9.       Ward Jr, Joe H. "Multiple linear regression models." Computer applications in the behavioral sciences (H. Borko, ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall (1962).





Avinash Kamble, Siddheshwar Khillare

Paper Title:

Comparative Study of Different Flexures of MEMS Accelerometers

Abstract:   There is a greater demand for developing a monolithic 3- axis accelerometer. The main challenges for developing a 3-axis accelerometer are- the size factor, realizing z-axis sensing, and decoupling the motions of the structure in three mutually perpendicular directions. With this motivation, we analyze structures using different flexures and evaluate their compliance and natural frequencies in three orthogonal directions. In this paper, the analytical and numerical study of different flexures such as straight-beam flexures, crab-leg flexures, serpentine flexures, and folded flexures is done. First, the concept of lumped parameter is described in brief, then numerical simulation of flexures is done using software ANSYS.  Finally, a comparison of the analytical and numerical results is presented.

 MEMS Accelerometer, Simulink Model


1.       Navid Yazdi, Farrokh Ayazi, and Khalil Najafi, “Micromachined Inertial Sensors”, proceeding of IEEE, vol. 86, No. 8, August, 1998, pp. 1640-1659.
2.       Hidekuni Takao, Hirofumi Fukumoto, and Makoto Ishida, “A CMOS Integrated Three-Axis Accelerometer Fabricated with commercial Submicrometer CMOS Technology and bulk micromachining”, IEEE transactions on electron devices, Vol. 48, 2001, pp. 1961-1669.

3.       R. Toda, N. Takeda, T. Murakoshi, et al.,“ Electrostatically levitated spherical 3-axis accelerometer”, IEEE, 2002, pp. 710-713.

4.       Junseok Chae, Hal and Kulah and Khalil Najafi, “ A monolithic three-axis silicon capacitive accelerometer with micro-g resolution”, The 12th International Conference on Solid state sensors, Actuators and Microsystem, Boslon, 2003, pp. 81-84.

5.       S. Seok, S. Seong, B. Lee, J. Jim, K. Chum, ” A high performance mixed micromachined differential resonant accelerometer”, proceeding of IEEE, sensors, Vol. 2, 2002, pp. 1058-1063.

6.       G. K. Fedder, “Simulation of Microelectromechanical systems”, Ph. D. dissertation, EECS, University California, Berkeley, 1994.

7.       Suhas Mohite, Nishad Patil and Rudra Pratap, “Design, modeling, and simulation of vibratory micromachined gyroscope”, Journal of physics: Conference series 34, 2006, pp. 757-763.

8.       Hao Luo, Gang Zang, L. Richard Carley, Fellow, IEEE, and Garry K. Fedder, “A post-CMOS micromachined lateral  accelerometer”, Journal of microelectromechanical systems, Vol. 11, No.3, June 2002, pp. 188-195.





Mahshid Amiri, Mehdi Shamsaie Mehrjan

Paper Title:

Salinity Effect on Growth, Permanence, and Blood Factors of Abramis Brama Orientalis Fry of Caspian Sea in Different Weights 

Abstract:   The present study is developed for determination of an appropriate weight of releasing Abramis Brama Orientalis fry of Caspian Sea toward increase in fisheries returning coefficient. Consequently, blood factors including Sodium Ion, Potassium Ion, chlorine Ion, Cortisol Hormone, Blood Protein, growth and permanence indexes of Abramis Brama Orientalis fry are considered in four different weight groups of 320, 470, 730 and 990 mg. in fresh and brackish waters. The test extended up to 14 days in brackish water (9 g/l salinity). The result show that the blood factors in all weight groups have high significant differences in fresh waters (p<0.01). In the end of the test, the Sodium viscosity of Abramis Brama Orientalis fry blood has no any significant differences in none of the weight groups (p>0.05); whereas, other blood factors have significant differences to each other (p<0.01). No any differences were observed within growth index of the weight groups (p<0.05). Also, holding higher percentage of permanence at the end of the test and considering the quantity of mortalities, the weight group of 990 mg. is selected as the best weight option of Abramis Brama Orientalis due to its physiological readiness for releasing to the Caspian Sea.

 Abramis Brama Orientalis, Cortisol Hormone, brackish water, Caspian Sea


1.        Berg, I.S. (1956). Fresh water fishes of the U.S.S.R and adjacent countres. (Millennium ed. Vol 11). Translation Jerusalerm.
2.        Sattari, M., (2003). Ichthyology.  hagh shenas publisher.

3.        Asgari, R. ( 2005).Ichthyology. Naghshe mehr publisher.

4.        Vosoghi, G., Mostajir, B. (2002). Fresh water fishes. Tehran publisher.

5.        North, B.P., Trunbull, J.F., Ellis, T., Porter. M.J., Migaud, H., Born, J., & Bromage N.R. (2006). The impact of stocking density on the welfare rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss(. Journal of Aquaculture, 225, 466-479.

6.        Wuertz, W.A., &  Durborow, R.M. (1992). Interaction of ph, Carbon Dioxide, Alkalinity and Hardness in fish ponds. SARC publication No. 464.

7.        Boeck, G., Vlaiminck, A., & Blust, R. (1996). Central monoaminergic responses to salinity and temperature rise in common carp. The journal of experimental, vol 199.

8.        Oran, L., Dorucu, M., & Yazlak, A. (2003). Hematological parameters of tree cyprinid fish species from karakaya Dam Lake, Turkey. Journal of Biological Sciences, 3,  320-328.

9.        Dickhof, W.W.,  Folmar, L.C., Mighell, J.L., & Mahnken, C.V.W. (1982).  Plasma thyroid hormones during smoltification of yearling and under yearling  Coho salmon and yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Journal of Aquaculture, 21, 1-37 .

10.     Lin, R.J., Cross. T.F., Mills, C.P.R., Nishioka, R.S., Grau, E.G., & Bern, H.R. (1988). Cheng in plasma thyroxin levels during smoltification in hatchery-reared one-year and two-yearAtlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Journal of Aquaculture, 74, 369-378.

11.     Audet, C. and Claireaux, G. 1992. Dial and seasonal chenges in resting levels of various blood parameters in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Canadian Journal of Fish Aquatic Science, 49: 870-877.

12.     Krayushkina, L.S. (1998). Characterestics of osmotic and ionic regulation in marine diadromous strugen acipenser brevirostvum and A.Oxyrhinchus. Journal of Ichthyology. 38, 684-692.

13.     Hoar, W.S. (1988). The physiology of smolting salmonids. Fish  physiology of developing fish. Academic Press Inc. Vol. Xi. Part B.

14.     Mommsen, T.P., Vijayan, M.M., & Moon T.W. (1999). Cortisol in teleost: Dynamics, mechanisms of action and metabolic regulation. Review in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 9, 211-268.

15.     Davis, D.A., Saoud, I.P., Boyed, C.E., & Rous, D.B., (2005). Effect of potassium, magnesium and age on growth and survival of litopenaeus vannami poset-larvae reared in inland low salinity well waters in west Alabama. J world aquaculture .36: 403-406

16.     Wanger, H.H., Conte F.P., & Fessler J.L. (1982). Development of osmotic & ionic regulation in two races of chinok salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha). Comparative Biochemistry& Phisiology, 29, 325-341.

17.     Nordelie, F.G., Szelistowski, W.A., & Nordelie, W.C. (1982). Ontogenesis of osmotic regulation in the striped mullet (mugil cephalus). Journal of fish biology. 20,79-86.





Pardeep Kumar Gupta, Rajeev Kumar

Paper Title:

Determination of Optimum Maintenance and Rehabilitation Strategies for Urban Semi Dense Bituminous Surface and Premix Carpet Roads

Abstract:   The road traffic has increased manifolds during the post-independence in India. The traffic axle loading may be much heavier than the specified limit in many cases. As a result of which, the existing road network has been subjected to severe deterioration leading to premature failure of the pavements. There is a dire need of developing a meaningful approach towards implementing the maintenance and rehabilitation schemes of the road network. In such a scenario, development of the effective pavement management strategies would furnish useful information to ensure the compatible and cost- effective decisions so as to keep the existing road network intact. The optimum maintenance and rehabilitation strategies applied in this study would be useful in planning pavement maintenance strategies in a scientific manner and ensuring rational utilization of limited maintenance funds. Once this strategy for urban road network is implemented and made operational; this would serve as window to the other urban road network of different regions.

 Introduction, Methodology Used, Application of Methodology, Conclusion & Recommendation


1.        Abaza, K. (2004), “Deterministic Performance Prediction Model for Rehabilitation & Management of Flexible Pavement”, International Journal of Pavement
Engineering 5(2), 111-121.

2.        Abja, K. A. (2002). “Optimum Flexible Pavement Life-Cycle Analysis Model”, ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 6, pp 542-549.

3.        Antonio, A., Picado-Santos, L., and Ferreira, A. (2002). “Optimization Models for Pavement Management: Past Achievements and Current Trends”, Proceedings, 3rd International Conference on Decision Making in Urban and Civil Engineering, London, U.K.

4.        Bennet, C.R., and Greenwood, I.D. (2002). “Modelling Road User and Environmental Effects in HDM-4”, The Highway Development and Management Series, Volume 7, ISOHDM Technical Secretariat, University of Birmingham, U.K.

5.        CRRI (1994). “Pavement Performance Study on Existing Pavement Sections”, Project Sponsored by Ministry of Surface Transport, Government of India, Final Report, Submitted by Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.

6.        Gedafa, D.S. ( 2007), “Performance Prediction and Maintenance of Flexible Pavement “, Proceedings of the 2007 Midcontinent Transportation Research Symposium, Ames, Iowa, 2007.

7.        Haas, Ralph, W. Ronald Hudson and Lynne Cowe Falls (2011), “Evolution and Future Challenges for Pavement Management”, Proc., 8th Int. Conf. On Managing Pavement Assets, Santiago, Chile

8.        IRC (2012). “Manual on Economic Evaluation of Highway Projects in India”, IRC:SP30, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi.

9.        IRC (2012). “Manual on Economic Evaluation of Highway Projects in India”, IRC:SP30, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi.

10.     IRC (2012). “Guidelines for Strengthening of Flexible Road Pavement Using Benkelman Beam Deflection Technique”, IRC:81, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi.

11.     IRC (2012). “Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements”, IRC:37, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi.

12.     Jain, S.S., Parida, M., and Rawat, M.M.S. (1999). “A Rational Approach for Pavement Management System for Urban Roads”, Highway Research Bulletin, No. 61, Indian Roads Congress, pp 69-99.

13.     Martin T (2004), Data Review and Caliberation of HDM-4 Road Deterioration Models ARRBTR Research Report ARR 360 (ARRBTR: Vermont South, Victoria,

14.     MORT&H (2013c). “Road Development Plan Vision: 2021”, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India, New Delhi.

15.     MORT&H (2013e). “Updation of Road User Cost Data”, Final Report prepared by Central Road Research Institute, for Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India, New Delhi.

16.     MORTH&H (2013), “ Guideline for Maintenance of Primary, Secondary and Urban Roads” , Ministry of Road Transport and Highway, Govt. of India, New Delhi.

17.     Odoki, J.B., and Kerali, H.R. (2000). “Analytical Framework and Model Descriptions”, HDM-4 Documentation Series, Volume-4, The World Road Association (PIARC), Paris, France.

18.     Shahin M.Y. (1994). “Pavement Management for Roads, Airports and Parking Lots”, Chapman & Hall, London.

19.     Zimmerman, K.A (2010), Linda M. Pierce and James Krstulovich. “ Pavement Management Roadmap. Executive Summary.” Document publ. By Federal Highway Administration, Washington D.C.





Rachna Verma, Anjali Potnis

Paper Title:

Load Current Adaptive Step Size and Perturbation Frequency (LCASF) MPPT Algorithm or Adaptive Step Size with Adaptive Perturbation Frequency Scheme for Grid Connected PV System

Abstract:  This paper deals with the growing electricity demand along with reduction in conventional fuel sources and growing environmental concerns, the renewable energy sources like wind power , solar power, hydro power , geothermal , biomass are globally welcomed to replace the conventional power sources. Among the different methods of generating electric power by alternative resources, photovoltaic (PV) has grown steadily in recent decades as one of the best technology alternative because it is free, abundant, pollution free and most widely distributed. Photovoltaic (PV) grid connected system is the trend of solar energy application. Photovoltaic (PV) is a technique of converting solar radiation into direct current electricity to generate electricity using semiconductor. The total amount of energy which is irradiated from the sun to the earth’s surface equal’s approximately 10,000 times the annual global energy consumption. But a typical solar panel converts only 30 to 40 percent of the incident solar irradiation into electrical energy. Maximum power point tracking technique is used to improve the efficiency of the solar panel. The proposed work is validated by simulating it for different load configurations using Matlab and the simulation result verifies the efficiency of proposed algorithm

 power system grid, photovoltaic grid, solar panel, MPPT.


1.        Adaptive Step Size With Adaptive-Perturbation-Frequency Digital MPPT Controller for a Single-Sensor Photovoltaic Solar System Yuncong Jiang, Student Member,
IEEE, Jaber A. Abu Qahouq, Senior Member, IEEE, and Tim A. Haskew, Senior Member, IEEE,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 28, NO. 7, JULY 2013

2.        Energy comparison of MPPT techniques for PV Systems  ROBERTO FARANDA, SONIA LEVA,Department of Energy Politecnico di Milano Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32 – 20133 Milano ITALY, WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on POWER SYSTEMS Issue 6, Volume 3, June 2008

3.        Predictive & Adaptive MPPT Perturb and Observe MethodN. FEMIA, Member, IEEE, D. GRANOZIO, G. PETRONE,G. SPAGNUOLO, Member, IEEE University of Salerno Italy M. VITELLI, Second University of Naples Italy, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 43, NO. 3 JULY 2007

4.        Theoretical and Experimental Analyses of Photovoltaic Systems With Voltage- and Current-Based Maximum Power-Point Tracking Mohammad A. S. Masoum, Hooman Dehbonei, and Ewald F. Fuchs, Fellow, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 17, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2002.

5.        A Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique for Solar Panels Using a SEPIC or Cuk Converter Henry Shu-Hung Chung, Member, IEEE, K. K. Tse, Member, IEEE, S. Y. Ron Hui, Fellow, IEEE, C. M. Mok, and M. T. Ho, Student Member, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 18, NO. 3, MAY 2003

6.        An Improved Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter Based on Voltage-Oriented Control Riad Kadri, Jean-Paul Gaubert, Member, IEEE, and Gerard Champenois, Member, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 58, NO. 1, JANUARY 2011.

7.        Modeling of Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Solar Power System Aryuanto Soetedjo, Abraham Lomi, Yusuf Ismail Nakhoda, Awan Uji Krismanto Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Malang Jalan Raya Karanglo Km 2 Malang, TELKOMNIKA, Vol.10, No.3, July 2012, pp. 419~430

8.        Simulation and Hardware Implementation of Incremental Conductance MPPT With Direct Control Method Using Cuk Converter Azadeh Safari and Saad Mekhilef, Member, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 58, NO. 4, APRIL 2011.

9.        A Variable Step Size INC MPPT Method for PV Systems Fangrui Liu, Shanxu Duan, Fei Liu, Bangyin Liu, and Yong Kang, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 7, JULY 2008.

10.     Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Employing Load Parameters D. Shmilovitz Tel Aviv University, School of Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv, Israel, IEEE ISIE 2005, June 20-23, 2005, Dubrovnik, Croatia





Faris M. Al-Athari, Abdulameer K. Hussain

Paper Title:

A New Multi- Authentication Scheme using Attribute Aggregation

Abstract:   This paper presents an authentication method for ensuring the best user's identity proof. The authentication procedure depends on identifying different user's attributes since no single person or system knows anyone’s complete set of identity attributes. Individuals are most likely to know the majority of the attributes that serve to identify them. In this scheme, different attributes are defined to serve two purposes. First, to authenticate each user depending on weights assigned to each attribute of the authenticated users and these are subjected to different statistical measurements. Second, depending on the result of this statistical measurement, the system grants users different privileges using access control mechanism and thus we construct a multi-level authentication. Finally, the system applies a combination of different attributes which differs from other traditional attribute authentication.

 Attribute-based systems, Authentication, Privilege, Identity Providers.


1.        Y.Eric, and T.Jin, "Attributed Based Access Control (ABAC) for Web Services ", Proceedings OF THE IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS), 2005.
2.        S.V. Nagaraj, " Access Control in Distributed Object Systems: Problems with Access Control Lists", p. 163, IEEE WETICE, 2001.

3.        N.Toni, "Attribute Certificates in X.509", HUT TML 2000, Tik-110.501 Seminar on Network Security, Helsinki, Finland 2000.

4.        L.John and N. Magnus, "Attribute Certification: An Enabling Technology for Delegation and Role-Based Controls in Distributed Environments", Proceedings of the fourth ACM workshop on RBAC, pp 121 - 130, 1999.

5.        K. Reiter, and G. Stubblebine, "Authentication Metric Analysis and Design", ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, Vol. 2, No. 2, Pages 138–158, May 1999,

6.        B .Thomas, B. Malte, and K. Birgit, "Valuation of Trust in Open Network ", Proceedings of the European Symposium on Research in Computer Security  U.K, 1994,

7.        W. Chadwick, "Authorisation using Attributes from Multiple Authorities ", Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies (WETICE'06), 2006.

8.        N. Klingenstein, "Attribute Aggregation and Federated Identity", Proceedings of the 2007 International Symposium on Applications and the Internet Workshops (SAINTW'07), 2007.

9.        V. David, M. Blough, and C .David, "Minimal Information Disclosure with EfficientlyVerifiable Credentials", appear in DIM'08 (Fourth ACM Workshop on Digital Identity Management), Fairfax, VA, USA, October 2008.

10.     A. Squicciarini, E. Bertino, E. Ferrari, F. Paci, and B. Thuraisingham, "PP-Trust-X: A System for Privacy Preserving Trust Negotiations", ACM Transactions on Systems and Information Security, July 2007.

11.     C. Ashwin, and  S .Dharani , "Decentralised Access Control with Aggregate Key Encryption For Data Stored In Cloud", International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and  Communication Engineering , Vol.2, Special Issue 1, March 2014.

12.     V. Roberto, and M. Radko, "AGGREGATION WITH MULTI-ATTRIBUTES: A NEW PERSPECTIVE, 6th International Summer School on Aggregation Operators - AGOP 2011.

13.     T.Lakshmi Praveena, V.Ramachandran, and CH. Rupa, "Attribute based Multifactor Authentication for Cloud Applications", International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 80 – No 17, October 2013.

14.     B. John, J. Morrice, and W. Mullarkey, "A Multiple Attribute Utility Theory Approach to Ranking and Selection ", Management Science © 2001 INFORMS Vol. 47, No. 6, pp. 800–816, June 2001.

15.     P. Ricardo and R. Rita , " Aggregation with generalized mixture operators using weighting functions ", Fuzzy Sets and Systems 137, 43-58, 2003.





Meshack Oduor Otieno, Charles K. Kabubo, Zachary Abiero Gariy

Paper Title:

A Study of Uncalcined Termite Clay Soil as Partial Replacement in Cement as a Sustainable Material for Roofing Tiles in Low Cost Housing Schemes in Kenya

Abstract:   The need for adequate roofing in developing countries is a vital problem for so many people. The solution of this problem is often linked to the import of iron sheets. The increasing economic burden that many less developed countries have to carry makes it harder to meet vital needs, such as roofing, by means of import. The efforts to find appropriate solutions based on locally available raw materials have thus become more and more important. The cost of conventional materials is too high; a considerable amount of this cost is due to the price of energy for manufacturing and to transportation costs, some materials such as cement poses adverse environmental effect. There is need therefore to provide alternative materials that are locally available, materials that can reverse the adverse environmental effect caused by excessive use of Portland cement and finally, materials that have small energy demand. The overall objective of this research was to assess the suitability of uncalcined termite clay powder partial replacement in cement for use in roofing tile for housing. For this termite clay powder replacement levels of 0 %, 10 %, 20%, 30% and 40% by weight of Ordinary Portland Cement was carried out to determine setting times, compressive strength, flexural strength and absorption rate. The chemical analysis of uncalcined termite clay soil  obtained from Bondo district, Usigu sub location, Nduru village in Siaya County was found to be chemically suitable as pozzolanic material (SiO2+Al2O3+Fe2O3=93.053>70) required as stipulated by the ASTM C 618 standard. The optimal replacement level for termite clay soil  was determined to be 10%  replacement in cement achieving compressive strength of 44.9N/mm2, flexural strength of 6.5N/mm2 and absorption rate of 6.5. %.

 Roofing tiles, partial replacement, compressive strength, flexural strength, absorption rate.


1.        Alp, I, (2009), Pozzolanic characteristics of a natural  raw material for use in blended cements; Iranian journal of science & technology, transaction B, engineering, Vol 33, No B4, pp 291-300, printed in the Islamic Republic of Iran
2.        Alex K, (2003); An Introduction to green building AIA; RMI Solutions.

3.        Anigbogu NA (2011); Framework for efficient development and application of pozzolan cement in Nigeria: Proceeding of NBRRI stakeholders’ forum,

4.        Gerald A,.(2013);  Business daily, and page 16-17, September, 13th

5.        EAS 148-5:2000; Cement- Test methods- East African Standard.

6.        Eric OA, (2014), Influence of calcined clay pozzolana on strength characteristics of Portland cement concrete; International journal of materials science and applications, 3(6): 410-419.

7.        ESCAP, RILEM and CIB, (1987), .Building materials for low-income housing, Asia and Pacific Region, Proceedings of Symposium held at the United Nations Building in Bangkok, Thailand.

8.        Eugene A , (2014), Influence of mineral admixtures on essential properties of ternary cement blends; Journal of civil engineering and architecture, Vol 8, No.10 pp.1221-1225.

9.        Gahlot PS and Deep G (2009); Quality management of cement concrete construction. Published by CBS Publishers & Distribu-tors Pvt. Ltd.

10.     Improve Net, (1999-2013).

11.     Jain D and Kothari A, (2012), Hair fibre reinforced concrete; Research journal of recent sciences, Vol.1 (ISC-2011), 128-133.

12.     James SA et al (2014), Comparative study of chemically and mechanically activated clay pozzolana, Materials sciences and applications, 2014, 5, 86-94.

13.     Jouquet P, et al (2004), the soil stability of termite nests: role of clays in Macrotermes bellicosus (Isoptera, Macrotermitinae) mound soils; European journal of soil biology 40 (2004) 23-29.

14.     Oyawa WO (2009), Sustainable Construction: Concepts, Materials and Techniques, FORSMAT, first edition, Pg 276-280.

15.     Raheem AA, (2012), Organization, technology and management in construction, an international journal. 4(2) 2012.

16.     Manasseh J,(2010), A review of partial replacement of cement with some Agro wastes; Nigerian journal of technology, Vol 29, No 2

17.     Mijinyawa Y et al (2007) Termite mound clay as a material for Grain silo construction. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR E journal manuscript BC 07 002. Vol IX.

18.     Murdock LJ, (1991); Concrete, Materials and Practice 6th edition, published by Edward Arnold.

19.     Neville AM (1996), Properties of concrete; 4th and final edition.

20.     Neville AM and Brooks JJ (1990), Concrete Technology, Published by ELBS.

21.     Neville AM and Brooks JJ, (1987); Concrete Technology, published by Longman scientific & technical. Co-published in the United States with John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York.

22.     KS 02-444: 1984,. Specification for concrete roofing tiles.

23.     The ABC’s of affordable housing in Kenya by Aden Van Noppen, acumen FUND.

24.     Ulger Bulut, (2009), Use of perlite as a Pozzolanic addition in lime mortars; Gazi university journal of science GUJ Sci 23(3):305-313

25.     Yilmaz K, (2010), A study on the effect of fly ash and silica fume substituted cement paste and mortars; Scientific research and essays Vol.5(9), pp 990-998.





M. A. Sattar, M. Mozibur Rahman, M. K. R. Khan, M. G. M. Choudhury

Paper Title:

Electrical Characterization of Spray Deposited CoS Thin Films

Abstract:  Cobalt sulfide thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis method on a glass substrate at constant substrate temperature 300°C.Structural, electrical and optical properties have been investigated. From XRD spectrogram, it is clear that the films are crystalline in nature with hexagonal structure having lattice constants, a=b=3.314 Å and c=4.604 Å. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that Cobalt sulfide film exhibited more or less uniform and smooth surface morphology. Hall measurements indicate n-type semiconducting nature with carrier concentration ~1015 cm-3. The resistivity gradually decreases with increasing temperature which indicates the semiconducting nature of the material. The conductivity increases slowly with increasing the temperature and reaches maximum at the higher temperature. Activation energy is comparatively high (  KT) and the values vary from 0.19 eV to 0.38 eV in the low temperature region and 0.42 eV to 0.54 eV in the high temperature region, respectively.

 Spray pyrolysis; CoS; XRD; SEM, Electrical properties and Activation energy


1.        Zhenrui Yu, Jinhui Du, Shuhua Guo, Jiayon Zhang, Yasuhico Matsumoto Thin Solid Films, vol.415 (2002).P.173
2.        K.L.Chopra and Major D.K. Sand Payday, Thin Solid Films, 102,187(1983).

3.        R. Ortega Borges, D. Lincot, J. Electrochem.Sol.140 (1994)3464

4.        P.K Basu, P.Pramanik,Mater,Sci. Lett.5(1986)1216

5.        P.K.Nair,M.T.S  Nair.O.Gomezdaza, R.A Zingaro. J Electrochem.Sol

6.        Mott N.F and Davis E A. Electronic process in noncrystalline materials.Clarendon press, Oxford (1979).

7.        Damodara Das V and Balmlayan C .Jpn J Appi phys ,34.534 (1995).

8.        M.K.R. Khan, M.Mozibur Rahman, Y. Zaman, M.G.M. Choudhury and M.O. Hakim. Vol.31 (2003),ISSN 1681-07

9.        Ramasamy, K. , Malik, M.A. and O’ Brien, P. “Single-molecule precursor  approaches to cobalt sulfide nanostructures”,Phil.Trans.R.Soc. A (2010) 368, 4249-4260 (dol:10.1098/rsta.2010.0125)

10.     Rao, C.N.R and Pishardy, K.P.R.1976 Transition metel sulfides.Prog. solid state chem.10, 207-270.(dol:10.1016/0076-6786(76) 90009-1)

11.     Peng-Fei Yin,Li-Li Sun,You-Lu Gao and Sheng-Yue wang “preparation and Characterization of Co9S8 nanocrystalline and nanorods”Bull.mater.Sci.Vol.31,No.4,August 2008, pp 593-596.(indian Academi of sciences)





Md. Jafri Ahsan, R. K. Issac, Mohd. Imtiyaz

Paper Title:

Assessment for Runoff of Upper Betwa Basin by using SWAT Model

Abstract:   A distributed parameter model, AVSWAT (Arc View soil and water Assessment Tool) was calibrated and validated on monthly basis for the upper Betwa Basin. India extraction of river basin characteristics like land use/ land cover, soil map, digital  elevation model (DEM), drainage information of the study area using remote sensing, GIS  and  collateral data. The main objective was to validate the performance of SWAT and the feasibility of using the model as a simulator of runoff  processes at a catchment area Berasia, Bhopal, Raisen and Vidisha of upper Betwa basin. All  hydrological and meterological data, were collected from Indian water  portal.  Land use map of the area were collected from National  Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur, Monthly surface runoff for the monsoon months (1993-2002) were collected for Berasia, Bhopal, Raisen and Vidisha. The model was calibrated and validated  for the monsoon  seasons of 1993-99 and 2000-02  respectively. The performance of the model was evaluated using statistical and graphical methods to decide the capability of the model simulating the runoff of upper Betwa basin. The calibration period reported coefficient of determination R2 of Berasia, Bhopal, Raisen and Vidisha are 0.97, 0.96, 0.94 and 0.98 respectively. The relative error was obtained as 6.68, 8.00, 10.17 and 15.97 respectively. The value of Nash Sutcliffe model efficiency obtained was 0.98, 0.97, 0.99 and 0.93 of Berasia, Bhopal, Raisen and Vidisha respectively. The validation period reported R2 of 0.98, 0.97, 0.95 and 0.76 of Berasia, Bhopal, Raisen and Vidisha respectively. The relative error are 6.77, 10.61, 7.91 and 10.56 respectively. The value of Nash Sutcliffe model efficiency obtained was 0.99, 0.99, 0.95 and 0.99 of Berasia, Bhopal, Raisen and Vidisha for monthly observed and simulated runoff. Calibration and validation results revealed that model was/ predicting total surface runoff, at Berasia, Bhopal, Raisen and Vidisha of Upper Betwa Basin accurately. The calibrated and validated model will be used for both long – term and storm event water quantity and quality evaluations throughout the basin.

 AVSWATX, land use / land cover, runoff, calibration, validation, Image processing, Remote Sensing and GIS


1.        Arnold, J. G., Williams, J. R., Nick, A.D., Sammons, N.B., (1998). SWRRB: A basin scale simulation model for soil and water resources management. Texas A and M University press, College Station, TX, pp 125.
2.        Herbst, M., Hardelauf, H., Harms, R., Vanderborght, J., and Vereecken, H. (2005b) “Pesticide fate at regional scale: Development

3.        of an integrated model approach and application”, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 30(8–10): 542–549.

4.        Jasrotia, A.S, Dhiman S. D and Aggarwal S. P.. (2002). Rainfall- Runoff and Soil Erosion Modeling using Remote Sensing and GIS technique- A case study of Tons
watershed. Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing. 30(3): pp 167-179.

5.        Jha, M., Pan Z., Takle E. S., and Gu R.. (2004) Impacts of climate change on stream flow in   the Upper Mississippi river Basin: a regional climate model perspective. J. Geophysical research 109: D09105.

6.        Kaur R., Srinivasan R., Mishra K.  Dutta D. Prasad D. And Bansal G. (2003) Assessment of a SWAT model for soil and water management in India. Land use and water Resource Research 3: 1-7.

7.        Kim Nam Won , Lee Jeong Eun, and Kim Ji Tae (2011)  Assessment of Flow Regulation Effects by Dams in the Han River, Korea on the Downstream Flow Regimes Using SWAT Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 10.1061/ (ASCE) WR.1943-5452.

8.        Mekonnen Muluneh A, Wörman Anders, Dargahi Bijan, Gebeyehu  Admasu (2009) Hydrological modelling of Ethiopian catchments using limited data. Hydrological Processes  Vol.3408, 3401- 3408.

9.        Moriasi, Daniel and Starks (2010) Patrick effects of the resolution of soil dataset and precipitation dataset on SWAT2005 streamflow calibration parameters and simulation accuracy. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Society. 65(2):63-78.

10.     Mukundan R., Radcliffe D.E. and Risse L. M. (2010) Spatial resolution of soil data and channel erosion effects on SWAT model

11.     predictions of flow and sediment. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation vol. 65 no. 2 92-104.

12.     Naef F. Scherrer S. and Weiler M. (2002) a process based assessment of the potential to reduce flood runoff by land sue change. J. Hydrol 267: 74-79.

13.     Narayana V. V. D. (1993) Soil and water conservation research in India. Indian council of agricultural research, Krishi Anusandhan Bhawan, Pusa, Neew Delhi, pp. 146-151.

14.     Shimelis G. Setegn, Ragahavan Srinivasan and Bijan Dargahi (2008) Hydrological Modelling in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia Using SWAT Model. The Open Hydrology Journal, 2, 49-62

15.     Singh G., Babu R., Narayan P. Bhusan L. P. and Abrol I. P. (1992) Soil erosion rate  Indian Soil and Water Cons 47 (1): 97-99.

16.     Spruill, C. A., Workman S.R. and Taraba J.L. (2009) Simulation of daily and monthly stream discharge from small watersheds using the SWAT model. Trans. ASAE 43(6): 1431-1439.

17.     Tripathi, M. P., Panda R. K., and Raghuwanshi N. S., (2003) Identification and prioritization of critical sub watershed for soil conservation management using the SWAT Model. Biosystem Engineering 85 (3): 365-379.

18.     Tuppad P., Douglas-Mankin K. R., Koelliker J. K., Shawn J. M.

19.     and Hutchinson (2010)  SWAT Discharge Response to Spatial Rainfall Variability in a Kansas Watershed. Transactions of the ASABE. 53(1): 65-74.

20.     Xu Z. X., Pang J. P., Liu C. M. and Li J. Y. (2009) Assessment of runoff and sediment yield in the Miyun Reservoir catchment by using SWAT model. Hydrological Processes Volume 23, 25, 3619–3630.





Palanisamy R, Shaurya Misra, Deepak Kulhar

Paper Title:

SVPWM based Transformer less Wind Energy Conversion System for 3 phase 3 level Neutral Point Clamped Inverter

Abstract:   The Multilevel inverters are highly being used in high-power medium voltage applications due to their better performance compared to two-level inverters. Among various types of multilevel inverters, neutral point clamped three-level inverter (NPCTLI) is suitable for a Transformerless grid-connected wind energy conversion system. As it avoids leakage currents, common mode voltage and capacitor balancing problems. Split inductor is used to interconnect inverter with grid connected system which avoids the usage of transformer. While using split inductor neutral point clamped multilevel inverter, shoot-through problems are producing in the bridge legs of an NPC-TLI. Space Vector pulse width modulation Control (SVPWMC) offers an excellent current control and improved voltage performance to NPCTLI, which reduced amount of total harmonic distortion present in system. The proposed topology guarantees for no shoot-through possibility and capacitor balancing problem. The new topology is referred to as split-inductor NPCTLI (SI-NPCTLI). Finally, the simulation results of a proposed SI-NPCTLI system verified using MATLAB SIMULINK.

 Wind energy conversion system, PMSG, Space Vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM), Neutral point clamped three-level inverter (NPCTLI). 


1.        H. Berthold, M. Durstewitz and K. Rohrig, “Reliability of wind turbines,” Wind Energy, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2007, pp.  329-332.
2.        Z. Chen, J. M. Guerrero, and F. Blaabjerg, “A review of the state of the art of power electronics for wind turbines,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1859–1875, Aug. 2009.

3.        Benelghali, Seifeddine, M. E. H. Benbouzid, and Jean Frédéric Charpentier. "Comparison of PMSG and DFIG for marine current turbine applications."Electrical Machines (ICEM), 2010 XIX International Conference on. IEEE, 2010..

4.        Ning-Yi Dai,Man Chung Wong,Ying-Duo Han,”Application of a Three level NPC Inverter as a Three Phase Four Wire Power Quality Compensator by generalized 3DSVM”, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,VOL 21,NO 2,March 2006

5.        Lee, Meng Yeong. Three-level neutral-point-clamped matrix converter topology. Diss. University of Nottingham, 2009.

6.        M. Belfi, J. Sung, S. Bell and G. Skibinski, “Effect of surge voltage rise-time on the insulation of low voltage machines fed by PWM converters,” Proceedings of IEEE Industry Application Society Conference, pp. 239 – 246, Oct. 1997.

7.        D. Busse, J. Erdman, R. J. Kerkman, D. Schlegel and G. Skibinski, “System electrical parameters and their effects on bearing currents,” IEEE Transactions on  Industry Applications, vol. 33, No. 2, March/April 1997.

8.        T. Meynard and H. Foch, “Multi-level conversion: high voltage choppers andvoltage source inverters,” Proceedings of IEEE Power Electronic Specialist Conference, vol. 1, pp. 397 – 403, July 1992.

9.        Sriharirao Namballa &  T Vamsee Kiran”A Space Vector PWM Scheme for Neutral Point Clamped Multilevel Inverters” International Journal of Power System Operation and Energy Management ISSN (PRINT): 2231 – 4407, Volume-1, Issue-4, 2012

10.     R. latha, C. Bharatiraja, R. Palanisamy, sudeepbanerji, Subhransu Sekhar  Dash, Hysteresis Current Controller based Transformerless Split Inductor-NPC - MLI for Grid Connected PV- System, Procedia Engineering, Volume 64, 2013, Pages 224-233, ISSN 1877-7058, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.09.094.

11.     Blaabjerg, Frede, et al. "Overview of control and grid synchronization for distributed power generation systems." Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on 53.5 (2006): 1398-1409.

12.     Camara, M. S., et al. "Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators for offshore wind energy system linked to grid-modeling and control strategies." Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference and Exposition (PEMC), 2014 16th International. IEEE, 2014.

13.     Blaabjerg, Frede, et al. "Power electronics in wind turbine  systems." Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2006.           IPEMC 2006. CES/IEEE 5th International. Vol. 1. IEEE, 2006.
14.     Ma, Ke, Marco Liserre, and Frede Blaabjerg. "Comparison of multi-MW converters considering the determining factors in wind power application."Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2013 IEEE. IEEE, 2013.
15.     O. Lopez, R. Teodorescu, F. Freijedo, and J. Doval-Gandoy, ―Eliminating ground current in a transformerless photovoltaic application, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Gen. Meet., pp. 1–5, Jun. 2007,

16.     A. Nabea, I. Takahashi, and H. Akagi, ―A new neutral-point-clamped     PWM inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 518–523, Sep./Oct. 1981.

17.     C. Bharatiraja, S. Jeevananthan, R. Latha, FPGA based practical implementation of NPC-MLI with SVPWM for an autonomous operation PV system with capacitor balancing, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Volume 61, October 2014, Pages 489-509, ISSN 0142-0615, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.03.066.

18.     N. Celanovic and D. Boroyevich, “A comprehensive study of neutral point voltage balancing problem in three level neutral point clamped voltage source pwm inverters,” Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 15, pp. 242 – 249, March 2000.

19.     R. Kanchan, M. Baiju, K. Mohapatra, P. Ouseph, and K. Gopakumar, “Space vector pwm signal generation for multilevel inverters using only the sampled amplitudes of reference phase voltages,” IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., vol. 152, pp. 297 – 309, Mar. 2005.

20.     Gupta, Amit Kumar, and Ashwin M. Khambadkone. "A space vector PWM scheme for multilevel inverters based on two-level space vector PWM."Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on 53.5 (2006): 1631-1639.





Md Mamoon Rashid, Mohammed K. Al Mesfer, Hamid Naseem, Mohd Danish

Paper Title:

Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis: A Review of Alkaline Water Electrolysis, PEM Water Electrolysis and High Temperature Water Electrolysis

Abstract:   Water electrolysis is a quite old technology started around two centuries back, but promising technology for hydrogen production. This work reviewed the development, crisis and significance, past, present and future of the different water electrolysis techniques. In this work thermodynamics, energy requirement and efficiencies of electrolysis processes are reviewed. Alkaline water electrolysis, polymer electrolysis membrane (PEM) and High temperature electrolysis are reviewed and compared. Low share of water electrolysis for hydrogen production is due to cost ineffective, high maintenance, low durability and stability and low efficiency compare to other available technologies. Current technology and knowledge of water electrolysis are studied and reviewed for where the modifications and development required for hydrogen production. This review paper  analyzes the energy requirement, practical cell voltage, efficiency of process, temperature and pressure effects on potential kinetics of hydrogen production and effect of electrode materials on the conventional water electrolysis for  Alkaline electrolysis, PEM electrolysis and High Temperature Electrolysis.

 Hydrogen Production, Water electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electrode, Electrocatalyst, PEM.


1.        Ball M, Wietschel M. The future of hydrogen-opportunities and challenges. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2009; 34: 615–27.
2.        Holladay JD, King DL, Wang Y. An overview of hydrogen production technologies. Catalysis today 2009; 139: 244–60.

3.        Damyanova S, Pawelec B, Arishtirova K, Fierro JLG. Ni-based catalysts for reforming of methane with CO2.  International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2012; 37: 15966–75.

4.        Moriarty P, Honnery D. Hydrogen’s role in an uncertain energy future. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2009; 34: 31 - 9.

5.        Kelly NA, Gibson TL, Cai M, Spearot JA, Ouwerkerk DB. Development of a renewable hydrogen economy: optimization of existing technologies. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2010; 35: 892 - 99.

6.        Springer TE, Rockward T, Zawodzinski TA, Gottesfeld S.  Model for polymer electrolyte fuel cell operation on reformate feed effects of CO, H2 dilution, and high fuel utilization. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2001; 48: A11–23.

7.        Ralph RR, Hogarth MP. Catalysis for low temperature fuel cells. Platinum Metals Review 2002; 46: 117–35.

8.        Cheng  X, Shi Z, Glass N, Zhang L, Zhang J, Song D, et al. A review of PEM hydrogen fuel cell contamination: impacts, mechanisms, and mitigation. Journal of Power Sources 2007; 165: 739–56.

9.        Reshetenko TV, Bethune K, Rocheleau R. Spatial proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance under carbon monoxide poisoning at a low concentration using a segmented cell system. Journal of Power Sources 2012; 218: 412–23.

10.     Gosavi PV, Biniwale RB. Catalytic preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum supported on lanthanum ferrite-ceria catalysts for cleaning of hydrogen. Journal of Power Sources 2013; 222: 1–9.

11.     Liu M, Yu B, Xu J, Chen J. Thermodynamic analysis of the efficiency of high-temperature steam electrolysis system for hydrogen production. J Power Sources 2008; 177: 493 - 99.

12.     Wang M, Wang Z, Guo Z. Water electrolysis enhanced by super gravity field for hydrogen production. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2010; 35: 3198 – 205.

13.     Gonzales RB, Law VJ, Prindle JC. Analysis of the hybrid copper oxide-copper sulfate cycle for the thermochemical splitting of water for hydrogen production. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2009; 34: 4179 - 88.

14.     Clark CD, De Bruyn WJ, Jones JG. Photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide in size-fractionated Southern California coastal waters. Chemosphere 2009; 76: 141 - 46.

15.     Burgess G, Ferna´ndez-Velasco JG. Materials, operational energy inputs, and net energy ratio for photo biological hydrogen production. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2007; 32: 1225 - 234.

16.     Mingyong Wang, Zhi Wang, Xuzhong Gong, Zhancheng Guo. The intensification technologies to water electrolysis for hydrogen production – A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 2014; 29: 573–588.

17.     Leroy RL. Industrial water electrolysis-present and future. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 1983; 8: 401-17.

18.     T Smolinka, Water Electrolysis. Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg, Germany 2009: 394-413.

19.     Balat M. Potential important of hydrogen as a future solution to environ- mental and transportation problems. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33: 4013–29.

20.     Ni M, Leung MKH, Leung DYC. An electrochemical model of a solid oxide steam electrolyzer for hydrogen production.Chem Eng Technol 2006; 29: 636 - 42.

21.     Rosen MA. Energy and exergy analysis of electrolytic hydrogen production. Int J Hydrogen Energy 1995; 20: 547 - 53.

22.     Lutz AE, Bradshaw RW, Keller JO, Witmer DE. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen by steam reforming. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2003; 28: 159 - 67.

23.     Ni M, Leung MKH, Leung DYC. Energy and exergy analysis of hydrogen production by solid oxide steam electrolyzer plant. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2007; 32: 4648 - 60.

24.     Houcheng Zhang, Guoxing Lin, Jincan Chen. Evaluation and calculation on the efficiency of a water electrolysis system for hydrogen production. International journal of hydrogen energy 2010; 35:10851 – 858.

25.     B. Laoun. Thermodynamics aspect of high pressure hydrogen production by water electrolysis. Revue des Energies Renouvelables 2007; 10 N°3:  435 – 444.

26.     Marangio F. Theoretical model and experimental analysis of a high pressure PEM water electrolyser for hydrogen production. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2009; 34:
1143 - 85.

27.     Ni M, Leung MKH, Leung DYC. Energy and exergy analysis of hydrogen production by a proton exchanger membrance (PEM) electrolyzer plant. Energy Convers Manag 2008; 49: 2748 - 56.

28.     Martinez-Frias J, Pham AQ, Aceves SM. A natural gas assisted steam electrolyzer for high-efficiency production of hydrogen. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2003; 28: 483 - 90.

29.     Balta MT, Dincer I, Hepbasli A. Thermodynamic assessment of geothermal energy use in hydrogen production. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2009; 34: 2925 - 39.

30.     Shin Y, Park W, Chang J, and Park J. Evaluation of the high temperature electrolysis of steam to produce hydrogen. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2007; 32: 1486 - 91.

31.     Yildiz B, Kazimi MS. Efficiency of hydrogen production system using alternative nuclear energy technologies. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2006; 31: 77 - 92.

32.     Fujiwara S, Kasai S, Yamauchi H, Yamada K, Makino S, Matsunaga K, et al. Hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis with nuclear reactor. Progress Nucl Energy 2008; 50: 422 - 26.

33.     Rosen MA. Exergy analysis of hydrogen production by thermochemical water decomposition using the Ispra Mark- 10 cycle. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33: 6921 - 33.

34.     Williams JH, DeBenedictis A, Ghanadan R, Mahone A, Moore J, Morrow III WR, et al. The technology path to deep greenhouse gas emissions cuts by 2050: the pivotal role of electricity. Science 2012; 335: 53 - 59.

35.     Santos DMF, Sequeira CAC, Maccio` D, Saccone A, Figueiredo JL. Platinum-rare earth electrodes for hydrogen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis. Int J
ydrogen Energy 2013; 2: 3137 - 45.

36.     Ishida T, Haruta M. Gold catalysts: towards sustainable chemistry. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2007; 46: 7154 - 56.

A.       Manabe, M. Kashiwase, T. Hashimoto, T. Hayashida, A. Kato, K. Hirao, I. Shimomura, I. Nagashima. Basic study of alkaline water electrolysis. Electrochimica Acta 2013; 100: 249– 256.

37.     Marcelo Carmo, David L. Fritz, Ju¨rgen Mergel, Detlef Stolten.  A comprehensive review on PEM water electrolysis. International journal of hydrogen energy
2031; 38:  4901 - 934.

38.     Pool DH, Stewart MP, O'Hagan M, Shaw WJ, Roberts JAS, and Bullock RM, etal. Acidic ionic liquid/water solution a both medium and proton source for
electrocatalytic H2 evolution by [Ni(P2N2)2]2þ complexes . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2012; 109:15634–39.

39.     Souza RF, Padilha JC, Goncalves RS, Souza MO, Rault–Berthelot J. Electrochemical hydrogen production from water electrolysis using ionic liquid as electrolytes: towards the best device. Journal of Power Sources 2007; 164: 792–98.

40.     Souza RF, Loget G, Padilha JC, Martini EMA, Souza MO. Molybdenum electrodes for hydrogen production by water electrolysis using ionic liquid electrolytes. Electrochemistry Communications 2008; 10: 1673–75.

41.     Kaninski MPM, Saponjic DP, Nikolic VM, Zugic DL, Tasic GS. Energy consumption and stability of the Ni-Moelectrodes for the alkaline hydrogen production at industrial conditions. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2011; 36: 8864–68.

42.     Maksic AD, Miulovic SM, Nikolic VM, PerovicI M, Kaninski MPM. Energy consumption of the electrolytic hydrogen production using Ni–W based activators – PartI. Applied catalysis A: General 2011; 405: 25–28.

43.     Nikolic VM, Tasic GS, Maksic AD, Saponjic DP, Miulovic SM, Kaninski MPM. Raising efficiency of hydrogen generation from alkaline water electrolysis – energy saving. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2010; 35: 12369–73.

44.     Stojic D, Marceta MP, Sovilj SP, Miljanic ŠS. Hydrogen generation from water electrolysis-possibilities of energy saving. Journal of Power Sources 2003; 118(1-2): 315–19.

45.     Tasic GS, Maslovara SP, Zugic DL, Maksic AD. Characterization of the Ni–Mo catalyst formed in situ during hydrogen generation from alkaline water electrolysis. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2011; 36: 11588–95.

46.     Wei ZD, Ji MB, Chen SG, Liu Y, Sun CX, Yin GZ, etal. Water electrolysis on carbon electrodes enhanced by surfactant. Electrochimica Acta 2007; 52: 3323–29.

47.     Rossi A, Boodts JFC. Ir-based oxide electrodes: oxygen evolution reaction from mixed solvent. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 2002; 32: 735–41.

48.     Michaud PA, Panizza M, Ouattara L, Diaco T, Foti G, Comninellis C. Electro- chemical oxidation of water on synthetic boron-doped diamond thin alloy anodes. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 2003; 33: 151–54.

49.     Romdhane Ben Slama.  Production of Hydrogen by Electrolysis of Water:  Effects of the Electrolyte Type on the Electrolysis Performances. Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 2013; 2: 54-58.

50.     Fujishima A, Honda K. Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode. Nature 1972; 238: 37.

51.     Licht S, Wang B, Mukerji S, Soga T, Umeno M, Tributsch H. Over 18% solar energy conversion to generation of hydrogen fuel; theory and experiment for efficient solar water splitting. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2001; 26: 653–59.

52.     Gibson TL, Kelly NA. Optimization of solar powered hydrogen production using photovoltaic electrolysis devices. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33: 5931–40.

53.     Russell JH, Nuttall LJ, Fickett AP. Hydrogen generation by solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis. American Chemical Society Division of Fuel Chemistry
Preprints 1973; 18(3): 24-40.

54.     Grubb WT. Ionic migration in ion-exchange membranes. Journal of Physical Chemistry 1959; 63 (1): 55 - 67.

55.     Grubb WT. Batteries with solid ion exchange electrolytes I. secondary cells employing metal electrodes. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1959; 106 (4): 275 - 78.

56.     H. Takenaka, Development Trends of Hydrogen Production Technology by Water Electrolysis, Journal of the Fuel Society of Japan 1991; 70: 487.

57.     H. Micishita, H. Matsumoto, T. Ishihara, Effects of Pressure on the Performance of Water Electrolysis of the Cell Using Nafion Membrane Electrode, Electrochemistry  2008; 76: 288.

58.     S.A. Grigoriev, V.I. Porembsky, V.N. Fateev, Pure hydrogen production by PEM electrolysis for hydrogen production, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2006; 31(2): 171-175.

59.     F. Barbir, PEM electrolysis for production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources, Solar Energy; 2005; 78(5): 661 - 669.

60.     V.N. Fateev, O.V. Archakov, E.K. Lyutikova, L.N. Kulikova, V.I. Porembsky, Electrolysis of water in systems with solid polymer electrolyte, Russian Journal of
Electrochemistry 1993; 29(4): 551-557.

61.     C.A. Linkous, H.R. Anderson, R.W. Kopitzke, G.L. Nelson, Development of new proton exchange membrane electrolytes for water electrolysis at higher temperatures, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 1998; 23(7): 525-529.

62.     R. Garca-Valverde, C. Miguel, R. Martnez-Bjar, A. Urbina. Optimized photovoltaic generator–water electrolyser coupling through a controlled DC–DC converter Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 2008; 33: 5352 - 62

63.     Huaneng Su, Bernard Jan Bladergroen, Sivakumar Pasupathi, Vladimir Linkov, Shan Ji*.  Performance Investigation of Membrane Electrode Assemblies   for Hydrogen Production by Solid Polymer Electrolyte Water Electrolysis.  Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 2012; 7: 4223 – 34.

A.       T. Marshall, S. Sunde, M. Tsypkin and R. Tunold. Performance of a PEM water electrolyte cell using IrxRuyTazO2 electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution electrode. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2007; 32: 2320-24.

64.     Marshall A, Borresen B, Hagen G, Tsypkin M, Tunold R. Electrochemical characterisation of IrxSn1-xO2 powders as oxygen evolution electrocatalysts. Electrochimica Acta Apr 2006; 51(15): 3161 - 67.

A.       Marshall, B. Børresen, Hagen, S. Sunde, M. Tsypkin and R. Tunold, Russ. Iridium oxide based nanocrystalline particles as oxygen evolution electrocatalyst. J. Electrochem. 2006; 42: 1134-40.

65.     Siracusano S, Baglio V, Stassi A, Ornelas R, Antonucci V, Arico` AS. Investigation of IrO2 electrocatalysts prepared by a sulfite-couplex route for the O2 evolution
eaction in solid polymer electrolyte water electrolyzers. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2011; 36(13): 7822 - 31.

66.     Cruz JC, Baglio V, Siracusano S, Ornelas R, Ortiz-Frade L, Arriaga LG, et al. Nanosized IrO2 electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction in an SPE electrolyzers. Journal of Nanoparticle Research Apr 2011; 13(4): 1639 - 46.

67.     Siracusano S, Baglio V, Di Blasi A, Briguglio N, Stassi A, Ornelas R, et al. Electrochemical characterization of single cell and short stack PEM electrolyzers based on a nanosized IrO2 anode electrocatalyst. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2010; 35(11): 5558 - 68.

68.     Y. J. Zhang, C. Wang, N. F. Wan, Z. X. Liu and Z. Q. Mao. Study of a novel manufacturing process of membrane electrode assemblies for solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis.  Electrochem. Commun.2007; 9: 667-70.

69.     L. Ma, S. Sui and Y. Zhai. Investigation of high performance proton exchange membrane water electrolyzer.Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 34 (2009) 678.

70.     J. Xu, R. Miao, T. Zhao, J. Wu and X. Wang. A novel catalyst layer with hydrophilic-hydrophobic meshwork and pore structure for solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis. Electrochemistry Communication. 2011; 13: 437-39.

71.     Guoqiang Wei, Li Xua,  Chengde Huang, Yuxin Wanga,. SPE water electrolysis with SPEEK/PES blend membrane. International journal of hydrogen energy 2010;
35: 7778- 83.

72.     Burke LD, Moynihan A. Oxygen electrode reaction. part 1. Nature of inhibition process. Transactions of the Faraday Society 1971; 67(588): 3550 - 57.

73.     Burke LD, Omeara TO. Oxygen electrode-reaction part 2. Behavior at ruthenium black electrodes. Journal of the Chemical Society-Faraday Transactions I 1972; 68: 839 - 48.

74.     Burke LD, Omeara TO, Mccarthy F. Oxygen electrode part 3. Inhibition of oxygen evolution reaction. Journal of the Chemical Society-Faraday Transactions I 1972; 68: 1086 - 92.

75.     Buckley DN, Burke LD. Oxygen electrode part 4. Lowering of overvoltage for oxygen evolution at noble-metal electrodes in presence of ruthenium salts. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1974; 52(3): 433 - 42.

76.     Buckley DN, Burke LD. Oxygen electrode part 5. Enhancement of charge capacity of an iridium surface in anodic region. Journal of the Chemical Society-Faraday Transactions I 1975; 71(7): 1447 - 59.

77.     Buckley DN, Burke LD. Oxygen-electrode part 6. Oxygen evolution and corrosion at iridium anodes. Journal of the Chemical Society-Faraday Transactions I 1976; 72: 2431 - 40.

78.     Buckley DN, Burke LD, Mulcahy JK. Oxygen-electrode part 7. Influence of some electrical and electrolyte variables on charge capacity of iridium in anodic region. Journal of the Chemical Society-Faraday Transactions I 1976; 72: 1896 - 902.

79.     Burke LD, Murphy OJ, Oneill JF, Venkatesan S. Oxygenelectrode part 8. Oxygen evolution at ruthenium dioxide anodes. Journal of the Chemical Society-Faraday Transactions I 1977; 73: 1659 - 71.

80.     Furuya N, Motoo S. Electrochemical behavior of ad-atoms and their effect on hydrogen evolution: part I order-disorder rearrangement of copper ad-atoms on platinum. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1976; 72(2): 165- 75.

81.     Furuya N, Motoo S. Electrochemical behavior of ad-atoms and their effect on hydrogen evolution: part II arsenic ad atoms on platinum. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1977; 78(2): 243- 56.

82.     Furuya N, Motoo S. Electrochemical behavior of ad-atoms and their effect on hydrogen evolution: part III. Platinum ad-atoms on gold and gold ad-atoms on platinum. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1978; 88(2): 151- 60.

83.     Furuya N, Motoo S. Electrochemical behavior of ad-atoms and their effect on hydrogen evolution: part IV. Tin and lead ad-atoms on platinum. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1979a; 98(2): 195- 202.

84.     Furuya N, Motoo S. Electrochemical behavior of ad-atoms and their effect on hydrogen evolution: part V. Selenium ad atoms on gold. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1979b; 102(2): 155- 63.

85.     Furuya N, Motoo S. Electrochemical behavior of ad-atoms and their effect on hydrogen evolution: part VI. Germanium ad-atoms on platinum. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1979; 99(1):19 - 28.

86.     Miles MH, Thomason MA. Periodic variations of overvoltages for water electrolysis in acid solutions from cyclic voltammetric studies. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1976; 123(10): 1459 - 61.

87.     Miles MH, Klaus EA, Gunn BP, Locker JR, Serafin WE. Oxygen evolution reaction on platinum, iridium, ruthenium and their alloys at 80-degrees-C in acid-solutions. Electrochimica Acta 1978; 23(6): 521 - 6.

88.     Paunovic P, Gogovska DS, Popovski O, Stoyanova A, Slavcheva E, Lefterova E, et al. Preparation and characterization of Co-Ru/TiO2/MWCNTs electrocatalysts in PEM hydrogen electrolyzer. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Aug 2011; 36(16): 9405 - 14.

89.     Iwakura C, Hirao K, Tamura H. Anodic evolution of oxygen on ruthenium in acidic solutions. Electrochimica Acta 1977; 22(4): 329 -34.

90.     Weininger JL, Russell RR. Corrosion of ruthenium oxide catalyst at anode of a solid polymer electrolyte cell. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1978; 125(9): 1482- 86.

91.     Ko¨ tz R, Stucki S. Stabilization of RuO2 by IrO2 for anodic oxygen evolution in acid-media. Electrochimica Acta 1986; 31(10): 1311 - 16.

92.     De Pauli CP, Trasatti S. Electrochemical surface characterization of IrO2þSnO2 mixed-oxide electrocatalysts. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1995; 396(1 - 2): 161 - 68.

93.     De Pauli CP, Trasatti S. Composite materials for electrocatalysis of O2 evolution: IrO2 þ SnO2 in acid solution. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2002; 538: 145 - 51.

94.     Morimitsu M, Otogawa R, Matsunaga M. Effects of cathodizing on the morphology and composition IrO2-Ta2O5/Ti anodes. Electrochimica Acta 2000; 46(2-3): 401 - 06.

95.     Hu JM, Meng HM, Zhang JQ, Cao CN. Degradation mechanism of long service life Ti/IrO2 -Ta2O5 oxide anodes in sulphuric acid. Corrosion Science 2002; 44(8): 1655-68.

96.     Terezo AJ, Bisquert J, Pereira EC, Garcia-Belmonte G. Separation of transport, charge storage and reaction processes of porous electrocatalytic IrO2 and IrO2/Nb2O5 electrodes. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2001; 508(1-2):59 - 69.

97.     Chen GH, Chen XM, Yue PL. Electrochemical behavior of novel Ti/IrOx-Sb2O5-SnO2 anodes. Journal of Physical Chemistry 2002; 106(17): 4364 - 69.

98.     Ardizzone S, Bianchi CL, Cappelletti G, Ionita M, Minguzzi A, Rondinini S, et al. Composite ternary SnO2/IrO2/Ta2O5 oxide electrocatalysts. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2006; 589(1): 160 - 66.

99.     de Oliveira-Sousa A, da Silva MAS, Machado SAS, Avaca LA, de Lima-Neto P. Influence of the preparation method on the morphological and electrochemical properties of Ti/IrO2-coated electrodes. Electrochimica Acta 2000; 45(27): 4467 - 73.

100.  Polonsky J, Petrushina IM, Christensen E, Bouzek K, Prag CB, Andersen JET, et al. Tantalum carbide as a novel support material for anode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Feb 2012; 37(3): 2173 - 81.

101.  Wu X, Scott K. RuO2 supported on Sb-doped SnO2 nanoparticles for polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2011; 36(10): 5806 - 10.

102.  Grahl-Madsen L. Primolyzer. In: Symposium e water electrolysis and hydrogen as a part of the future renewable energy system; 2012. Copenhagen, Denmark.

103.  Marshall A, Borresen B, Hagen G, Tsypkin M, Tunold R. Preparation and characterisation of nanocrystalline IrxSn1-xO2 electrocatalytic powders. Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2005; 94(2-3): 226 - 32.

104.  Hinnemann B, Moses PG, Bonde J, Jorgensen KP, Nielsen JH, Horch S, et al. Biornimetic hydrogen evolution: MoS2 nanoparticles as catalyst for hydrogen evolution. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2005; 127(15): 5308- 89.

105.  Li YG, Wang HL, Xie LM, Liang YY, Hong GS, Dai HJ. MoS2 nanoparticles grown on graphene: an advanced catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2011; 133(19): 7296- 99

106.  Phuruangrat A, Ham DJ, Thongtem S, Lee JS. Electrochemical hydrogen evolution over MoO3 nanowires produced by microwave-assisted hydrothermal reaction. Electrochemistry Communications. 2009; 11(9): 1740 - 43.

107.  Selvan RK, Gedanken A. The sonochemical synthesis and characterization of Cu1-x NixWO4 nanoparticles/nanorods and their application in electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Nanotechnology 2009; 20(10): 17.

108.  Xu WL, Liu CP, Xing W, Lu TH. A novel hybrid based on carbon nanotubes and heteropolyanions as effective catalyst for hydrogen evolution. Electrochemistry Communications. 2007; 9(1): 180- 84.

109.  Rajeswari J, Kishore PS, Viswanathan B, Varadarajan TK. Facile hydrogen evolution reaction on WO3 nanorods. Nanoscale Research Letters 2007; 2(10): 496 - 503.

110.  Zheng HT, Mathe M. Hydrogen evolution reaction on single crystal WO3/C nanoparticles supported on carbon in acid and alkaline solution. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2011; 36(3): 1960 - 64.

111.  Pantani O, Anxolabehere-Mallart E, Aukauloo A, Millet P. Electroactivity of cobalt and nickel glyoximes with regard to the electro-reduction of protons into molecular hydrogen in acidic media. Electrochemistry Communications 2007; 9(1): 54 - 58.

112.  Millet P, Dragoe D, Grigoriev S, Fateev V, Etievant C. GenHyPEM: a research program on PEM water electrolysis supported by the European commission. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2009; 34(11): 4974 - 82.

113.  Grigoriev SA, Millet P, Fateev VN. Evaluation of carbon supported Pt and Pd nanoparticles for the hydrogen evolution reaction in PEM water electrolysers. Journal of Power Sources 2008; 177(2): 281- 85.

114.  Grigoriev SA, Mamat MS, Dzhus KA, Walker GS, Millet P. Platinum and palladium nano-particles supported by graphitic nano-fibers as catalysts for PEM water electrolysis. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2011; 36(6): 4143-    37.

115.  Raoof JB, Ojani R, Esfeden SA, Nadimi SR. Fabrication of bimetallic Cu/Pt nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode and its catalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution reaction. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2010; 35(9): 3937 - 44.

116.  Vielstich W, Lamm A, Gasteiger HA. Handbook of fuel cells: fundamentals, technology, and applications. Chichester, England; New York: Wiley; 2003.

117.  Debe MK, Hendricks SM, Vernstrom GD, Meyers M, Brostrom M, Stephens M, et al. Initial performance and durability of ultra-low loaded NSTF electrodes for PEM electrolyzers. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2012; 159(6): K165 - 76.

118.  Alayoglu S, Nilekar AU, Mavrikakis M, Eichhorn B. Ru-Pt coreshell nanoparticles for preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen. Nature Materials 2008; 7(4): 333-38.

119.  Strasser P, Koh S, Anniyev T, Greeley J, More K, Yu CF, et al. Lattice-strain control of the activity in dealloyed core-shell fuel cell catalysts. Nature Chemistry 2010; 2(6): 454 - 60.

120.  Carmo M, Sekol RC, Ding SY, Kumar G, Schroers J, Taylor AD. Bulk metallic glass nanowire architecture for electrochemical applications. ACS Nano 2011; 5(4): 2979 - 83.

121.  Mukherjee S, Carmo M, Kumar G, Sekol RC, Taylor AD, Schroers J. Palladium nanostructures from multicomponent metallic glass. Electrochimica Acta 2012; 74(0): 145 -50.

122.  Kumar G, Desai A, Schroers J. Bulk metallic glass: the smaller the better. Advanced Materials. 2011; 23(4): 461 - 76.

123.  Schroers J. Processing of bulk metallic glass. Advanced Materials 2010; 22(14): 1566 - 97.

124.  Jason C. Ganley. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis.  International journal of hydrogen energy 2009; 34: 3604 – 3611.

125.  Devin Todd, Maximilian Schwager, Walter Merida. Thermodynamics of high-temperature, high-pressure water. Journal of Power Sources 2014; 269: 424 - 29.

126.  Bockris JOM, Conway BE, Yeager E and White RE, Comprehensive Treatise of Electrochemistry. New York: Plenum Press, 1981.

127.  J. Udagawa, P. Aguiar and N. P. Brandon. Hydrogen production through steam electrolysis: Model-based steady state performance of a cathode-supported intermediate temperature solid oxide electrolysis cell.  J. Power Sources 2007; 166: 127-136.

128.  L. Mingyi, Y. Bo, X. Jingming and C. Jing. Thermodynamics analysis of the efficiency of high-temperature steam electrolysis system for hydrogen production.  J. Power Sources. 2008; 177: 493-499.

129.  Ø. Ulleberg. Modeling of advance alkaline electrolyzers: a system simulation approach. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2003; 28: 21-23.

130.  A. J. Appleby, G. Crepy and J. Jacquelin. High efficiency water electrolysis in alkaline solution. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 1978; 3: 21-37.

131.  R.L. LeRoy and C.T. Bowen, ‘The Thermodynamics of Aqueous Water Electrolysis’, J. Electrochem. Soc, 1980; 127: 1954 - 1962.

132.  Kazuo Onda, Takahiro Kyakuno, Kikuo Hattori and Kohei Ito, ‘Prediction of Production Power for High-Pressure Hydrogen by High-Pressure Water Electrolysis’, Journal of Power Sources 2004; 132: 64 -70.

133.  Harrison K. and Levine J.I. ‘Electrolysis of water’, Chapter 3 in Solar Hydrogen Generation: Toward a Renewable Energy Future , Edited by Rajeshwar, R. McConnell, S. Licht K., Springer Science, New York, NY  2008.

134.  Joshi A.S., Dincer I. and Reddy B.V. Exergetic assessment of solar hydrogen production methods’, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2010;  35:  4901–4908.

135.  Padin J., Veziroglu T.N. and Shahin A. ‘Hybrid solar high-temperature hydrogen production system’, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2000; 25:  295–317.

136.  Kelly N.A. and Girdwod R ‘Evaluation of a thermally-powered metal hydride-based hydrogen compressor’, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2012; 37: 10898–10916.

137.  Kai Zeng , Dongke Zhang. Recent progress in alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogen production and applications. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 2010; 36: 307–326.





Ahmed Tahar, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim

Paper Title:

Output Feedback Robust Stabilization of the Decoupled Multiple Model

Abstract:   This paper aims to design a controller to robustly stabilize uncertain nonlinear systems with norm bounded uncertainties and unmeasured state variables via decoupled multi-model. The stabilization conditions are given in the form of linear matrix inequalities. Sufficient conditions are derived for robust stabilization in the sense of Lyapunov asymptotic stability and are formulated in the format of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The effectiveness of the proposed decoupled multi-model controller and multi-observer design methodology is finally demonstrated through numerical simulations.

 Decoupled multiple model, LMI, Multi-observer, robust control.


1.       E. H. Mamdani and S. Assilian, “An experiment in linguistic synthesis with a fuzzy logic controller”, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 7, pp. 1–13, January 1975.
2.       T. Takagi and M. Sugeno, “Fuzzy identification of systems and its applications to modeling and control”, IEEE Trans. Systems, Man & Cybernetics, vol. SMC-15 (1), pp. 116–132, Jan-Feb. 1985.

3.       L.K. Wong, F.H.F. Leung and P.K.S. Tam, “Fuzzy model-based design of fuzzy logic controllers and its application on combining controllers”, IEEE Trans. Indust. Elect, vol. 45 (3), pp.  502–509, 1998.

4.       D. Filev, “Fuzzy modeling of complex systems”, International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, vol. 5 (3), pp. 281–290, 1991.

5.       R. Orjuela, “ Contribution l’estimation d’état et au diagnostic des systèmes représentés par des multimodèle”, PhD. thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (INPL), Nancy, France, 2008.

6.       R. Orjuela, B. Marx, D. Maquin and J. Ragot, “ State estimation of nonlinear discrete-time systems based on the decoupled multiple model approach”. 4th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics, ICINCO’07, 2007.

7.       R. Orjuela, B. Marx, D. Maquin and J. Ragot, “ A decoupled multiple model approach for state estimation of nonlinear systems subject to delayed measurements”. 3rd IFAC Advanced Fuzzy and Neural NetworkWorkshop, Valenciennes, France, 29-30 octobre, 2008.

8.       L. Xie, “Output feedback H∞ control of systems with parameter uncertainties”, Internat. J. Control, vol. 63 (4), pp. 741–750, 1996.

9.       P. Gahinet, A. Nemirovski, A. Laub and M. Chilali, “LMI Control Toolbox”. Natick, MA: The Math Works, 1995.

10.     A. Akhenak, “Conception d’observateurs non linéaires par approche multimodèle: application au diagnostic”, Ph. D. thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (INPL), France, 2004.

11.     M. Rodrigues, “Diagnostic et commande active tolérante aux défauts appliqués aux systèmes décrits par des multi-modèles linéaires”, Ph. D. thesis, Université Henri Poincaré, France, 2005.

12.     S. Tong and H. Li, “Observer-based robust fuzzy control of nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol. 131, pp. 165–184, Oct. 2002.

13.     H.J. Lee, J.B. Park and G. Chen, “Robust fuzzy control of nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties”, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Systems, vol. 9(2), pp. 369–379, 2001.

14.     K. Tanaka, T. Ikeda and H.O. Wang, “Fuzzy regulators and fuzzy observers: relaxed stability conditions and LMI-based designs”, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Systems, vol. 4 (2), pp.  250–265, 1998.

15.     X.J. Ma and Z.Q. Sun, “Analysis and design of fuzzy controller and fuzzy observer”, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Systems, vol. 9 (1), pp. 41–51,  1998.

16.     J. Yoneyama and M. Nishikawa et al., “Output stabilization of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol. 111, pp. 253–266,  2000.

17.     R. Orjuela, B. Marx, D. Maquin, and J. Ragot. “State estimation for nonlinear systems using a decoupled multiple model”, International Journal of Modelling Identification and Control, vol. 4 (1), pp. 59–67, 2008.

18.     H.J. Lee, J.B. Park and G. Chen, “Robust fuzzy control of nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties”, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Systems, vol. 9 (2), pp. 369–379, 2001.

19.     A. Tahar and M.N. Abdelkrim, “Multimodel H∞ loop shaping control for linear singularly perturbed systems”, 12th International conference on Sciences and Techniques of Automatic control and computer engineering, Sousse, Tunisia, 2011.

20.     A. Tahar and M.N. Abdelkrim, “Multimodel H∞ loop shaping control of a DC motor under variable loads”, 8th International Multi-conference on Systems, Signals and devices, Sousse, Tunisia, 2011.

21.     D. Ichalal, B. Marx, J. Ragot and D. Maquin, “Advances in observer design for Takagi-Sugeno systems with unmeasurable premise variables”, 20th Mediterranean conference on Control and Automation (MED’12), Barcelona, Spain, 2012.

22.     T. A. Johansen, “Operating regime based process modeling and identification”, Ph. D. thesis, Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway, 1994.

23.     M. Ltaeif, A. Messaoud  and R. Ben Abdennour,” Optimal systematic determination of models' base for multimodel representation: Real time application”, International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 11, pp. 644-652, 2014.





Siva, Elizabeth, Ajay-D-Vimalraj

Paper Title:

State Feedback Observer Design for a Three Phase Induction Machine using Singular Value Decomposition Method of Pole Placement

Abstract:   This paper discusses the tracking of the desired poles by designing a state feedback controller and observer using Singular Value Decomposition method of pole placement for time varying systems. As the fluxes are taken as state variables, the measurement of these variables might become tedious in some cases. Hence, the state variables are fed back to realize control over the system. The accuracy of the values obtained from the controller may not be precise owing to the price, placing and disturbances induced by sensors. Hence an observer comes in handy and the characteristics for different torque conditions are observed.

 matrix concatenate, pole placement, singular value decomposition, state feedback.


1.       Marija Dodig and Marko Stoši, Singular systems, state feedback problem, 2009, Linear Algebra and its Applications (431) 1267–1292.
2.       Kascilene Machado and Carlos Pinheiro, Rough controllers with state feedback, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence (26) 2467–2479.

3.       Full-State Feedback Design for a Multi-Input System, ece.gmu.edu/~gbeale/ece_521/xmpl-521-state-fdbck-02.pdf.

4.       William L. Brogan, Modern Control Theory, Third Edition, Pearson Education India, 1974.

5.       Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, Twelfth edition, Prentice Hall, 19th July 2010.

6.       Scott Wade, Matthew W. Dunnigan, and Barry W. Williams, Modeling and Simulation of Induction Machine Vector Control with Rotor Resistance Identification, 1997, IEEE transactions on power electronics (12) 495-506.

7.       Aydogan Savran, Discrete state space modeling and control of nonlinear unknown systems, 2013, ISA Transactions (52) 795–806.

8.       Katsuhiko Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Fifth edition, Boston, Prentice Hall, 4th September 2009.

9.       Bogdan Marinescu, Output feedback pole placement for linear time-varying systems with application to the control of nonlinear systems, 2010, Automatica, (46) 1524-1530.

10.     Runmin Zoub and Michel Malabre, Almost disturbance decoupling and pole placement, 2009, Automatica (45) 2685-2691.

11.     J. O. P. Pinto, B. K. Bose, L. E. B. Silva, A stator flux oriented vector-controlled induction motor drive with space vector PWM and flux vector synthesis by neural networks, IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Rome/Italy, 2000, pp. 1605-1612.

12.     P. C. Krause, Analysis of Electric Machinery, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1986.

13.     Shang-Jeng Tsai, Chih-Li Huo, Ying-Kuei Yang and Tsung-Ying Sun, Variable feedback gain control design based on particle swarm optimizer for automatic fighter tracking problems, 2013, Applied Soft Computing, (13) 58-75.

14.     Damiano Rotondo, Fatiha Nejjari and Vicenç Puig, Robust state-feedback control of uncertain LPV systems: An LMI-based approach, 2014, Journal of the Franklin Institute, (351) 2781-2803.

15.     Dan J. Gordon and Kaan Erkorkmaz, Accurate control of ball screw drives using pole-placement vibration damping and a novel trajectory prefilter, 2012, Precision Engineering (37) 308-322.

16.     Peter J. Gawthropa and Eric Roncob, Predictive pole-placement control with linear models, 2002, Automatica, (38) 421-432.

17.     Jiafan Zhang, Huajiang Ouyang and Jun Yang, Partial Eigen structure assignment for undamped vibration systems using acceleration and displacement feedback, 2014, Journal of Sound and Vibration, (333) 1–12.

18.     Irina Kalashnikova, Bart van Bloemen Waanders, Srinivasan Arunajatesan and Matthew Barone, Stabilization of projection-based reduced order models for linear time-invariant systems via optimization-based Eigen value reassignment, 2014, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, (272) 251-270.

19.     M. Nizam Kamarudin, S. Md. Rozali and A. Rashid Husain, Observer-Based Output Feedback Control with Linear Quadratic Performance, 2013, Procedia Engineering, (53) 233-240.

20.     K.H. Kiritsis, A necessary condition for pole assignment by constant output feedback, 2002, Systems & Control Letters, (45) 317 – 320.





Y. M. Mahrous, Abdullah S. Al-Ghamdi, A. M. M. Elfeki

Paper Title:

Modeling Chlorine Decay in Pipes using Two-State Random Walk Approach

Abstract:   As water moves through a distribution network, maintaining residual chlorine is essential to prevent the regrowth or recontamination of pathogens and inactivate harmful micro-organisms that might be present. On the other hand, chlorine should be kept below a certain level because of concerns about formation of carcinogenic disinfection by-products within the distribution system. In this paper, a stochastic model is proposed as a tool to offer a cost-effective way to study the spatial and temporal variation of a number of water quality constituents, including chlorine. Under a known set of hydraulic conditions and source input patterns, a two state random walk   model is developed to simulate the decay of chlorine in a single pipe by solving the advective-transport equation. The model predicts how the concentration of dissolved chlorine varies with time and space throughout the flow.  Linear non-equilibrium particle transfer from water bulk phase (state 1) to pipe wall phase (state 2) is handled using stochastic analogue of two-state Markov-chain process with absorbing state.  The model is verified by comparison with experimental observations available in the literature, EPANET 2 (Time- driven method) and other models.

 chlorine decay, Markov-chain, Random walk, pipes, stochastic, Transport equation.


1.       Grayman WM, Rossman LA, and Geldreich EE. 1999. Water quality. CH. 7. In Mays LW. Handbook of Water distribution systems. McGraw-Hill Professional.
2.       Liou CP and Kroon JR. 1987. Modeling the Propagation of Waterborne Substances in Distribution Networks.  J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 79:(11), 54-58.

3.       Clark RM, Grayman WM, Goodrich  JA, Deininger RA, and Hess AF. 1991. Field testing distribution water quality models. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 83: (7), 67–75.

4.       Clark RM, Grayman WM, Goodrich JA, Males RM, and Hess AF. 1993. Modeling contaminant propagation in drinking water distribution. J. Environ. Eng. 119: (2),

5.       Clark RM, Grayman W, Goodrich  J, Deininger R, and Skov K. 1994. Measuring and modeling chlorine propagation in water distribution systems. J. Water Resour. Plann. Manage., 120:(6), 871–887.

6.       Rossman LA, Clark RM, and Grayman WM. 1994. Modeling chlorine residuals in drinking-water distribution systems. J. Environ. Eng. 120:(4) 803–820.

7.       Clark RM, et al. 1995. Measuring and modeling chlorine propagation in water distribution systems. J. Water Resour. Plann. Manage. 120: (6), 67–75.

8.       Rossman L A, and Boulos. 1996. Numerical method for modeling water quality in distribution system: A comparision. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. Vol. 122. No. 2.

9.       Islam MR, Chaudhry MH, and Clark RM. 1997. Inverse modeling of chlorine concentration in pipe networks under dynamic conditions. J. Environ. Eng., ASCE, 123:(10), 1033-1044.

10.     Clark RM, Sivaganesan M. 2002.  Predicting chlorine residuals in drinking water: Second order model. J Water Res Pl-Asce. 128: 152-161.

11.     Ucak A, Ozdemir ON. 2004. Simulation of chlorine decay in drinking water distribution systems. ASCE Conference Proceedings, Water distribution systems analysis: 1-11.

12.     Leeuwen JV, Daly R, and Holmes M. 2004.  Modeling the treatment of drinking water to maximize dissolved organic matter removal and disinfection by-product formation. J. Desalination. 176:(1-3), 81-89.

13.     MUSZ A, Beata Kowalska B, and WidomskiI M. 2009. Some issues concerning the problems of water quality modeling in distribution system. ECOL CHEM ENG S. Vol. 16, No. S2

14.     Hund-Der Yeh, Shi-Bin Wen, Ya-Chi Chang, and Chung-Sying Lu. 2008  A new approximate solution for chlorine concentration decay in pipes. Water Res. 42: 2787 – 2795.

15.     Kitanidis PK. 1994. Particle-tracking equation for the solution of the advection dispersion with variable coefficients. Water Resour. Res. 30: (11), 3225-3227.

16.     Salamon P, Fernandez-Garcia D, and Gomez-Hernandez JJ. 2006  A review and numerical assessment of the random walk particle tracking method. J. Contam.
Hydrol. 87:277–305.

17.     Yong Z, Benson DA, Meerschaert MM, and Scheffler H. 2006. On Using Random Walks to Solve the Space-fractional Advection-dispersion Equations.” J. Stat. Phys.. 123:(1), 89-110.

18.     Munavalli GR, Mohan Kumar MS. 2004. Modified lagrangian method for modeling water quality in distribution systems. Water Res. 38: 2973–2988.

19.     Rossman LA, Brown RA, Singer PC, and Nuckols JR. 2001. DBP Formation kinetics in a simulated distribution system. Water Res. 35:(14), 3483–3489.

20.     Kinzelbach W, and Uffink, G. 1989. Water quality, p. 763-784. In Bear J, Corapcioglu, MY. Book of Transport processes in porous media. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.

21.     Rossman LA. 2006. The effect of advanced treatment on chlorine decay in metallic pipes. Water Res. 40:(13), 2493–2502.

22.     Biswas P, Lu CS, and Clark RM. 1993. A model for chlorine concentration decay in pipes. Water Res. 27: (12), 1715–1724.





P. Siva, E. Shanmuga Priya, P. Ajay-D-Vimalraj

Paper Title:

Maximum Power Tracking of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

Abstract:   This paper deals with the Artificial Intelligent control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System in order to generate maximum power at variable wind speed. The rotor control is achieved here using the combined features of neural network and fuzzy logic controller.

 Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)


1.       G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics (Book style with paper title and editor),” in Plastics, 2nd ed. vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15–64.
2.       Michael K. Bourdoulis and Antonio T. Alexandridis, “A new controller design and analysis of DFIG Wind Turbine systems for MPP operation”, IEEE Transaction, 2013.

3.       Akira Kaneko, Naoyuki Hara and Keiji Konishi, “Model predictive control of DFIG based wind turbines”, American control conference, June 2012.

4.       Aicha Daoud and Fatma Ben Salem, “Direct Power Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Dedicated to Wind Energy Conversions”, IEEE Transaction, 2014.

5.       Karim Belmokhtar, Mamadou. L. Doumbia and Kodjo Agbossou, “Modelling and Fuzzy Logic Control of DFIG based Wind Energy Conversion Systems”, IEEE Transaction, 2012.

6.       Yu Zou, Malik Elbuluk and Yilmaz Sozer, “A Novel Maximum Power Points Tracking (MPPT) operation of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) Wind Power System”, IEEE Transaction, 2012.

7.       Sasidharan Sridharan, Weerakorn Ongsakul, J.G. Singh, I Made Warthana and Kittavit Buayai, “Development of PSO based control Algorithms for Maximizing Wind Power Penetration”, IEEE Transaction, 2011.

8.       George C. Konstantopoulos and Antonio T. Alexandridis, “Full-scale Modelling, Control and Analysis of Grid-Connected Wind Turbine Induction Generators With Back-to-Back AC/DC/AC Converters”, IEEE Transaction, 2013.

9.       Aicha Daoud and Fatma Ben Salem, “Direct power control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator dedicated to Wind Energy Conversions”, IEEE Transaction, 2014.

10.     Burak Ozpineci, Leon M. Tolbert, “Simulink implementation of Induction Machine model-A Modular Approach”, IEEE Transaction, 2003.

11.     Mohammed HILAL, Mohammed MAAROUFI and Mohammed OUASSAID, “Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine Control for a maximum Power Extraction”, IEEE Transaction, 2010.

12.     T. Salma and R. Yokeeswaran, “Pitch control of DFIG based Wind Energy Conversion System for Maximum Power Point Tracking”, IJAREEIE, December 2013.

13.     Zakaria Kara and Kamel Bara, “Wind energy conversion based doubly fed induction generator controlled by direct matrix converter”, IEEE Transactions, 2014.

14.     Noor Ullah, “ANFIS Based Models for Accessing Quality of Wikipedia Articles”, May 2010.

15.     Juh-Shing Roger Jang, “ANFIS: Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System”, IEEE Transactions May/June 1993.

16.     Heikki Koivo, “ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System)”,2000.

17.     A.P.Paplinski, “Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)”, Neuro-Fuzzy Computing, May 20, 2005.

18.     Chiung Hsing Chen, Chih-Ming Hong and Fu-Sheng Cheng, “ Intelligent speed sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking control for Wind Generation System”, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 42(2012), 399-407.

19.     L.G. Gonzaliez, E. Figueres, G. Garcera and O. Carranza, “Maximum-power-point tracking with reduced mechanical stress applied to wind-energy-conversion-systems”, Applied Energy, 87(2010), 2304-2312.

20.     Mohammed Sleiman, Bachir Kedjar, Abdelhamid Hamidi, Kamal Al-Haddad and Hadi Y. Kanaan, “Modelling, Control and Simulation of DFIG for Maximum Power Point Tracking” IEEE Transaction, 2013.





Luong Thai Ngoc, Vo Thanh Tu

Paper Title:

Proposing AODVSC Protocol to Detect Black Hole Attacks in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

Abstract:   Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a kind of wireless network, which has no infrastructure and is a self configuring wireless network of mobile nodes, each node on the MANET acts like a router which forwards the packets. Due to these properties, MANET is vulnerable to attacks, routing attack is the most common one. The black hole attack is a kind of routing attack made by a malicious node on MANET. This article proposes AODVSC improved from AODV protocol which uses SC (Safe Cycle) solution to detect black hole attacks. The SC solution uses the “distance” from the current node to all neighboring nodes based on SN (sequence number) values. The simulated installation and performance evaluation of AODVSC and AODV protocols in the normal network environment where there are black hole node attacks on the network simulator NS2 was also presented to evaluation improved protocol.

 AODV, AODVSC, black hole, detect black hole attacks, mobile ad hoc network, routing protocols.


1.       Alekha Kumar Mishra, Bibhu Dutta Sahoo, “A modified Adaptive SAODV prototype for perfor-mance enhancement in MANET”, IJ-CA-ETS, Vol 1, Issue 2, 2010, pp. 443-447.
2.       Anu Bala, Raj Kumari and Jagpreet Singh, “Investigation of Blackhole Attack on AODV in MANET”, journal of emerging technologies in web intelligence, vol. 2, no. 2, 2010, pp. 96-100

3.       Cerri D, Ghioni A, “Securing AODV: The A-SAODV Secure Routing Prototype”, IEEE Com-munication Magazine, 2008, pp. 120-125.

4.       Ei Ei Khin, and Thandar Phyu, “Mitigating Scheme for Black Hole Attack in AODV Routing Protocol”, ICAET, 2014, pp. 105-109.

5.       Irshad Ullah, Shoaib Ur Rehman, Analysis of Black Hole Attack on MANETs Using Different MANET Routing Protocols, School of Computing Blekinge Institute of
Technology, MA, 2010.

6.       Manel Guerrero-Zapata, Secure Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (SAODV) Routing, guerrero/draft-guerrero-manet-saodv-05.txt, 2005.

7.       Mahajan V, Natu M and Adarshpal Sethi, “Analysis of wormhole Intrusion Attacks In MANETS”, IEEE, 978-1-4244-2677, 2008.

8.       Mohammad A.O, Shahnewaz A.F, Abu H, Tanay K.R, “AODV robust (AODVR): an analytic approach to shield ad-hoc networks from black holes”, International Journal of Advanced Computer Sciences and Applications, vol. 2, issue 8, 2011, pp. 97-102.

9.       Mohan K.S.B, Nirmal K.S.B, “Cryptographic Approach to Overcome Black Hole Attack in MANETS”, Vol.2 Issue 3, 2013, pp. 86-92.

10.     Mohammed A.H, Francis S.D, “Upshot of Sinkhole Attack in DSR Routing Protocol Based MANET”, IJERA, Vol. 3, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 1737-1741.

11.     Perkins C, Royer E. B and Das S, Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (aodv) routing, RFC: 3561, Nokia Research Center, 2003.

12.     Raj PN, Swadas PB, “DPRAODV: A Dynamic Learning System Against Blackhole Attack in AODV based MANET”, International Journal of Computer Science, Vol.2, 2009, pp. 54–59.

13.     Ruchita Meher, Seema Ladhe, “Review Paper on Flooding Attack in MANET”, IJERA, Vol. 4, Issue 1( Version 2), 2014, pp. 39-46

14.     Satoshi Kurosawa, Hidehisa Nakayama, Nei Kato, Abbas Jamalipour, etc, “Detecting Blackhole Attack on AODV based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks by Dynamic Learning Method”, International Journal of Network Security, Vol.5, No.3, 2007, pp. 338–346.

15.     Semih Dokurer, Simulation of black hole attack in wireless ad-hoc networks, Atılım University, MA, 2006.

16.     Shanmuganathan V, Anand T, “A Survey on Gray Hole Attack in MANET”, International Journal of Computer Networks and Wireless Communicat-ions, Vol.2, No.6, 2012, pp. 647-650.

17.     Suketu D.N, Ravindra K.G, “Sec.AODV for MANETs using MD5 with Cryptography”, Int. J. Comp. Tech, Vol.2, No.4, 2011, 873-878.

18.     Teerawat Issariyakul, Ekram Hossain, Introduc-tion to Network Simulator NS2, Springer Science + Business Media, 2009.

19.     Yoon J, Liu M, Noble B, Random Waypoint Considered Harmful, 0-7803-7753-2/03, IEEE INFOCOM, 2003.





Mohammed M. Alkhawlani

Paper Title:

Application of SMART, TOPSIS, and VIKOR Systems in Joint Admission Control

Abstract:   Joint Admission Control (JAC) handles the admis-sion of all new or handoff service requests in the mod-ern heterogeneous networks and allocates the required resources and guarantees the QoS constraints for the service. JAC is a multi-criteria problem in nature, and the usage of MCDM system is mandatory to decrease the influence of the dissimilar, imprecise, and contra-dictory measurements for the JAC criteria coming from different sources. In this paper, three different decision support systems are developed to address the JAC problem in the modern heterogeneous networks. These systems use SMART, TOPSIS, and VIKOR MCDM methods. Illustrative numerical examples for the devel-oped systems are presented. The examples show that the choice of the MCDM tool can directly affect the ranking order of the available access networks, and hence, the selection of the MCDM methods is highly critical in any JAC solution.

 Joint Admission Control (JAC), heterogeneous networks, QoS, MCDM, TOPSIS, VIKOR MCDM methods.


1.        Jin Lai, E. Dutkiewicz, R. P. Liu, R. Vesilo, “Joint admis-sion control for cooperative cognitive radio networks,” Sixth International ICST Conference on Cognitive Ra-dio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications (CROWNCOM), pp. 276 280, June 2011
2.        Y. Abbes, S. Najeh, H. Besbes, “Joint proportional fairness admission control and superposition coding for OFDMA networks,” 20th International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT), pp. 1 - 5, May 2013

3.        Ya-Feng Liu, Yu-Hong Dai, Zhi-Quan Luo, “Joint power and admission control via linear programming defla-tion,” 2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), pp. 25-30, March 2012

4.        Yu Qingmin Wang, Yi Sun F.R., “Optimal joint base station and user equipment (BS-UE) admission con-trol for energy-efficient green wireless cellular net-works,” 2012 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), pp. 2119 - 2124, Dec. 2012

5.        A. Klein, C. Lottermann, C. Mannweiler, J. Schneider, “A novel approach for combined Joint Call Admission Control and Dynamic Bandwidth Adaptation in hetero-geneous wireless networks,” 7th EURO-NGI Conference on Next Generation Internet (NGI), pp. 1 - 8, June 2011

6.        Jiachen Hu, Xing Zhang, Yue Gao, “Multichannel joint rate and admission control mechanism in vehicular area networks,” 2014 International Conference on Comput-ing, Management and Telecommunications (ComMan-Tel), pp. 111 - 115, April 2014

7.        M. Monemi, M. Rasti, E. Hossain, “On Joint Power and Admission Control in Underlay Cellular Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communica-tions, Vol14 , No. 1, pp. 265 278, July 2014

8.        Ya-Feng Liu, Enbin Song, “Distributionally robust joint power and admission control via SOCP deflation,” 2013 IEEE 14th Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC), pp. 11 15, June 2013

 9.   R.N. Shafti, A. Ghasemi, “Utility-based joint power and admission control algorithm in cognitive wireless networks,” 6th International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology (IC-CIT), pp. 977 981, Dec. 2011

12.     Changkun Jiang, Lingjie Duan, Jianwei Huang, “Joint spectrum pricing and admission control for heteroge-neous secondary users,” 12th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOpt), pp. 497 504, May 2014

13.     Long Bao Le, Dinh Thai Hoang, D. Niyato, E. Hossain, “Joint load balancing and admission control in OFDMA-based femtocell networks,” IEEE International Confer-ence on Communications (ICC), pp. 5135 5139, June 2012

14.     Jin Lai, E. Dutkiewicz, Ren Ping Liu, R., Vesilo, “Joint admission control for cooperative cognitive radio networks,” Sixth International ICST Conference on Cog-nitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communi-cations (CROWNCOM), pp. 276 280, June 2011

15.     Du Huiqin, T. Ratnarajah, “Joint admission control and beamforming with adaptive modulation for cognitive radio network,” 2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 4648 4652, June 2012.

16.     Gao Kanke, O. Ozdemir, D.A. Pados, S.N. Batalama, “Joint admission control and resource allocation in cog-nitive code-division networks,” 2012 IEEE 13th Inter-national Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC), pp. 149 - 153, June 2012

17.     X. Xiang, C. Lin, X. Chen, X.S. Shen, “Toward Optimal Admission Control and Resource Allocation for LTE-A Femtocell Uplink,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, No. 99, pp. 1-8, Aug. 2014

18.     Ya-Feng Liu ; “An efficient distributed joint power and admission control algorithm,” 31st Chinese Control Conference (CCC), pp. 5508 5512, July 2012

19.     M. Zeleny, Multiple Criteria Decision Making, (Mc-Graw Hill, New York, 2002)

20.     S. Opricovic and G. H. Tzeng , Compromise Solu-tion by MCDM Methods: A Comparative Analysis of VIKOR and TOPSIS, European Journal of Operational
Research, 156, pp 445-455

21.     S. Opricovic and G. H. Tzeng , Extended VIKOR Method in Comparison with Outranking Methods, Euro-pean Journal of Operational Research, 178, pp 514-529, 2007

22.     C.L. Hwang and K. Yoon, ”Multiple Attribute Decision Making: Mehtods and Applications,” Springer Verlag, 1981.

23.     M. Doumpos, and C. Zopounidis, A multi-criteria classification ap-proach based on pair-wise comparison, European Journal of Operational Research, pp. 378-389, 2004





Muhamad Razuhanafi Mat Yazid, Mohd Azizul Ladim

Paper Title:

Urban Design and Active-Transport

Abstract:   Active transport is vital to ensure urban living in a clean, healthy and quality environment. Today, rapid motorisation in Malaysia has been associated with congestion and accidents. Besides, carbon gas emission is polluted the environment and grossly affect people’s quality of life. This study is aimed to introduce a new approach to change the attitude of urban population to shift to active transport for short trips. The study employed a survey method, where a set of questionnaire was distributed to 400 samples involved population of five sub-districts in Kota Bharu, which is within 12 km radius from the city centre. The data indicated that almost 100% of the respondents and their households use passive transport for daily activities. Whereas 52% of respondents agreed to switch to active transport and the rest did not agree. Maximum distance to walk is not more that 5 km radius and cycling 10 km. Willingness to shift to active transport based on state preference survey is greatly influence by urban design that foster safety and closeness between activity centres. A study using Theory Planned Behaviour has shown that the highest positive value are health benefits (0.95), the influence of neighbours and close friends (0.95) and travel time to reach the destination (0.93). These two studies indicated that the willingness of Kota Bharu residences to shift to active transport are greatly influenced by compact urban design with open, wide and direct active transport facilities and good neighbourhood environment.

 Theory planned behavior, passive transport, active transport, cycling, walking, urban design.


1.        P. Rietveld, “Biking and Walking : The Position of Non- Motorised Transport Modes in Transport Systems,” Amsterdam, 2001.
2.        C. Palmer, A. Astrop, M. Babu, and D. Maunder, “Attitudes and travel behavior of households in Pure, India,” International symposium on infrastructure of the future. Bangalore, India, Transport Research Laboratory, 1996.

3.        M. G. Badami and M. Haider, “An analysis of public bus transit performance in Indian cities,” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 961–981, Dec. 2007.

4.        S. R. Aiken and Leigh, Development and Environment in Peninsular Malaysia. McGraw-Hill Education Singapore, 1983, p. 350.

5.        K. Martens, “The bicycle as a feedering mode: experiences from three European countries,” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 281–294, Jul. 2004.

6.        M. M. Alterkawi, “A computer simulation analysis for optimizing bus stops spacing: The case of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,” Habitat International, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 500–508, Sep. 2006.

7.        G. Beirão and J. a. Sarsfield Cabral, “Understanding attitudes towards public transport and private car: A qualitative study,” Transport Policy, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 478–489, Nov. 2007.

8.        Jamsiah, M. Idris, S. Ezat, and Norfazilah, “Amalan senaman dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya di kalangan penduduk kg.Bangi, Daerah Hulu Langat, Selangor D.E. Malaysia.,” Jabatan Kesihatan Masyarakat 2007:Jilid 13 Bil.1, vol. 91737825, pp. 38–43, 2007.

9.        Jamsiah, Rosnah, and N. Hassim, “Journal of Community Health 2010: Vol 16 Number 1 ORIGINAL ARTICLE,” vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 2–9, 2010.

10.     WHO, “Obesity:Preventing and Manging the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultant on Obesity,” Geneva, 1998.

11.     A. Ahern and N. Tapley, “The use of stated preference techniques to model modal choices on interurban trips in Ireland,” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 15–27, Jan. 2008.

12.     J. E. Bartlett, J. W. Kotrlik, and C. C. Higgins, “Organizational Research : Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research,” Information Technology, Learning and Performance, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2001

13.     I. J. Myung, “Tutorial on maximum likelihood estimation,” vol. 47, pp. 90–100, 2003.

14.     S. Haustein and M. Huneke, “Reduced use of environmentally friendly modes of transportation caused by perceived mobility necessities:An extension of the theory of planned behavior,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1856–1883, 2007.

15.     K. Ambak, R. Ismail, R. A. Abdullah, A. A. Latiff, M. E. Sanik, U. Tun, H. Onn, P. Raja, F. S. Sciences, and U. T. Hussein, “Application of Technology Acceptance Model in Predicting Behavioral Intention to Use Safety Helmet Reminder System,” vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 881–888, 2013.





Sajith A.G, Hariharan.S

Paper Title:

Spatial fuzzy C-means Clustering based Liver And Liver Tumor Segmentation on Contrast Enhanced CT Images

Abstract:   Analysis of CT images plays an important role in liver tumour segmentation. Segmentation   methods include thresholding, region growing, splitting and merging etc.  Segmentation methods are of two types fully automatic and semi-automatic. It is the first and essential step for the diagnosis of liver diseases. Region based segmentation plays an important role in CT liver image analysis. In this paper a hybrid image processing method is presented based on spatial fuzzy C means clustering combined with Mumford Shah model. In image processing Mumford shah model is used for minimizing an energy function involving a piecewise smooth representation of the image. Thus we can detect interior contours automatically enhanced the blurred contours and increase the robustness of an image with less number of iterations. Thus we can improve the segmentation of liver image thereby increasing the detection of tumour effectively.

 Spatial FCM, Mumford Shah model, Image segmentation, CT liver image analysis


1.        Suetens,P.,2002. Fundamentals of Medical Imaging.Cambridge University Press,New York
2.        Oliveira DAB, Feitosa RQ, Correia MM: Automatic Couinaud     liver and veins segmentation from CT images. InBiosignals - International Conference on Bio-Inspired Systems     and Signal Processing. Volume 1. Funchal; 2008:, pp.249-252

3.        Bezdek, J.C.: Pattern Recognition with Fuzzy Objective Function Algorithms. New York: Plenum Press, 1981

4.        Seif El-Dawlatly, Hossam Osman, Hussein Shahein,  “New Spatial FCM approach with Application to SAR Target Clustering”, ICSP, 2006

5.        Wu Qiu, Rui Wang, Feng Xiao, Mingyue Ding, “Research on Fuzzy Enhancement in the Diagnosis of liver tumor from B-mode Ultrasound Images”, IEEE: International Conference on Intelligent Computation and Bio-Medical Instrumentation, 74 – 80, 2011.

6.        Masuda Y, Tateyama T, Wei Xiong, Jiayin Zhou, Wakamiya M, Kanasaki S, Furukawa A, Yen Wei Chen, “Liver tumor detection in CT images by adaptive contrast enhancement and the EM/MPM algorithm”, IEEE: International Conference on Image Processing, 1421 – 1424, 2011.

7.        E-Liang Chen, Pau-Choo Chung, Ching Liang Chen, Hong-Ming Tsai,Chein-I Chang, “An Automatic  Diagnostic System for CT Liver Image Classification” ,IEEE:Transactions on Biomedical Engineering,Vol.45,No. 6, June 1998.

8.        Mougiakakou S.G, Valavanis I, Nikita K.S, Kelekis D, “Characterization of CT liver lesions based on texture features and a multiple neural network classification scheme”, IEEE:Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1287 – 1290, 2003

9.        Azaid S.A, Fakhr M.W, Mohamed A.F.A, “Automatic Diagnosis of Liver Diseases from Ultrasound Images”, IEEE: International Conference on Computer Engineering and Systems, 313 – 319, 2006

10.     Sariyanni C, Asvestas P, Matsopoulos G K, Nikita K.S, Nikita A.S, Kelekis D, “A fractal analysis of CT liver images for the discrimination of hepatic lesions:A comparative study”, IEEE: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society,1557 – 1560,2001

11.     Masuda Y, Foruzan A.H, Tateyama T, Yen Wei Chen, “Automatic liver tumor detection using EM/MPM algorithm and shape information”, IEEE:2nd International Conference on Software Engineering and Data Mining, 692-695,2010

12.     Yu-Shan Sun, Peng Li, Bo-ying Wu, “An improved approach to Image Segmentation based on Mumford-Shah model”, Proceeding of the 5th International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetic, Dalian, Aug 2006.

13.     Song Gao and Tien D Bui, “Image Segmentation and Selective Smoothing by using Mumford-Shah model”, IEEE Trans on Image Processing, Vol 14, No.10, Oct 2005.

14.     Yong Yang, ChongxunZheng, Pan Lin, “Fuzzy Clustering with spatial constraints for image thresholding”, OpticaApplicata, Vol XXXV, No 4, 2005.

15.     Pan Lin, Xiangguo Yan, ChongxunZheng, Yong Yang, “Medical Image Segmenation based on Mumford-Shah mode”, IEEE, 2004.

16.     Andy Tsai, Anthony Yezzi, Alan.S. Willsky, “Curve Evolution Implementation of the Mumford-Shah Functional for Image Segmentation, Denoising, Interpolation,
and Magnification”, IEEE Trans on Image Processing, Vol 10, No.8, Aug 2001.

17.     Andy Tsai, Anthony Yezzi, Alan S. Willsky, “A PDE Approach to Image Smoothing and Magnification Using the Mumford-Shah Functional”, IEEE, 2000.





Vinit Kumar Shukla, Megha Mittal

Paper Title:

Human Resource Management Challenges and Purposed Solution: An Analysis

Abstract:  This paper define the various future challenges in the field of Human resource management and the possible solutions to overcome them. The responsibilities of HR manager have gradually become broader and more strategic because of globalization. The function of human resources (HR) departments is administrative and common to all organizations. Organizations may have formalized selection, evaluation, and payroll processes. Management of "human capital" progressed to an imperative and complex process. It investigates three aspects of human resource management facing future challenges, operational, technology and globalization.

 HR, Gobalization, Human Capital


1.        Ashwathappa K. ,( 2006) Human Resource Management, Tata McGraw Hills , New Delhi, 3rd edition
2.        Bhatia S.K.,(2005) International Human Resource Management A global perspective, Deep & Deep Publications, New Delhi.

3.        Brooks S, Wiley JW & Hause E (2006). “Using Employee and customer perspectives to improve Organizational Performance.” In L Fogli (Ed.) Customer Service Delivery: Research and Best Practices, Jossey Bass, 52-82.

4.        Buck J.M., Watson J.L. (2002) “Retaining Staff Employees: The Relationship between Human Resources Management Strategies and Organizational Commitment”, Innovative Higher Education, Vol. 26, No. 3 pp175-193

5.        Carolyn Hirschman, “Time for a Change,” HR Magazine, August 1998, 81-87.

6.        Challenger JA (1998) There is no future for the workplace. In: The Futurist, Washington Oct. 1998, pp 16-20

7.        Charman, A. (1999) Global mergers and acquisitions: the human resource challenge. International Focus (Society for Human Resource Management

8.        Evans P, Doz Y (1992) Dualities. A Paradigm for Human Resource and Organizational Development in Complex. Multinationals. Globalizing Management, New York, pp85-106

9.        B. Pattanayak, Human Resource Management(PHI Learning Private Limited,2009).

10.     L.M. Prasad, Human Resource Management (Sultan Chand & Sons: Educational Publishers, 2006).

11.     H John Bernardin, Human Resource Management (Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2007)

12.     P.C. Tripathi, Human Resource Development (Sultan Chand & Sons: Educational Publishers, 2006)

13.     V S P Rao, Human resource Management (Excel Books, Second Edition, 2010)

14.     Mohan Thite, Michael J. Kavanagh, Evolution of Human Resource Management and Human Resource Information Systems.





M. Bommy, M. Dhanalakshmi, A. Rajesh

Paper Title:

Enhanced Hybrid Multipath Routing Protocol Using an Priority Acknowledgment Table (PAT)

Abstract:   Route discovery and route maintenance concerns a main issue in MANET. To address this problem we propose an efficient hybrid routing technique using Priority Acknowledgement Table. Our proposed work uses both On-demand and Table driven routing protocols for continuous route discovery between source and destination in multipath and multicast environment. Here we use a Priority Acknowledgement Table technique to find the shortest alternative path. In initial stage a single route is discovered using On-Demand routing protocol. From that route each node involves in continuous discovery of another shortest path to reach destination. At that time if a node finds more than two alternate paths, then it is declared as DPN and a temporary PAT is constructed from which again a new route is discovered to reach the destination. In our proposed work if route failure occurs, route rediscovery starts from DPN instead of from original source node by which efficiency is increased.

 MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network), PAT (priority Acknowledgment Table), DPN (Demand processing Node).


1.        R.L.Lagendijik, J.F.C.M.de Jongh, “Multipath Routing in    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Traineeship Report, Version 1.2, TU-Delft/TNO, 2003.  
2.        D. Jagadeesan and  S.K. Srivatsa, Multipath Routing Protocol for Effective Local Route Recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Network, Journal of Computer Science, PP: 1143-  1149, 2012.

3.        D. B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad HocWireless Networks, Academic Publishers, vol. 5, pp. 153-181, 1996.   

4.        B. Divecha, A. Abraham, C. Grosan, and S. Sanyal, “Analysis of Dynamic Source Routing and Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Protocols for Different Mobility models,” in Proc. of First Asia International Conference on Modelling & Simulation, Phuket,Thailand, pp. 224-229, 27-30 March, 2007.

5.        C. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, “Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers,” in Proc. Of  Sigcomm conference on Communications architectures, protocols and applications, London, England, UK, 1994, pp. 234-244.

6.        C. E. Perkins and E. M. Royer, “Ad-hocOn-demand Distance Vector Routing”, in Proc.IEEE WMCSA, pp. 90-100, Feb. 1999.

7.        C. Liu and S. Chang, “The study of effectiveness for ad-hoc wireless network,” in Proc. of ICIS 2009 2nd International Conference on Interaction Sciences: Information Technology, Culture and Human, Seoul, Korea, pp. 412-417,  24-26 Nov., 2009.

8.        E. M. royer and C. E. Perkins, “multicast operation of the ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol”, in proc. acm mobicom, pp. 207-218, aug. 1999.

9.        Dhirendra, K.S., S. Kumar and C. Kumar, “Enhancement of split multipath Routing protocol in MANET” Int. J. Comput. Sci. Eng.,PP: 679-685, 2010.

10.     Pooja  and Ajay Dureja, “Enhancement of Multipath Routing Protocol for Route Recovery in MANET” European Scientific Journal, edition vol.9, No.18, ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431, June 2013.





K. Raghuveer, Ananth G S

Paper Title:

A Novel Comparison between Apple IOS 8 VS Android 5.0 Lollipop for Best Features and Sustainability of the Modern World Mobile OS

Abstract:   Today in this modern computing world, mobile has become miniature in nature; but not to forget the power the small devices have. For the mobile devices to hold so much of power comes not just from the hardware the vendors provide but also from the software that runs on these hardware.  This paper compares the good and the bad features of the recently released Apple iOS 8 and Android 5.0 Lollipop and finally tries to resolve the best amongst the two.

 Mobile OS, smartphones, Apple iOS 8, Android L, Lollipop


1.        Inputs from www.in.techradar.com
2.        www.wikipedia.com

3.        Referernces from www.techhive.com

4.        www.ubergizmo.com

5.        The best and the worst of Android Lollipop (www.forbes.com)

6.        www.arstechnica.com, battery consumption of Android L





Mustafa. M. Ali. Alfaki, Ajit Paul, Shalini Bhawana Masih

Paper Title:

The Level of Satisfaction of Foreign Students at Sam Higginbottom University Allahabad India for Administrative and Academic Performance of Thier University

Abstract:   The Summary-The satisfaction of the students has become one of the modern approaches to the development of higher education in various countries in the world and an essential element of the quality and reliability in higher education. Therefore, the objective of this research is to measure the level of satisfaction of foreign students at Sam Higginbottom University Allahabad from administrative and academic performance of the university. To achieve the objectives of the study, a questionnaire consisting (24) component was distributed among (50) foreign students of all disciplines at the University. After the statistical analysis of the results of the questionnaire, it showed that the level of satisfaction of students in 2general was acceptable, and in some cases is good, but not excellent. Both researchers recommend that satisfaction of students is taken into account as a component of quality and reliability, and various university departments seek to meet the needs of students and their expectations.

 component was distributed among (50) foreign students of all disciplines at the University


1.       ronin J. J., Jr. and Steven A. T. (1994): SERVPERF versus SERVQUAL:  Reconciling Performance - Based and Perception - Minus - Expectations   Measurement of Service Quality, Journal of Marketing, 58 (January), 125-131.
2 .      Burch, E., Rogers, H. P., and Underwood, J.(1995): Exploring Servers :  An Empirical Investigation of the Importance-Performance, Service Quality Relationship in the Uniform Rental Industry .

3.       Trraf and Johanna (2003) “ Problems of higher studies in Syrian universities from  masters and doctorate students perspective “ Damascus University Journal , Volume 19, issue 1 .

4.       Kotler, P. (2001): Marketing Management: Analysis lanning،Implement and Control, India, Prntice Hall, Inc.

5 .      Kara, A. and De-Shield, O. W. (2004): Business Student Satisfaction, Intentions  and Retention in Higher Education: An Empirical Investigation, Pennsylvania  State University-York Campus.

6.       Baykal, Ulkuet al (2005): Determining Student Satisfaction in a Nursing   College, Nurse Education Today, Volume 25, issue 4, pages 255-262.

7 .      Alssari , Abdullah and Zaid ( 2006 ) “ The satisfaction of students of the faculty   of Education at Sultan Qaboos University for overseeing the academic and the  nature of their expectation of it Jornal of the faculty of Education University of  United Arab Emirates year ( 21 ) , issue 23 .

8.       Al hajjar and Mabhooh ( 2008 ) ” Al- Aqsa Palestine university student’s satisfaction with the quality of services in the registration process and  academic guidance”  http://www.arab.acrao.org/28/research/13.pdf





Priyanka Shivhare, Vinay Gupta

Paper Title:

Review of Image Segmentation Techniques Including Pre & Post Processing Operations

Abstract:   Image Segmentation has been an area for a long time which is providing opportunities to do research work. Image segmentation is most of judging or analyzing function in image processing and analysis. Image segmentation is a process of partitioning an image into meaningful regions that are homogenous or similar and inhomogeneous in some characteristics. Image segmentation results have an effect on image analysis and it following higher order tasks. Image analysis includes object description and representation, feature measurement. Higher order task follows classification of object.. Hence characterization, visualization of region of interest in any image, delineation plays an important role in image segmentation .These image segmentation techniques need comparative analysis for further development and modifications for continuous and consistent improvement. Hence, in this paper an overview of image segmentation and its present techniques is presented which demands a lot of research work.

 Image, Image Segmentation, Segmentation Techniques..


1.        P. Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods, “Digital Image Processing”, Third Edition, Pearson Education, Asia.
2.        Jay Acharya, Sohil Gadhiya and Kapil Raviya, “Segmentation Techniques for Image Analysis: A Review”, International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research, Vol 2 Issue 1, January 2013, Pg. 1218-1221.

3.        Ayesha Khalid Khan, Gulistan Raja and Ahmad Khalil Khan, ”Implementation of Marker based Watershed Image Segmentation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging”, Life Science Journal 2013; 10(2): 115-118. (ISSN: 1097-8135), Pg. 115-118.

4.        Rajvi Parikh and Dr Hitesh shah, ”A Survey on Computer Vision Based Diagnosis for Skin Lesion Detection”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2013, Pg. 431-437.

5.        Arpit Maheshwari, Sachin Sonawane and Shashikant Patil, “Performance Overview, Comprehensive Assessment and Review of Image Segmentation Techniques for Natural Images”, Current Trends in Technology and Science, ISSN : 2279-053. Volume : II, Issue : VI, Pg. 367-373.

6.        D. Comaniciu and P. Meer, “Mean shift: a robust approach toward feature space Analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 603-619, May 2002

7.        Pedro F. Felzenszwalb and Daniel P. Huttenlocher, ” Efficient Graph-Based Image Segmentation”, International Journal of Computer Vision 59(2), 167–181, 2004.

8.        R. Adams, and L. Bischof, “Seeded region growing,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 641-647, June, 1994.

9.        Mehmet Sezgin and Bulent Sankur, “Survey over image thresholding techniques and quantitative performance evaluation”, Journal of Electronic Imaging 13(1), 146–165 (January 2004).

10.     Lei Li, Jin-Yan Li and Wen-Yan Ding, “A new method for color image segmentation based on FSVM,” IEEE proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Qingdao, pp. 664-668, July 2010

11.     Wenbing Tao, Hai Jin, and Yimin Zhang, “Color image segmentation based on mean shift and normalized cuts,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part B: Cybernetics, Vol. 37, No. 5, Oct 2007

12.     Prerna Pachunde, Prof.Vikal.R.Ingle and Prof. Dr Mahindra. A. Gailwad, “Segmentation of Color Images Using Genetic Algorithms: A Survey”, IOSR Journal of
Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSRJEEE) ISSN: 2278-1676 Volume 1, Issue 6 (July-Aug. 2012), PP 09-12.

13.     Ming-Xin Zhang, Cai-Yun Zhao, Zhao-Wei Shang, Hua Li and Jin-Long Zheng, “An algorithm based on rough-set theory for color image segmentation,” IEEE Proceedings of the International Conference on Wavelet Analysis and Pattern Recognition, Qingdao, July 2010.

14.     Chunming Li, ChenyangXu, ChangfengGui and Martin D. Fox, “Distance regularized level set evolution and its application to image segmentation,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 19, No. 12, pp.3243-3253

15.     Luc Vincent and Pierre Soille, "Watersheds in Digital Spaces: An Efficient Algorithm Based on Immersion Simulations," IEEE Transactions of Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1991, pp. 583-598.

16.     A. Saurabh, Yadav J. S, and Ravindranath C. C, “A novel weighted median switching filter for denoising corrupted images” International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 64, No.21, pp:5-11, 2013.

17.     A. Gavlasova, A. Prochazka, M. Mudrova, "Wavelet based image segmentation", in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference Techincal Computing, Prague, 2006, pp.1-7.

18.     M.E. Farmer and D. Shugars. “Application of genetic algorithms for wrapper-based image segmentation and classification”. In IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pages 1300–1307, July 2006.

19.     Catalin Amza, ”A Review on Neural Network –Based Image Segmentation Techniques”, De Montfort University, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg., The Gateway Leicester, LE1 9BH, United Kingdom, 1-23.

20.     A. Gavlasova, A. Prochazka, M. Mudrova, "Wavelet based image segmentation", in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference Techincal Computing, Prague, 2006, pp.1-7.

21.     Dongwook Cho, and Tien D. Bui, “Image Inpainting Using Wavelet-based Inter- and Intra- scale Dependency”, IEEE Transactions Image Processing, 978-1-4244-2175-6, 2008.

22.     Vaibhav V Nalawade and Sachin D Ruikar, “Image Inpainting Using Wavelet Transform“, IJAET/Vol.II/ Issue IV/October-December, 2011/302-307.

23.     M.Ceylan, O.N.Ucan, Y.Özbay, R.Jennane, G.Aufort, C.L.Benhamou, "Comparison of discrete wavelet transform and complex wavelet transform in hybrid skeletonization based on cvann", İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 1, 27-51, ( Üniversite Dersgisi ).





Eask Fernando, R. U. Kuruppu

Paper Title:

Tension Variation in Sectional Warping, Part I:  Mathematical Modeling of Yarn Tension in a Creel

Abstract:   The warping process is one of the weaving preparation processes to produce weaver’s beams which uses on weaving machines to produce grey fabrics. In sectional warping several hundreds of yarn from supply packages placed on a creel are wound onto a sectional warping drum as sections and then beaming off all warp yarns from the drum to the warper's beam, which is used for fabric production with or without the subsequent process known as sizing. The uniform and even yarn tension in warping process is vital to produce high quality fabrics on looms with high efficiency. The authors attempted to theoretically interpret in terms of mathematical modeling the warp yarn tension in the yarn path of the creel with due consideration to various parameters in sectional warping. Further theoretically model the warp tension variation according to the geometrical position of the package on a sectional warping creel. This paper reports a study of tension variation of cotton yarn unwinding from the supply package up to the exit point of the creel of a Kakinoki sectional warping machine. Authors have developed a mathematical model to analyze tension variation within the warping creel for the packages with variable diameters  at different positions. Based on the developed mathematical model, tension was calculated at various places along the yarn path. 

 Sectional warping, creel, tension model, geometrical position, yarn unwinding


1.       Warping&Sizing The Bombay Textile Research Association 1981
2.       Gohide,S., Exploration of Micro Machines to Textiles: Monitoring Warp Tension and  Breaks During The Formation of Woven Fabrics, PhD. thesis, faculty of North Carolina state    university, Raleigh, April,2001

3.       Nabiha Kotb, Adel El-Geiheini Investigating the Influence of The Widthwise Warp end Tension Variation on Fabric Performance Properties Autex 2009 World Textile Conference, Turkey.

4.       Milašius, R.and Milašius,V., Investigation of Unevenness of Some Fabric Cross-Section    Parameters, Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe July/September 2002, p.p.47-49.

5.       Uzma syed, Rafique ahmed jhatial and Mazhar hussain peerzada,  Influence of Warp Yarn Tension on Cotton Woven Fabric Structures, Mehran  University Research Journal of Engineering & Technology, Volume 32, No. 1, January, 2013 [ISSN 0254-7821]

6.       P.V.Bikadorov“Technology of weft winding” The Book,Light Industry,Moscow,1979,pp41-43.

7.       T.M.J.A Cooray, Sandun Fernando. “The Nonlinear Dynamics of Over-end Unwinding yarn     Package/Theory   and Experiment”, Journal of National Science Foundation,      Volume: 35 No.4 December 2007,pp219-224 

8.       Nadeeka Tissera,Sandun Fernando,Madhurangi Gamage. “Mathematical Modeling of  Loom Gaiting System to Define the Relationship    Between Warp Yarn Tension and Pick Density”, International Journal of Mathematical Modeling, Simulation and Applications:ISSN :0973-8355 Vol.1 No.3,2008 ,pp 277-289

9.       T.M.J.A Cooray, Sandun Fernando,” Mathematical modeling of over end Yarn withdrawal  and  a device for uniform unwinding tension” Textile Institute world conference,Colombo,Srilanka, 2007

10.     Dorgham ME,” Warping Parameters Influence on Warp Yarns Properties” Journal of        Textile Science & Engineering: Volume 3 • Issue 2 • 1000132 ISSN: 2165-8064

11.     B  Dogadev, Technological process of warp yarn winding in the textile Industry, Ivanovo  1977.

12.      EASK Fernando, TSS Jayawardana “Mathematical Modeling of Weft  yarn Tension in Pirn Winding”, Asian Transactions on   Engineering (ATE ISSN: 2221-4267), Volume 03 Issue 03 July, 2013, pp 11-17.





Anurag Sharma

Paper Title:

Design Study of End Effectors

Abstract:   Robots play a vital role in automation of machines.The performance of robotic manipulator is completed by the end effectors.The choice of end effector is depended on the type of task  to be performed. For holding the component and pick & place activities to the specified location gripper is selected and for different types of workshop operations various tools are fixed on the manipulator  e.g. welding electrode holder,painting spray gun etc.

 Robot, grippers, end effectors, manipulator, workshop operations


1.        A.J. Weight Light Assembly Photos – An End Effector Exchange Mechanisms Mechanical Engineering July 1983 PP 29-35
2.        Michanel Tucker and N Duh. Perrisrisn Generalized Inverses For Kobotic Manipulator’s, Mech. Machine Theory, Volume 22, No 6 PP 507-514 1981.

3.        Steve Prehn, Robots / Automation, Machine Design Magzine, December 8,2011 PP 46,48.

4.        G.L. Luntstrorm, B Glenme, and B.W, Rocbs Industries Robots Gripper Review, International Fluidics services Ltd., Bedford, England

5.        We snyder, Industrial Robotics – Computer Interfacing and control, Rintics Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1985.

6.        Martin P.G. Robtak Explorations A Hands on Introduction to Engineering, Prientile Hall New Tessey 2001.

7.        Jang J.S.r. Sun G.T. and Minutani E Neuro Fuzzy and soft computing, Prentice Hall, New York 1997

8.        Yoshikawa T. Foundation Robotics, Analysis and control MIT Press (1988).

9.        M.P. Groover and DW simmers, Jo CAD/CAM Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984- Chapter 11

10.     M.P. Groover, Automation, Production systems, and computer Aided manufacturing, Prentices – Hall Englewoud, cliffs, NJ 1980, Chapter1





Nisha Rajan S, Akash Rajan, Binulal B. R

Paper Title:

Input Maping and Simulation Analysis using Adaptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference System

Abstract:   Fuzzy logic control systems are structured numerical estimators. They combine both the numerical process and human like reasoning. Neural networks are numerical trainable dynamical systems that are able to emulate human brain functions; their connectionist structure can be used to find the proper parameters and structures that resemble human thinking rules for fuzzy logic controllers. Generally fuzzy logic is best applied to non linear, time varying, ill- defined systems, which are too complex for conventional control systems to apply. In this paper a new combinational connectionist structure is proposed which exploits the advantages of both the fuzzy and neural networks avoiding the rule-matching time of the inference engine in the traditional fuzzy logic system. Some examples are presented using MATLAB simulation to illustrate the performance and applicability of the proposed connectionist model.

 Fuzzifier, membership function, receptive field, hybrid learning, adaptivity, input-output mapping, ANFIS,training, epoch


1.        Fu-Chuang Chen, “Back propagation Neural Network for Non linear Self-tuning Adaptive Control”, Proc. IEEE Intelligent Machine,1989,pp. 274-279
2.        J S Roger Jang and C T Sun, “ Functionalequivalance between radial basis function networks and fuzzy inference systems”, IEEE trans. Neural Networks, vol.4,1993 pp 156-159

3.        Jyh–Shing Roger Jang, “ANFIS: Adaptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference System, IEEE Transactions on systems and cybernetics”, Vol.23, No.3, 1993, pp.665-685

4.        Jang, J.-S.R., Sun, C.-T & Mizutani, E. (1997) Neuro-Fuzzy and Soft Computing: A Computational Approach to Learning and Machine Intelligance. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA, 1997.

5.        Ozgur Kisi, “Suspended sediment estimation using neuro-fuzzy and neural network approaches”, Hydrological Sciences–Journal–des Sciences Hydrologiques, 50 (4), August 2005 pp. 683-696.

6.        Zhi Rui Huang and M.N. Uddin, “Development of a simplified Neuro- Fuzzy controller for an IM drive,” in the Proc. of IEEE International Conf. on Industrial Technology 2006 , 15-17 Dec. 2006, pp. 63–68.

7.        M. N. Uddin Z. R. Huang and Md. M. Chy “A simplified self-tuned neuro-fuzzy controller based speed control of induction motor drives,” in the Proc. Of PES General Meeting 2007, 24-28 June. 2007, pp. 1–8.

8.        S. Chiu, “Fuzzy Model Identification Based on Cluster Estimation,” Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1994, pp. 267-278

9.        Zadah L (1965) Fuzzy sets. National Science Foundation under Grant, U.S

10.     Negnevitsky M, et al. (2005) Fuzzy expert system. In: (ed) Artificial intelligent a guide to intelligent systems, 2nd edition. Pearson Education, England

11.     Kolokotsa, D., Tsiavos, D., Stavrakakis, G. S., Kalaitzakis, K., and Antonidakis, E., 2001, “Advanced Fuzzy Logic Controllers Design and Evaluation for Building Occupants Thermal-Visual Comfort and Indoor Air Quality Satisfaction,” Energy Build., 33_6_, pp. 531–543

12.     Westphalen, D., Roth, K. W., and Brodrick, J., 2003, “Fuzzy Logic for Controls,” ASHRAE J., 45_6_, pp. 31–47.

13.     Calvino, F., Gennusa, M. L., Rizzo, G., and Scaceianoce, G., 2004,     “The Control of Indoor Thermal Comfort Conditioning: Introducing a Fuzzy Adaptive
Controller,” Energy Build., 36_2_, pp. 97–102.  

14.     Gagarin, N., Flood, I., and Albrecht, P., 1994, “Computing Track Attributes With Artificial Neural Networks,” J. Comput. Civ. Eng., 8_2_, pp. 179–200.

15.     Thibault, J., and Grandjean, B. P. A., 1991, “Neural Network Methodology for Heat Transfer Data Analysis,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 34_8_, pp. 2063– 2070.
16.     Theodoridis, S., and Kontroumbas, K., 1999, Pattern Recognition, Academic, New York.
17.     Kalogirou, S. A., 1999, “Applications of Artificial Neural Network in Energy Systems—A Review,” Energy Convers. Manage., 40, pp. 1073–1087.

18.     Khosla, R., and Dillon, T., 1997, Engineering Intelligent Hybrid Multi-Agent Systems, Kluwer, Dordrecht

19.     Moon, S. K., and Chang, S. H., 1994, “Classification and Prediction of the Critical Heat Flux Using Fuzzy Theory and Artificial Neural Networks,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 150





Subhradeep Pal, Bharat Gaikwad, Aman Sharma

Paper Title:

FYDP Management System with a Novel Pedagogical Strategy for Study of Science at Bachelor’s & Master’s Level

Abstract:   Learning management systems have become a revolution in the field of education. Privatisation of education has paved the way for such technology. Nowadays even government institutions have started incorporating virtual learning environment in their systems. Learning management system is a broad domain. It has a diverse range of features which address variety of problems that were earlier faced by academic circles. One of the features that attend the needs of final year students in bachelor and master’s level is a Final Year Degree Project (FYDP) handler system. But not much has been done to improve the system. The existing FYDP management system covers very few fields like computer science engineering, IT, and few other engineering departments. Science departments hardly benefit out of it. In this draft I have proposed a new pedagogical strategy that will take care of FYDPs of microbiology, biotechnology and some other science departments. The strategy is conceptualised following Learning Collaboratory Framework (LUCIDIFY). Based on the pedagogy I have built a FYDP management system application. I have developed a Model Driven Architecture (MDA) for the purpose of building the application.

 LUCIDIFY, FYDP, Pedagogy, Process specification, MDA, Application Development


1.        Carlos López Nozal, José Francisco Diez Pastor,Jesús Maudes Raedo, and Raúl Marticorena Sánchez, “An Innovative Moodle Final Project Management Module for Bachelor and Master’s Studies,” IEEE Revista Iberoamericana De Tecnologias Del Aprendizaje, vol. 8, no. 3, august 2013
2.        Michael C. Dorneich, “A System Design Framework-Driven Implementation Of a Learning Collaboratory,” IEEE Transactions On Systems, Man, And Cybernetics—Part A: Systems And Humans, vol. 32, no. 2, march 2002

3.        Song Jian-gong, “Design and Application of Collaborative Learning System based on Web to Database Experiment Teaching,” 2010 1nternational Conference on Educational and Information Technology (lCEIT 2010), 978-1-4244-8035-7/10/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE

4.        Jingfeng Li, Jian Chen*, and Ping Chen, “Modeling Web Application Architecture with UML,” 0-7695-0875-8/00 510.00 0 2000 IEEE

5.        Pierre-Alain Muller , Philippe Studer, Fr´ed´eric Fondement , and Jean Bezivin, “Platform independent Web application modeling and development with Netsilon,” Software & System Modeling (2005) 00: 1–19 DOI 10.1007/s10270-005-0091-4

6.        Frank Truyen, “The Basics of Model Driven Architecture (MDA),”Cephas Consulting Corp: Architecture Oriented Services,2006

7.        I. Rožanc, “Framework for Web Application Domain Knowledge Extraction,” MIPRO 2013, May 20-24, 2013, Opatija, Croatia

8.        Marius Dragomiroiu’, Marian Ventuneac*, Ioan Salomie, and Tom Coffey, “Application Framework Development for Virtual Learning Environments,” 25th Int. Conf. lnformation Technology lnterfaces IT/ 2003, June 16-1 9, 2003, Cavtat, Croatia

9.        Carlos López, David H. Martín, Andrés Bustillo, And Raúl Marticorena, “Final Year Project Management Process,” Área De Lenguajes Y Sistemas Informáticos. Universidad De Burgos. Escuela Politécnica Superior Edf. C 09006 Burgos,España

10.     Ammar Al-Shalabi1,S. B. Chee,Narish Singh, and B. F. Yousif, “Framework for Orienting Engineering Undergraduate Final Year Projects towards New Product Innovation Process,” Communications of the IBIMA, Volume 1, 2008

11.     Norul Ashikin Abu Kasim, and Teddy Surya Gunawan, “Virtual-Learning Content Management System for Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Courses,” International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering (ICCCE 2012), 3-5 July 2012, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

12.     Robert Schuppenies, and Sebastian Steinhauer, “Software Process Engineering Metamodel,” OMG: Formal/02-11-14

13.     Nuno Antunes, and Marco Vieira, “ Defending against Web Application Vulnerabilities,” 0018-9162/12/$31.00 © 2012 IEEE

14.     Wei Cui, Lin Huang, LiJing Liang, and Jing Li, “The Research of PHP Development Framework Based on MVC Pattern,” 2009 Fourth International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology, 978-0-7695-3896-9/09 $26.00 © 2009 IEEE

15.     Abdesselam Redouane, “Guidelines for Improving the Development of Web-Based Applications,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Web Site Evolution (WSE’02)0-7695-1804-4/02 $17.00 © 2002 IEEE

16.     Wen-Shuenn Wu, “The application of Moodle on an EFL collegiate writing environment” Journal of Education and Foreign Languages and Literature, V. 7, June 2008, p.45-56

17.     Maria Beatriz Piedade, and Maribel Yasmina Santos, “Student Relationship Management: Concept,Practice and Technological Support,” 978-1-4244-2289-0/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE

18.     Mohammad Saleem Darwaish, and Fang Wang, “Investigation and Prototype Design of Collaborative Virtual Learning Enivronments,” 2012 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conferences on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology

19.     Mario Barajas, and Martin Owen, “Implementing Virtual Learning Environments: Looking for Holistic Approach,” Educational Technology & Society 3(3) 2000 ISSN 1436-4522





Sanjay S. Sutar, Pravin R. Kubade, Sunil S. Jamadade

Paper Title:

Fatigue Life Estimation of Pressure Reducing Valve Diaphragm

Abstract:   Predicting the fatigue life of component exactly under the operating conditions is a challenging task in design engineering. In this work, fatigue life of pressure reducing valve diaphragm has been predicted which works under steam pressure. The fatigue life is predicted analytically by Goodman diagram using stress values given by different approaches suggested by M. Di Giovanni, Roark’s, Timoshenko and Nadai. The stress and deflection values given by different analytical approaches have shown good agreement with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) results. Finally experimental fatigue testing for fatigue life estimation of the pressure reducing valve diaphragm has been done for its maximum stroke.

 Pressure reducing valve, rigid center, endurance limit, fatigue life.


1.        M. Di Giovanni, “Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook”, 1982, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
2.        Richard C.Rice, Society of Automotive Engineers Fatigue, “SAE Fatigue Design Handbook”, 3rd Edition, (1997).

3.        Dr. Piyush Gohil, Hemant N. Panchal, Siddiqi Mahmud Sohail, Devang V. Mahant, “Experimental and FEA Prediction of Fatigue Life in Sheet Metal (IS 2062)”, International Journal of Applied Research & Studies.

4.        Albert E. Macpherson, Walter ramberg and Samuel levy, “Normal Pressure Tests of Circular Plates with Clamped Edges”, Report No. 744, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

5.        S. Timoshenko, S. Woinowsky Krieger, “Theory of Plates and Shells”, 1959, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, pp. 403-404.

6.        Warren C. Y. and Richard G. B, “Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain”, Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, pp. 448-449.

7.        J.E.Shigley, Charles R.mischke, S. krishnamurthy “Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design”, Eighth Edition, Mechanical Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, pp.278.

8.        Mahesh L. Raotole, Prof. D. B. Sadaphale , Prof. J. R.Chaudhari, “ Prediction of Fatigue Life of Crank Shaft using S-N Approach” , International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 3, February 2013.

9.        R. Tang and F. Erdogan, “Clamped Rectangular Plate ContainingCrack”, Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, Volume 4, Issue 3, December (1985), pp. 233-243.





D P Balachandran, R Sreerama Kumar, B Jayanand

Paper Title:

Detection of Inrush Current in Transformers Based on Instantaneous Reactive Power

Abstract:   When a transformer is energized on no load there is a transient inrush current which causes mal-operation of protective relays. The challenge is to distinguish the inrush current from load and fault currents. In this paper, a new technique, based on instantaneous reactive power theory is proposed for the detection of inrush current in single-phase transformers. During inrush current as the lower order harmonics are significant, the average value of instantaneous reactive power becomes negative, and hence this feature is utilized in this paper to distinguish inrush currents from other currents. Investigations are carried out for different faults and switching conditions on a single-phase transformer using PSCAD software. The simulation results show that the proposed method is able to effectively identify inrush currents from other currents.

 Inrush current, transformer faults, instantaneous reactive power.


1.       S.V. Kulkarni and S.A Khaparde, Transfrmer Engineering: Design and Practice. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004.
2.       S P Patel “Fundamentals of Transformer Inrush”, Proceedings of the 64th IEEE Annual Conference for Protective Relay Engineers, pp 290-300, Oct. 2011.

3.       K.P Basu and Stella Morris, “Reduction of Magnetizing Inrush Current in Traction Transformer”, 3rd International Conference on  Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies, DRPT,April 2008.

4.       J. A. Sykes and I.F. Morrison, “A Proposed method of Harmonic restraint differential  protecting of transformers by digital computer,” IEEE Transactions on Power App. Sys, Vol. PAS 91, No.3, pp. 1266-1272, May1972.

5.       T.S. Sindhi, M.S. Sachdev, H.C. Wood and M. Nagpal, “Design, implementation and testing of a microprocessor based high speed relay for detecting transformer winding faults,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.7, No.1, pp. 108-117, Jan 1992.

6.       O.A.S. Youeseef  “A wavelet based technique  for discrimination between faults and magnetizing inrush currents in transformers,”

7.       IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,Vol.18, No.1, pp. 171- 176, Jan 2003.

8.       P. L. Mao and R. K. Agarwal, “A wavelet Transform based Decision making logic method for discrimination between internal faults and inrush current in power Transformers”, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol.22, pp.389-395, 2000.

9.       R. Sedigh and Mr. Haghifam “Detection of  inrush current in distribution transformer using wavelet transform” International journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems Vol.27, issue 5-6 pp. 361-370, Jul 2005.

10.     P Hirofumi Akagi, Yoshihira Kanazawa and Akira Nabae, “Instantaneous Reactive Power Compensators Comprising Switching Devices without Energy Storage Components”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.27, no.1, Jan 2012.

11.     Juraj Altus, Jan Michalik, Branislav Dobrucky and L.H.Viet, “Single Phase Power Active Filter using Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory-Theoretical and Practical Approach”, Journal of Electrical Power Quality and Utilization, vol.11, no.1, pp. 33-37, 2005.

12.     P. Hirofumi Akagi, Edson Hirokazu Wattanabe and Mauricio Aredes, “Instantaneous Power Theory and Applications to Power Conditioning”, John Wiley and Sons, inc., Publications. 2007.

13.     Turner R A, Smith K S “Transformer inrush currents”, IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, pp 14-19 Sept/Oct 2010.





Banh Tien Long, Ngo Cuong, Nguyen Huu Phan, Pichai Janmanee

Paper Title:

Machining Properties Evaluation of Copper and Graphite Electrodes in PMEDM of SKD61 Steel in Rough Machining

Abstract:   Electrode materials have a great impact on the productivity and quality of electrical discharge machining (EDM). This study investigated the material removal rate (MRR) and surface quality after EDM using powder mixed dielectric fluid (PMEDM). The chemical composition of the surface which affected the tool wear rate (TWR) was evaluated. Titanium powder, copper (Cu) and graphite (Gr) electrodes were used. Results showed that mixing titanium powder in the oil dielectric fluid significantly affected MRR, TWR and the quality of the machined surface using EDM. Titanium powder mixed in the dielectric fluid increased MRR, decreased TWR, surface roughness (Ra) and thickness of the temperature-affected machined area. The chemical composition and the surface profile changed in a positive direction and the microscopic surface hardness increased. Results indicated that PMEDM is a viable method to improve the productivity, accuracy and surface quality in EDM.



1.        P. Pecas, E. Henriques, Influence of silicon powder-mixed dielectric on conventional electrical discharge machining, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43, 2003, P.1465–1471.
2.        P. Pecas and E. Henriques, Effect of the powder concentration and dielectric flow in the surface morphology in electrical discharge machining with powder-mixed dielectric (PMD-EDM),International journal advance manufacturing technology, Vol. 37, (2008), P. 1120–1132 

3.        K. Furutani, A. Sanetoa, H. Takezawaa, N. Mohri, H. Miyakeb, Accretion of titanium carbide by electrical discharge machining with powder suspended in working
uid, Precision Engineering Journal of the International Societies for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology 25, 2001, P.138–144.

4.        J. Simao, H.G. Lee, D.K. Aspinwall, R.C. Dewes, E.M. Aspinwall, Workpiece surface modification using electrical discharge machining, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43, 2003,  P.121–128.

5.        K. Furutani, H. Sato, M. Suzuki, Influence of electrical conditions on performance of electrical discharge machining with powder suspended in working oil for titanium carbide deposition process, Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 2009.

6.        S. Kumara,  U. Batra, Surface  modification  of  die  steel  materials  by  EDM  method  using  tungsten powder-mixed  dielectric, Journal  of  Manufacturing  Processes 14, 2012, P.35–40.

7.        K. Furutani, K. Shiraki, Deposition of lubricant layer during finishing process by electrical discharge machining with molybdenum disulphide powder suspended in working fluid, JSME/ASME International Conference on Materials and Processing, 2002, P. 468–473.

7.K. Furutani (2003), Electrical Conditions of Electrical Discharge Machining with Powder Suspended in Working Oil for Titanium Carbide Accretion Process, Proceedings of International Conference on Precision Engineering (ICoPE03/04), 2004, P. 532–538, Singapore.

8.        V. S. Ganachari, M. V. Kavade, S. S. Mohite, Effect of mixture of Al and SiC powder on surface rounghness in PMEDM using Taguchi method with GRA optimization, Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies II, 2013, P. 04 – 07.

9.        V. Parkash, D. Kumar, Effect of Powder Mixed Dielectric Medium on Tool Wear Rate in EDM, IJSR - International journal of scientific research, Vol 2, Issue 2, 2013.

10.     K. H. Syed, P. Kuppan, Studies on Recast-layer in EDM using Aluminium Powder       Mixed Distilled Water Dielectric Fluid, IJET, Vol 5, 2013, 1775-1780.

11.     B.Govindharajan, P.Meivel, C.Chelladurai, K.Avinaash, Performance and Analysis of Nickel Mixed Kerosene. Servotherm in EDM of Monel 400TM, Journal of Innovative Research and                Solution (JIRAS)- A unit of  UIIRS, Vol 1, No.1, 2014.

12.     G. Singh, P. Singh, G. Tejpal, B. Singh, effect of machining parameters on surface roughness of  SKD61 steel in EDM process using powder mixed fluid, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies,Vol. 2, 1, 2012, P148-150.

13.     K. N. Khedkar,T. P. Singh, S. V. Jatti, Material migration and surface improvement of OHNS die steel material by EDM method using tungsten powder-mixed dielectric, WSEAS          Transactions on Applied & Theoretical Mechanics, Vol. 9, 2014.

14.     V. Kumar, Mr. Rajpal, M. Singh, Experimental Study of Surface Parameters of EN31 on Powder Mixed EDM using Taguchi Methodology, International Journal for Scientific Research & Development, Vol. 2, Issue 07, 2014.

15.     M. A. Razak, A. M. A. Rani, A. M. Nanimina, Improving EDM Efficiency with Silicon Carbide Powder-Mixed Dielectric Fluid, International Journal of Materials, Mechanics and Manufacturing, Vol. 3, 1, 2015.

16.     P. Bleys, J.-P. Kruth, B. Lauwers, B. Schacht, V. Balasubramanian, L. Froyen, J. VanHumbeeck, Surface and sub-surface quality of steel after EDM, Advanced engineering materials, Vol 8, 2, 2006, P.15-25.

17.     N. Mohri, N. Saito, M.  Higashi, N. Kinoshita, A New Process of Finish Machining  on Free Surface by EDM Methods, Annals of the CIRP, Vol. 40, 1991, P. .

18.     Banh Tien Long, Ngo Cuong and Nguyen Huu Phan, Experimental Investigations of Hot Forging Die Surface Layer of Skd61 Steel in Die Sinking Electrical Discharge
Machining, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering B 4 (8) (2014) 226-231.

19.     L. C. Lee, L. C. Lim, V. Naryanan, V. C. Venkatesh, Quantification of surface damage of tool steels after EDM, International Journal of Machinery Tools &Manufacture, Vol 28, 1987, P. 359–372.

20.     B. T. Long, N. Cuong, N. H. Phan, N. D. Man, P. Janmanee, Effects of Titanium Powder Concentrations during EDM Machining Efficiency Of Steel SKD61 Using Copper Electrode, International Journal of Advance Foundation And Research In Science & Engineering   (IJAFRSE), Volume 1, Issue 7, December 2014, P. 9

21.     B. T. Long,  N. Cuong, N. H. Phan, Study on surface material layer quality of SKD61 die sink in Electrical discharge machining using titanium electrode in oil dielectric fluid, The 15th International Symposium on Eco-materials processing and Design - ISEPD2014.

22.     B. T. Long,  N. Cuong, N. H. Phan, H. A. Toan, P. Janmanee, Enhanced material removal rate and surface quality of SKD61 steel in electrical discharge machining with graphite electrode in rough machining, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, Vol 4, 2, 2015, 103-108.





M. Sangeetha, P. Bhuvaneswari, A. Sujitha, P. Nandhini, C. Gurulakshmi

Paper Title:

Biological Data Prediction Using Two Mode Grouping Bayesian Principal

Abstract:   The development of DNA chip technology makes it possible that high-throughput gene expression profiles could be observed simultaneously in particular living organism. The obtained data are usually shown in the form of matrix with genes in rows and experimental conditions in columns. However, these matrices often contain missing values caused by various factors, such as hybridization failures, insufficient resolution, or deposition of dust or scratches on the slide. The subsequent analyses of gene expression data (e.g. clustering, inferring regulatory model, or finding functional gene) always require the complete matrices. Repeating the experiments to obtain a complete gene expression matrix is usually costly and unpractical. Omitting the gene expression profile vector with missing values may lose useful information. Substituting the missing values with zeros or row averages lead the change of variance among variables. So an efficient imputation method for the missing value is needed.

 DNA Chip, Hybridization, Clustering, Genes


1.        Amir Ben-Dor, Benny Chor, Richard Karp, and Zohar Yakhini. Discovering local structure in gene expression data: The order–preserving submatrix problem. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computacional Biology (RECOMB’02), pages 49–57, 2002.
2.        Pavel Berkhin and Jonathan Becher. Learning simple relations: theory and applications. In Proceedings of the 2nd SIAM International Conference on Data Mining, pages 420–436, 2002.

3.        Stanislav Busygin, Gerrit Jacobsen, and Ewald Kramer. Double conjugated clustering applied o leukemia microarray data. In Proceedings of the 2nd SIAM International Conference on Data Mining, Workshop on Clustering High Dimensional Data, 2002.

4.        Andrea Califano, Gustavo Stolovitzky, and Yunai Tu. Analysis of gene expression microarays for phenotype classification. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computacional Molecular Biology, pages 75–85, 2000.

5.        Yizong Cheng and George M. Church. Biclustering of expression data. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB’00), pages 93–103, 2000.

6.        Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Cliffoord Stein. Introduction to Algorithms. The MIT Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Series. The MIT Press, 2nd edition, 2001.

7.        Inderjit S. Dhillon. Co-clustering documents and words using bipartite spectral graph partitioning. In Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD’01), pages 269–274, 2001.

8.        Inderjit S. Dhillon, Subramanyam Mallela, and Dharmendra S. Modha. Information-theoretical co-clustering. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD’03), pages 89–98, 2003.

9.        D. Duffy and A. Quiroz. A permutation based algorithm for block clustering. Journal of Classification, 8:65–91, 1991.

10.     G. Getz, E. Levine, and E. Domany. Coupled two-way clustering analysis of gene microarray data. In Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences USA, pages 12079–12084, 2000.

11.     Dan Gusfield. Algorithms on strings, trees, and sequences. Computer Science and Computational Biology Series. Cambridge University Press, 1997.





Jyotiprakash G. Nayak, L .G. Patil

Paper Title:

A Comparative Study of Prevalent Water Quality Indices in Streams

Abstract:   Indian Rivers like Ganga , Godavari, Brahmputra, Krishna, Cauvery ,Tungabhadra etc. are getting heavily polluted by untreated sewage of cities,agricultural runoff infected due to excessive dose of  insecticides, untreated industrial wastewater etc.(Bhargava,2007). Almost 200 million people in India do not have access to safe and clean drinking water and 90% of the country’s water resources are polluted. As per an estimate by C.P.C.B. in 2011, only 29 % of wastewater generated  is being treated in urban centres having population more than 50,000 in india and 71%  as untreated waste water is being discharged to our rivers, streams and lakes, making them highly polluted. Even some of the our developed cities in India like Pune,Nagpur & Nashik are treating only 70 to 80 % of city sewage (report TOI.April 2013), so the sewage pollution caused by ordinary indian town & village can be imagined. This precipitates the urjent need of identifying the water quality status of our rivers ,to save the human race form water borne diseases & other associated aspects. Water quality status of the river at any place & point of time can be easily ascertained by determining it’s Water Quality Index. Some water quality indices have been developed to evaluate water quality in States,Canada & other countries. These indices are based on important water quality parameters like DO,Turbidity,Coliform no. etc..They give the true status of river water quality, usually give the same result, but may have some limitations under specific cases.The present paper does, a comparative evaluation of these prevalentwater quality indices, practiced in different countries.

 Fecal Coliform; DO; BOD; WEPWQI ; NSFWQI


1.        Ahmed Said,David.K. Stevens,Gerald Sehlke, , Environmental    Assessment- An   Innovative Index  for   Evaluating  Water  Quality   in  Streams,J. Springer Environmental   Management, 2004 Vol. 34, No. 3,pp. 406–414
2.        Ashok  Lumb, Doug Halliwell, Application of CCME  Water Quality Index to  Monitor  Water   Quality: A   Case  of the  Mackenzie   River   Basin, Canada , J. Springer  Monitoring  & Assessment, 2006,113:   411–429

3.        APHA,2012, American Public Health Association,Standard methods for the examination  of water and wastewater,22th ed. L.S. Clesceri,A.E. Greenberg and A.D. Eaton,Washington D.C.,1220 pp.

4.        Basin, Water quality information references, National Sanitation Foundation,  water  quality index, 2001. Available :   http://bcn.boulder.co.us/basin/data/info/references.html

5.        Bordalo A  A,Nilsumranchit W, Chalermwat K, Water quality and uses of the  Bangpakong  River (Eastern Thailand),Water Res. 2001,35(15) : 3635- 3642

6.        Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment(CCME)(2001),Canadian water  quality  guidelines for the protection of aquatic life:CCME Water Quality Index 1.0, Technical Report in Canadian environment quality guidelines,1999,Winnipeg:Canadian  Council of  Ministers of the Environment. Available :      http://www.ccme.ca/assests/pdf/wqi_techprtfetsht_e.pdf 

7.        CPCB (2001-02(a)) Water quality status and statistics.monitoring of Indian national Aquatic resources series(MINARS). MINARS/14. Central Pollution Control Board ,Delhi,India

8.        Cude, C. Oregon water quality index: A tool for evaluating water quality management  effectiveness.  J. American Water Resources Association, . 2001,37:125-137.

9.        Deepshikha Sharma, Arun Kansal, , Water quality analysis of River Yamuna using water quality index in the national   capital  territory, India  (2000–2009), 2011, J.  Springer Applied  Water  Science, Short Research Communication,1:147-157

10.     Debels P,Figueroa R, Evaluation of water quality in the Chillian    river (central  Chile) using physicochemical parameters and modified water quality index, 2005, J.   Springer Environ Monit  Assess 110:301-322

11.     Pesece SF,Wunderlin DA . Use of water quality indices to verify theimpact of   Cordoba  city (Argentina) on Suquya river. J. Water Res. 2000,34(11):2915-2926 

12.     Santosh M. Avvannavar & S. Shrihari,. Evaluation of  water  quality index  for     drinking purposes for river Netravathi, Mangalore, South India,J. Environmental  Monitoring & Assessment, 2008, 143:279–290

13.     SAFE. 1995. Strategic assessment of Florida’s environment Florida stream water  quality  index, statewide summary available :   http://www.pepps.fsu.edu/safe/environ/swq1. html.

14.     WEP. 1996. Lower Great Miami watershed enhancement program    (WEP),Miami  valley river  index,available : http://www.mvrpc.org/wq/wep.htm.

15.     Zandbergen, P. A., and K. J. Hall.. Analysis of the British Columbia water quality  Index  for watershed managers: A case study of two small watersheds.  J. Water
Quality Research. Canada , 1998, 33:519-549

16.     Sewage treatment status report in Times of india 13th April 2014 Compiled from CPCB website.



353 replies
  1. net exam model question paper for commerce with answers says:

    you are performing exactly that – investing answers for nrp test
    wellness process may around 4-6 weeks geometry june 2018 regents answers ask around the lights defensive driving course exam
    answers most large hosting companies test 11a ap statistics answers associated with
    us you with broadband (dsl holt mcdougal mathematics algebra 1 answers

  2. adobe photoshop cs5 keygen says:

    Simply want to say your article is as surprising.
    The clearness in your post is just spectacular and i could
    assume you’re an expert on this subject. Well with your permission let me to grab
    your feed to keep updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a
    million and please continue the enjoyable work.

  3. photoshop cs6 keygen says:

    I do not leave many remarks, however i did a few searching and wound up here Volume-4 Issue-3 | International Journal of
    Engineering and Advanced Technology(TM). And I actually do have
    a couple of questions for you if it’s allright.
    Is it just me or does it seem like some of these remarks appear like
    they are written by brain dead visitors?
    😛 And, if you are posting at other online social
    sites, I’d like to follow anything fresh you have to post.
    Would you list of all of your shared sites like your Facebook page, twitter feed, or linkedin profile?

  4. Pay For Essay Online says:

    essay writer essay writers essay for college admission [url=https://essaywriter2018.com/]writing essay[/url] writing service writing service writing service [url=https://writingservice2018.com/]writing service[/url] 250 word college essay writing an essay for a scholarship help me write my essay [url=https://writemyessay2018.com/]write an essay for me[/url] please help me with my homework do my homework can you do my homework [url=https://domyhomework2018.com/]help with homework[/url] writing service essay writing service essay writing service [url=https://essaywritingservice2018.com/]essay writing service[/url]

  5. Payday Loan Online says:

    fast loans no credit check loans with collateral no credit check payday loans instant approval [url=https://paydayloansnocreditcheck2018.com/]personal loan contract template[/url] consolidation loans bad credit personal loans online payday loans online no credit check [url=https://loansonline2018.com/]loans online[/url] personal loans for people with bad credit personal loans for bad credit personal loans with bad credit [url=https://personalloansforbadcredit2018.com/]small personal loans with bad credit[/url] cashusa simple loan agreement template consolidation loans for bad credit [url=https://loansforbadcredit2018.com/]loans for bad credit[/url] cash advance cash advance online payday loan express [url=https://cashadvance911.com/]personal loan for poor credit[/url] online loans for bad credit quick loans for bad credit online loans no credit check [url=https://onlineloans2018.com/]online loans no credit[/url] 500 cash loan personal loans with poor credit loans [url=https://loans1000.com/]internet payday loan[/url] credit loans poor credit loans loan broker [url=https://creditloansguaranteedapproval2018.com/]credit loans guaranteed approval[/url] online payday loans online payday loans loan value [url=https://onlinepaydayloans2018.com/]online payday loans no credit check[/url] payday loans austin installment loans no credit check online payday loans florida [url=https://installmentloans2018.com/]installment loans no credit check[/url]

  6. Spotloan says:

    small personal loans with bad credit personal loans for bad credit personal loans for bad credit [url=http://personalloansforbadcredit2018.com/]personal loan bad credit[/url] http://personalloansforbadcredit2018.com/ emergency payday loan cash advance lenders online small loans for bad credit [url=http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/]online loans for bad credit[/url] http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/ payday cash advance payday loan cash advance fast [url=http://cashadvance911.com/]cash payday advance[/url] http://cashadvance911.com/

  7. Online Payday Loans says:

    payday loans no credit check payday loans no credit check get a payday loan [url=http://paydayloansnocreditcheck2018.com/]same day payday loans no credit check[/url] http://paydayloansnocreditcheck2018.com/ cash advance cash advance payday board [url=http://cashadvance911.com/]cash advance[/url] http://cashadvance911.com/ quick loans for bad credit loans for bad credit loans for people with bad credit [url=http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/]direct payday lenders no teletrack[/url] http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/ real online payday loans personal loans for bad credit simple loan [url=http://personalloansforbadcredit2018.com/]personal loan bad credit[/url] http://personalloansforbadcredit2018.com/ personal loans low interest personal loans with low interest rates loans [url=http://loans1000.com/]loans[/url] http://loans1000.com/ bad credit loans guaranteed approval long term payday loan plain green loans [url=http://creditloansguaranteedapproval2018.com/]poor credit loans guaranteed approval[/url] http://creditloansguaranteedapproval2018.com/ loans online payday loans online best payday loans online [url=http://loansonline2018.com/]loans online no credit check[/url] http://loansonline2018.com/ apply online for a loan installment loans installment loans [url=http://installmentloans2018.com/]installment loans[/url] http://installmentloans2018.com/ online payday loans what is an unsecured loan payday loan online [url=http://onlinepaydayloans2018.com/]online payday loans[/url] http://onlinepaydayloans2018.com/ online loans bad credit loans online best personal loan [url=http://onlineloans2018.com/]online loans no credit[/url] http://onlineloans2018.com/

  8. Pay Day Loans says:

    online loans for bad credit bad credit loans with monthly payments loans for bad credit [url=http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/]personal loan for bad credit[/url] http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/ personal loans low interest loans payday loan com [url=http://loans1000.com/]low interest personal loans[/url] http://loans1000.com/ online loans bad credit instant approval online installment loans installment loans online [url=http://installmentloans2018.com/]advance cash loan[/url] http://installmentloans2018.com/

  9. Easy Payday Loan says:

    cash advance home loans for bad credit payday cash advance [url=http://cashadvance911.com/]cash advance[/url] http://cashadvance911.com/ american loans bad credit personal loans personal loans for poor credit [url=http://personalloansforbadcredit2018.com/]personal loans for poor credit[/url] http://personalloansforbadcredit2018.com/ payday loan with no credit check cash advance utah online loans bad credit [url=http://onlineloans2018.com/]online loans[/url] http://onlineloans2018.com/ which loan personal loans guaranteed approval credit loans guaranteed approval [url=http://creditloansguaranteedapproval2018.com/]credit loans guaranteed approval[/url] http://creditloansguaranteedapproval2018.com/ installment loans no credit check installment loans installment loans no credit check [url=http://installmentloans2018.com/]installment loans[/url] http://installmentloans2018.com/ loans for bad credit personal loan for bad credit loans with bad credit [url=http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/]immediate loan[/url] http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/ personal loan interest rates loans loans [url=http://loans1000.com/]loans[/url] http://loans1000.com/ payday loans online loans online direct pay day lending [url=http://loansonline2018.com/]best payday loans online[/url] http://loansonline2018.com/ loan rehabilitation payday loans online online payday loans [url=http://onlinepaydayloans2018.com/]online payday loans[/url] http://onlinepaydayloans2018.com/ quick personal loans how payday loans work no credit check payday loans [url=http://paydayloansnocreditcheck2018.com/]second chance payday loans[/url] http://paydayloansnocreditcheck2018.com/

  10. Online Lenders says:

    payday cash loans online take out a loan installment loans [url=http://installmentloans2018.com/]bad credit installment loans[/url] http://installmentloans2018.com/ payday cash advance online cash advance tribal loans online [url=http://cashadvance911.com/]cash advance[/url] http://cashadvance911.com/ credit loans guaranteed approval bad credit loans instant approval bad credit loans [url=http://creditloansguaranteedapproval2018.com/]paydayloans lenders[/url] http://creditloansguaranteedapproval2018.com/ personal loan for bad credit loans with bad credit online payday loan reviews [url=http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/]online loans for bad credit[/url] http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/ personal loans for poor credit small personal loans with bad credit personal loans for bad credit [url=http://personalloansforbadcredit2018.com/]personal loans with bad credit[/url] http://personalloansforbadcredit2018.com/ payday loans no credit check payday loans online no credit check payday loans no credit check [url=http://paydayloansnocreditcheck2018.com/]loans student[/url] http://paydayloansnocreditcheck2018.com/ online loans online loans online loan [url=http://onlineloans2018.com/]online loans no credit[/url] http://onlineloans2018.com/ payday loans online online payday loans payday loans online no credit check [url=http://onlinepaydayloans2018.com/]online payday loan[/url] http://onlinepaydayloans2018.com/ loan type loans online direct quick loans online [url=http://loansonline2018.com/]loans online[/url] http://loansonline2018.com/ short term loans bad credit loans low interest loans [url=http://loans1000.com/]personal loans with low interest rates[/url] http://loans1000.com/

  11. Cash Loan says:

    personal loan for bad credit loan closing personal loans with bad credit [url=http://personalloansforbadcredit2018.com/]net pay advance[/url] http://personalloansforbadcredit2018.com/ easy money payday cash advance cash advance [url=http://cashadvance911.com/]cash advance[/url] http://cashadvance911.com/ usa loan loans financial loans [url=http://loans1000.com/]direct loan consolidation[/url] http://loans1000.com/ installment loans no credit what is an unsecured loan installment loans [url=http://installmentloans2018.com/]installment loans online[/url] http://installmentloans2018.com/ online loans for bad credit cash advance america online loans for bad credit [url=http://onlineloans2018.com/]loans online[/url] http://onlineloans2018.com/ loan money now credit loans guaranteed approval poor credit loans [url=http://creditloansguaranteedapproval2018.com/]installment loans no credit[/url] http://creditloansguaranteedapproval2018.com/ online payday loans online payday loans online payday loans [url=http://onlinepaydayloans2018.com/]installment loans bad credit[/url] http://onlinepaydayloans2018.com/ personal loan for bad credit personal loans bad credit loans for bad credit [url=http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/]loans for bad credit[/url] http://loansforbadcredit2018.com/ payday loans no credit check payday loans no credit check payday loans no credit check [url=http://paydayloansnocreditcheck2018.com/]same day payday loans no credit check[/url] http://paydayloansnocreditcheck2018.com/ payday loans instant loans online payday loans online no credit check [url=http://loansonline2018.com/]loans online no credit check[/url] http://loansonline2018.com/

  12. Assignment Notebooks says:

    college paper writing service writing service writing service [url=https://writingservice2018.com/]argument writing[/url] custom assignment writing service essay writing service college essay writing service [url=https://essaywritingservice2018.com/]technical writer[/url] write essays for me write my essay college essays written in third person [url=https://writemyessay2018.com/]assignment essay on the campaign of 1828[/url] do my homework do my homework for me homework for money [url=https://domyhomework2018.com/]help me with my homework[/url] essay writer essay writing help capital essay [url=https://essaywriter2018.com/]writing reflective essay[/url]

  13. Direct Lender Loans says:

    express cash advance bad credit loans guaranteed approval easy cash loans online [url=https://creditloansguaranteedapproval2018.com/]credit loans guaranteed approval[/url] installment loan bad credit installment loans green loans [url=https://installmentloans2018.com/]installment loans[/url] real payday loans online instant loans online payday personal loans [url=https://loansonline2018.com/]consolidation loans bad credit[/url] payday loans in virginia payday loan no credit checks cash advance [url=https://cashadvance911.com/]cash advance[/url] same day payday loans no credit check